Big Walter Horton
|Big Walter Horton|
|Birth name||Walter Horton|
|Also known as||Shakey Horton, Mumbles Horton|
April 6, 1921|
Horn Lake, Mississippi, United States
|Died||December 8, 1981
Chicago, Illinois, United States
|Years active||Late 1920s–1981|
|Labels||Okeh, Vocalion, States, Ace, Alligator, Blind Pig, among others|
Walter Horton, better known as Big Walter (Horton) or Walter "Shakey" Horton (April 6, 1921 – December 8, 1981), was an American blues harmonica player. A quiet, unassuming, shy man, he is remembered as one of the premier harmonica players in the history of blues. Willie Dixon once called Horton "the best harmonica player I ever heard."
Horton was born in Horn Lake, Mississippi. He was playing the harmonica by the time he was five years old. In his early teens, he lived in Memphis, Tennessee. He claimed that his earliest recordings were done there in the late 1920s with the Memphis Jug Band, but there is no documentation of them, and some blues researchers have stated that this story was likely to have been fabricated by Horton. (He also claimed to have taught some harmonica to Little Walter and Sonny Boy Williamson I, but these claims are unsubstantiated and, in the case of Williamson, who was older than Horton, suspect.)
Like many of his peers, he lived on a meager income during much of his career and endured racial discrimination in the racially segregated United States. In the 1930s he played with numerous blues performers in the Mississippi Delta region. It is generally accepted that his first recordings were made in Memphis, backing the guitarist Little Buddy Doyle on Doyle's recordings for Okeh Records and Vocalion Records in 1939. These recordings were in the acoustic duo format popularized by Sleepy John Estes and his harmonicist Hammie Nixon, among others. On these recordings, Horton's style was not yet fully realized, but there are clear hints of what was to come. He eventually stopped playing the harp for a living, because of poor health, and worked mainly outside the music industry in the 1940s. By the early 1950s, he was playing music again. He was among the first to record for Sam Phillips at Sun Records in Memphis, who later recorded Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins, and Johnny Cash. His recordings for Sun include piano accompaniment by the young Phineas Newborn, Jr., who later gained fame as a jazz pianist. Horton's instrumental track recorded around this time, "Easy", was based on Ivory Joe Hunter's "I Almost Lost My Mind".
During the early 1950s he appeared on the Chicago blues scene, frequently playing with Memphis and Delta musicians who had also moved north, including the guitarists Eddie Taylor and Johnny Shines. When Junior Wells left the Muddy Waters band at the end of 1952, Horton replaced him long enough to play on one session, in January 1953.
Also known as Mumbles and Shakey (because of his head motion while playing the harmonica), Horton was active in the Chicago blues scene during the 1960s, as blues music gained popularity with white audiences. From the early 1960s onward, he recorded and appeared frequently as a sideman with Taylor, Shines, Johnny Young, Sunnyland Slim, Willie Dixon and many others. He toured extensively, usually as a backing musician, and in the 1970s he performed at blues and folk music festivals in the U.S. and Europe, frequently with Dixon's Chicago All-Stars. He also performed on recordings by blues and rock stars, such as Fleetwood Mac and Johnny Winter.
In October 1968, while touring the United Kingdom, he recorded the album Southern Comfort with the former Savoy Brown and future Mighty Baby guitarist Martin Stone. In the late 1970s he toured the U.S. with Homesick James Williamson, Guido Sinclair, Eddie Taylor, Richard Molina, Bradley Pierce Smith and Paul Nebenzahl, and he performed on National Public Radio broadcasts. Two of the best compilation albums of his work are Mouth-Harp Maestro and Fine Cuts. Also notable is the album Big Walter Horton and Carey Bell, released by Alligator Records in 1972.
He worked at blues festivals and often performed at the Maxwell Street market in Chicago. In 1977, he played on the Muddy Waters album I'm Ready, produced by Johnny Winter. He also recorded for Blind Pig Records during this period. Horton accompanied John Lee Hooker in the 1980 film The Blues Brothers. His final recordings were made in 1980.
|The Soul of Blues Harmonica||Horton||Argo||1964|
|Chicago Blues||Horton and Johnny Young||Arhoolie Records||1968|
|Big Walter Horton with Carey Bell||Alligator Records||1972|
|Walter Shakey Horton with Hot Cottage||Stony Plain Records||1974|
|Old Friends Together for the First Time||Horton, David "Honeyboy" Edwards, Kansas City Red, Floyd Jones, and Sunnyland Slim||Earwig Records||1981 (Horton played harmonica on three tracks)|
|Big Walter "Shakey" Horton Toronto '73||Horton||M.I.L. Multimedia||1998|
- List of blues musicians
- List of Chicago blues musicians
- List of harmonica blues musicians
- List of harmonicists
- List of juke joint blues musicians
- List of Memphis blues musicians
- List of people from Mississippi
- Eagle and LeBlanc, "Blues: A Regional Experience," p. 193. According to the authors, the 1921 date comes directly from information obtained from Horton's birth certificate.
- Huey, Steve. "Biography". Allmusic.com. Retrieved May 30, 2009.
- According to Dixon and Godrich (Recording the Blues, p. 92), the ARC/Vocalion company files list Hammie Nixon as the harmonica player, not Horton, but aural evidence proves this wrong.
- Russell, Tony (1997). The Blues: From Robert Johnson to Robert Cray. Dubai: Carlton Books. pp. 118–119. ISBN 1-85868-255-X.
- Filisko, Joe (December 9, 2009). "Walter Horton's Recordings" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 11, 2011. Retrieved January 16, 2010.
- Eagle and LeBlanc, p. 193.
- Walter "Shakey" Horton at Find a Grave.
- "Johnny Young & Big Walter". Discogs.com. Discogs. Retrieved October 1, 2014.
- "Old Friends". Discogs.com. Discogs. Retrieved September 17, 2014.