Big Four (banking)

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The Big Four (or Big 4) is the colloquial name given to the four main banks in several countries where the banking industry is dominated by just four institutions and where the phrase has thus gained currency.[1] Some countries include more or less institutions in such rankings, leading to other names such as Big Three, Big Five, or Big Six.

International use[edit]

Internationally, the term "Big Four Banks" has traditionally referred to the following central banks:[2][3]

Australia/New Zealand[edit]

In Australia, the "big four banks" refers to the four largest banks[4] by market share, who between them hold 80% of the home loan markets in the country. In 2012, their combined total asset is A$2.66 trillion, which is about 200% of Australian GDP in 2011. In order of total assets, these are:

A longstanding policy of the federal government in Australia has been to maintain this status quo, called the "four pillars policy". The policy has been maintained through the Global Recession of 2008–09, as Westpac acquired St.George Bank and the Commonwealth Bank acquired Bankwest, reinforcing the special status of the "big four".

New Zealand is Australia's closest neighbour, with very close cultural and economic ties. The big four Australian banks (often referred to collectively as the 'big banks'[6][7][8] or the 'big Aussie banks') also dominate the banking sector in New Zealand, through subsidiaries:

Together they hold over 90% of gross loans and advances in New Zealand[9] as well as close to 90% of all mortgages.[10]

These four NZ subsidiaries are massively profitable and in some cases even outperform the Australian parent companies.[11] The extent to which they dominate the banking sector can be seen in profits: In the 2012/2013 financial year, the largest of the Big Banks, ANZ New Zealand, made a profit of NZ$1.37 billion. The smallest, BNZ, made a profit of NZ$695 million.[6] State-owned Kiwibank, community trust-owned TSB Bank, SBS Bank (formerly Southland Building Society) and Heartland Bank, the next four largest banks by profit, made NZ$97 million,[12] NZ$73.5 million,[13] NZ$14 million[14] and NZ$7 million (albeit with an underlying result of about NZ$30 million) respectively.[15] In other words, the profit of New Zealand's next four largest banks (after the Big Four) is equal to less than 30% of the smallest of the Big Four, BNZ.

Austria[edit]

The "Big Four" banks of Austria are:[16]

*separate legal entities operating under a common brand

Belgium[edit]

The big four banks of Belgium[17] are a result of national and international mergers in the early 90s.

Brazil[edit]

In Brazil, the "big four", according to Exame Magazine[18] in 2017:

Name Description Year Net Assets
Itaú Unibanco Largest Private bank 2017 US$452.6 billion
Banco do Brasil Largest State Owned Bank 2017 US$430.2 billion
Caixa Econômica Federal State Owned Bank 2017 US$406.0 billion
Banco Bradesco Private Bank 2017 US$391.6 billion

Cambodia[edit]

According to the National Bank of Cambodia, the top three largest bank in Cambodia dominates 40.8% of the overall banking assets as of 2016. These banks are:[19]

Canada[edit]

There are five banks dominating the Canadian banking sector, hence the "Big Five"[20][21] is used instead of "Big Four".

China[edit]

During the 1920s, the term "big four" applied to the Four Northern Banks of the Republic of China (i.e., the four most capitalized commercial banks in Northern China).[22] These were the Yien Yieh Commercial Bank, the Kincheng Banking Corporation, the Continental Bank and The China & South Sea Bank. They were contrasted with the Three Southern Banks of Southern China.

By 1949, the "big four" banks were the Bank of China, the Bank of Communications, the Central Bank of China and the Farmers Bank of China. All four were state-owned. Together with Central Trust of China, Postal Savings and Remittance Bureau of China, and Central Cooperative Treasury of China, these banks were called the "four banks, two bureaus, one treasury" or "四行两局一库".[23]

In the People's Republic of China, the Big Five Banks ("五大银行") are:[24]

  1. Industrial and Commercial Bank of China
  2. Bank of China
  3. China Construction Bank
  4. Agricultural Bank of China
  5. Bank of Communications

All five are state-controlled banks with commercial banking operations. Since Bank of Communications was refounded in 1986, it was sometimes excluded, leaving the rest as "Big Four".[24]

