Big Sur River

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Big Sur River
Big sur campground stream flowing through trees.jpg
Big Sur River as it passes the campgrounds
Location
CountryUnited States
StateCalifornia
RegionCalifornia Central Coast
CountyMonterey County
Physical characteristics
MouthPacific ocean
 ⁃ coordinates
36°16′49.87″N 121°51′35.84″W / 36.2805194°N 121.8599556°W / 36.2805194; -121.8599556Coordinates: 36°16′49.87″N 121°51′35.84″W / 36.2805194°N 121.8599556°W / 36.2805194; -121.8599556
 ⁃ elevation
0 ft (0 m)
Length15.7 mi (25.3 km)
Discharge 
 ⁃ locationPacific Ocean
Basin features
Tributaries 
 ⁃ leftVentana Creek, Lion Creek, Cienaga Creek
 ⁃ rightPost Creek, Terrace Creek, Logwood Creek, Delores Creek, Mocho Creek
TypeWild
DesignatedJune 19, 1992

The Big Sur River is a 15.7-mile-long (25.3 km)[1] river on the Central Coast of California. The river drains a portion of the Big Sur area, a thinly settled region of the Central California coast where the Santa Lucia Mountains rise abruptly from the Pacific Ocean. The upper river and watershed lies within the Ventana Wilderness and encompasses the headwaters downstream to the area known as the Gorge. The lower river runs through Pfeiffer Big Sur State Park, the Big Sur village, several private camp grounds and Andrew Molera State Park where it flows through a lagoon to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary in the Pacific Ocean. It flows roughly northwest and empties into the ocean, where there is a natural sandbar that has created a lagoon. Major Tributaries of the river include, in order: Redwood Creek, Lion Creek, Logwood Creek, Terrace Creek, Ventana Creek, Post Creek, Pfeiffer-Redwood Creek, Juan Higuera Creek, and Pheneger Creek.[2][3]

Most of the river's 60-square-mile (160 km2) watershed is in the Ventana Wilderness of the Los Padres National Forest. Precipitation increases with altitude at Big Sur and the higher elevations can receive over 50 inches (1,300 mm) per year, about 10 inches (250 mm) higher than lower areas. The average yearly runoff on the river is 65,000 acre feet (80,000,000 m3).[citation needed] It is the largest river by volume on the Big Sur coast. Water is diverted to a small group of homeowners, and the state claims that wells owned by the El Sur Ranch are diverting underflow from the river.[citation needed] There are no dams or reservoirs.

Etymology[edit]

While exploring Alta California, the Portolá expedition arrived at San Carpóforo Canyon near present-day San Simeon on September 13, 1769. After two days of attempts, they decided they could not proceed up the inaccessible coast. Instead, they cut a trail inland through the San Antonio and Salinas Valleys before arriving at Monterey Bay, where they founded Monterey and named it their capital.[4]

The Spanish referred to the vast, relatively unexplored, coastal region to the south as el país grande del sur, meaning "the big country of the south". This was often shortened to el sur grande.[5][6] The two major rivers were named El Rio Grande del Sur (Big Sur River) and El Rio Chiquito del Sur (Little Sur River) .[7]:7 The first recorded use of the name "el Sud" (meaning "the South") was in the map of the Rancho El Sur land grant given by Governor José Figueroa to Juan Bautista Alvarado on July 30, 1834. The first American use of the name "Sur" was by the U.S. Coast Survey in 1851, which renamed a point of land that looked like an island and was shaped like a trumpet, formerly known as "Morro de la Trompa" and "Punta que Parece Isla" during Spanish times, to Point Sur.[8]

Water flow[edit]

In 1977, the US Forest Service measured the maximum run off in February at 41,860 acre feet (51,630,000 m3), and the minimum at 1,050 acre feet (1,300,000 m3). The total runoff was 126,200 acre feet (155,700,000 m3).[9]

Dam planned[edit]