Colombia[edit]

In Colombia, the ten biggest banking service networks are:[25][26]

Name Description Year Net Assets
Banco de Bogotá Largest Private Bank 2017 COP 3.6 trillion
Bancolombia Largest Private Bank 2017 COP 2.6 trillion
Banco Davivienda Largest Private Bank 2017 COP 1.204 trillion
Banco de Occidente Credencial Private Bank 2017 COP 932.827 billion
BBVA Colombia Private Bank 2017 COP 346.333 billion
Banco Agrario de Colombia [es] State owned Bank 2017 COP 339.410 billion
Banco Colpatria Private Bank 2017 COP 253.572 billion
Banco Caja Social [es] Private Bank 2017 COP 238.116 billion
Citibank Colombia Private Bank 2017 COP 172.051 billion
Banco Popular [es] Private Bank 2017 COP 156.033 billion

Czech Republic[edit]

In Czech Republic, according to R. Pazderník,[27] the "big four" are:

Estonia[edit]

France[edit]

In France, according to The Banker,[28] the five major banking groups are:

Germany[edit]

Hong Kong[edit]

In Hong Kong, some media refer to the followings as "big four":[29]

Standard Chartered Bank (Hong Kong), HSBC and Bank of China (Hong Kong) are the three note-issuing banks; Hang Seng and HSBC Hong Kong are both under the common ownership of London-based HSBC Holdings plc. According to Global Retail Banking Cross-sell conducted by RFi group in 2015, HSBC, Bank of China (Hong Kong) and Hang Seng Bank were the top 3 most popular banks in Hong Kong.[30]

India[edit]

In India the big four largest banks, based on total assets, are:[31]

Indonesia[edit]

In Indonesia, the term "big four" is not explicitly used. As of 2018, the four largest banks by total assets are:[32]

BRI, Bank Mandiri and BNI are all controlled by the central government as state-owned enterprises.

Ireland[edit]

In Ireland, the term "big four" applies to the four largest banks by market capitalisation.[33][34] These all operate in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, and have a wider international presence; these banks also issue banknotes in Northern Ireland.[35]

Israel[edit]

Italy[edit]

Japan[edit]

In Japan, the term "big three"[37][38] is used instead of "big four". The "big three" are:

Japan had a "big four" between 2002 and 2005, when the Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi and UFJ Japan were still separate entities.[39] The two merged to form Mitsubishi UFJ, now the largest of the three, in 2005.

These banks are all listed in the Tokyo Stock Exchange (where they are constituents of the Nikkei 225 and TOPIX Core30 indices) and the New York Stock Exchange in the form of American depositary receipts; MUFG and SMBC Group are both additionally listed in the Nagoya Stock Exchange and serve as the financial arms of their respective namesake keiretsu (Mitsubishi for MUFG, Sumitomo and Mitsui for SMBC).

Lebanon[edit]

In Lebanon, where the banks have retained their banking secrecy laws since 1956, which is prevalent in the whole MENA region, and while adopting international measures to fight money laundering, the "big four" banks consist of:[40]

Furthermore, as of September 2016, there are more than 51 banks in Lebanon, one of the smallest countries in the Middle East, the fact that has always made investors from the Arab countries, especially the GCC petrodollar in addition to the European and world investors, to place their funds in the Lebanese banks.

Luxembourg[edit]

The "big four" full-service banks in Luxembourg are:[41]

There are bigger banks in Luxembourg, but these only deliver a limited number of services such as investment banking, private banking or corporate banking only. Luxembourg is a financial center.

Malaysia[edit]

According to Central Bank of Malaysia, the top three banks (instead of "big four") by assets size are:[42]

Mexico[edit]

The "big four" in Mexico are:[43][44]

Myanmar[edit]

According to Asia Times, the four largest bank in Myanmar are:[45]

Netherlands[edit]

The "big four" banks in the Netherlands by market concentration are:[46]

The market leader for the Netherlands, ING Group, is one of the largest multinational banking and financial service corporations in the world, with products and services reaching over 41 countries worldwide.[47]

Nigeria[edit]

The term "Big Five" is used instead of four, with five banks dominating the Nigerian banking world. In 2011, these top five banks had a combined balance sheet, including contingents, of 12.9 trillion naira ($821 billion), 33 percent higher than the prior year.[48]

North Macedonia[edit]

According to PricewaterhouseCoopers, three largest banks in North Macedonia dominates 60% of the banking market share.[49]

Pakistan[edit]

The "top five" banks of Pakistan are:[50]

Panama[edit]

Peru[edit]

In Peru the "big four" are:[51]

Philippines[edit]

The term "Big Four" is not explicitly used in the Philippines. The following are the four largest banks in the country in terms of total assets as of March 2020:[52]

Romania[edit]

The Romanian banking system has almost 40 banks, most of them detained by local financial vehicles, and some of them subsidiaries of foreign banks. The big four are as follows.

Other major banks are Raiffeisen Bank, Unicredit Bank and a subsidiary of the ING Bank of Holland.

Russia[edit]

Four largest banks by operations and assets in Russia by December 2020:[53][54]

Singapore[edit]

In Singapore, the "big three" are:[55]

South Africa[edit]

In South Africa, the "big four" are:[56]

South Korea[edit]

In South Korea the "Big Four" are:[57]

Spain[edit]

As of September 2021, the "big four" in Spain are:[58]

There were formerly a "big six" (los seis grandes) composed of three banks that are now part of BBVA (Banco de Bilbao, Banco de Vizcaya, and state-owned Banco Argentaria) and three now combined as Santander (Banco Central, Banco Hispanoamericano, and Banco de Santander).

Sri Lanka[edit]

In Sri Lanka, the "big four" are, as of October 2018:[59]

Sweden[edit]

In Sweden the "big four" are:[60][61]

Switzerland[edit]

In Switzerland, the "big three" hold 45% of all customer deposits. They are:[62]

Taiwan[edit]

In Taiwan, the five "systemic banks" are:[63][64]

Thailand[edit]

In 2014, the "big four"[65] together held over 66% of gross loans and controlled more than 67% of total assets in the banking system.[66]

Prior to the Siamese Revolution, the banking system was controlled by foreign powers, particularly the "big four" European banks.[67]: 160–169 

Turkey[edit]

In 2021, the top three largest state-owned bank together held over 37.1% of market share, while the top four largest foreign-owned banks in Turkey dominates 22.9% of the overall market share.[68]

State-owned bank[edit]

Foreign-owned bank[edit]

United Arab Emirates[edit]

Based on total assets of listed banks at the end of 2017,[69][70] big five banks in United Arab Emirates are:

United Kingdom[edit]

England and Wales[edit]

In relation to England and Wales, the phrase "big four banks" is currently used to refer to the four largest banking groups:

Scotland[edit]

In relation to Scotland, the phrase “big four” is currently used to refer to the four largest banking groups:

Northern Ireland[edit]

In relation to Northern Ireland, the phrase “big four” is currently used to refer to the four largest banking groups:

Historical use[edit]

Until 1970, the phrase "big five" (as opposed to “little six”)[74] was used to refer to the five largest UK clearing banks (institutions which clear bankers' cheques), which in England and Wales were:

After the merger of Westminster Bank, National Provincial Bank and District Bank to form National Westminster Bank (now part of NatWest Group) in 1970,[75] the term "big four" came into use instead.

United States[edit]

In the United States, the "big four" banks hold 45% of all U.S. customer deposits (as of 2018), and consist of:[76][77]

Regardless of the jurisdiction of charter, the legal entity of these banks are all subsidiaries of Delaware-chartered bank holding companies.

From a retail banking perspective, U.S. Bancorp (headquartered in Minneapolis, Minnesota, bank chartered in Cincinnati, Ohio) and PNC Financial Services (headquartered in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, bank chartered in Wilmington, Delaware) both have significantly more branches than Citibank, the retail banking arm of Citigroup.[78] However, Citibank still has significantly more assets than U.S. Bancorp and PNC.[79]

Vietnam[edit]

In Vietnam, the four major banking groups are:[80]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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