In the late 1800s, the Ventana Power Company operated a sawmill near present-day Pfeiffer Big Sur State Park. They began planning to build a dam on the Big Sur River just downstream of the confluence of Ventana Creek and the Big Sur River. They hoped to sell the electricity to the City of Monterey. They built a diversion channel along the Big Sur River, but the 1906 San Francisco earthquake bankrupted the company and they abandoned the project. The stonework from the diversion channel is still visible.[10]

Wild and Scenic River designation[edit]

A 19.5 miles (31.4 km) stretch of the river is designated as a Wild and Scenic River, from the headwaters of its north and south forks downstream to the boundary of the Ventana Wilderness.[11]

Vegetation[edit]

The vegetation of the watershed is diverse. Along the main river canyon and many side tributaries grow riparian species such as California sycamore and white alder. Extensive stands of old-growth redwood trees tower above moist canyons and north-facing slopes below approximately 2400 ft. Above the redwoods, a mixed-hardwood forest of madrone, tanoak, coast live oak, canyon oak, and occasionally ponderosa and Coulter pine predominates. The rare Santa Lucia fir, endemic to the Santa Lucia Mountains, is found scattered in small groves, including one near the confluence of the Big Sur River and Ventana Creek, the lowest elevation (600 feet) known in the wild.[citation needed] On higher, steep, and South-facing slopes the chaparral is found, a scrub community often dominated by chamise and manzanita. Grassland and open pine forest are found on a few ridgetops.[citation needed]

Recreation[edit]

The popular 26 miles (42 km) Pine Ridge Trail follows the Big Sur River for several miles inland. Several backcountry camps are located along the river, including Ventana Camp, Barlow Flat Camp, and Sykes Camp. Near Sykes Camp, approximately 10 miles (16 km) inland, there is a popular hot springs above the riverbank.

From there, the trail crosses the river, and 3 miles (4.8 km) later reaches Redwood Camp, situated along the tributary Redwood Creek. From here, the trail climbs over 3,000 feet (910 m) to Pine Ridge, and enters the Carmel River watershed, eventually exiting the wilderness at China Camp. As of January 2017, the trail is closed due to damage caused by the Soberanes Fire, the result of an illegal campfire in Garrapata State Park.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline data. The National Map Archived 2012-04-05 at WebCite, accessed March 15, 2011
  2. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Big Sur River
  3. ^ Big Sur River Watershed Management Plan
  4. ^ Bolton, Herbert E. (1927). Fray Juan Crespi: Missionary Explorer on the Pacific Coast, 1769–1774. HathiTrust Digital Library. Archived from the original on 2014-03-22.
  5. ^ "History of Big Sur California". bigsurcalifornia.org. Archived from the original on 2016-08-01. Retrieved 2016-09-06.
  6. ^ Jensen, Jamie Road Trip USA: Cross-Country Adventures on America's Two-Lane Highways Archived 2016-11-30 at the Wayback Machine page 146
  7. ^ Norman, Jeff Big Sur: Images of America, Big Sur Historical Society, Arcadia Publishing (2004), 128 pages ISBN 0-7385-2913-3
  8. ^ Gudde, Erwin Gustav (1998). California Place Names: The Origin and Etymology of Current Geographical Names. Bright, William (fourth, rev. and enl. ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 379. ISBN 9780520266193. OCLC 37854320. Archived from the original on 2018-01-09.
  9. ^ "Los Padres National Forest (N.F.), Big Sur Coastal Unit Plan: Environmental Impact Statement". United States. Forest Service. 1977. Retrieved 9 March 2018.
  10. ^ Williamson, Phil. "DCQ Summer Solstice 2002 - PAST TIMES". www.ventanawild.org. Archived from the original on 2012-05-31. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
  11. ^ "Big Sur and Little Sur Rivers" (PDF). Trust for Public Land. 16 November 2005. Retrieved 6 February 2018.

External links[edit]