The Notorious B.I.G.
|The Notorious B.I.G|
|Born||Christopher George Latore Wallace
May 21, 1972
Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
|Died||March 9, 1997
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
|Spouse(s)||Faith Evans (1994–1997)|
Christopher George Latore Wallace (May 21, 1972 – March 9, 1997), better known by his stage names The Notorious B.I.G, Biggie, or Biggie Smalls, was an American rapper. Murdered at age 24, Wallace is consistently ranked as one of the greatest and most influential rappers of all time.
Wallace was raised in the Brooklyn borough of New York City. When he released his debut album Ready to Die in 1994, he became a central figure in the East Coast hip hop scene and increased New York's visibility in the genre at a time when West Coast hip hop was dominant in the mainstream. The following year, Wallace led his childhood friends to chart success through his protégé group, Junior M.A.F.I.A. While recording his second album, Wallace was heavily involved in the growing East Coast–West Coast hip hop feud.
On March 9, 1997, Wallace was killed by an unknown assailant in a drive-by shooting in Los Angeles. His double-disc album Life After Death, released 16 days later, rose to No. 1 on the U.S. album charts and was certified Diamond in 2000, one of the few hip hop albums to receive this certification. Wallace was noted for his "loose, easy flow", dark semi-autobiographical lyrics and storytelling abilities. Two more albums have been released since his death. He has certified sales of 17 million units in the United States.
- 1 Life and career
- 2 Death and funeral
- 3 Posthumous releases
- 4 Musical style
- 5 Legacy
- 6 Discography
- 7 Awards and nominations
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Life and career
1972–94: Early life, arrests, career beginnings and first child
Born in St. Mary's Hospital in Brooklyn on May 21, 1972, as the only child of Voletta Wallace, a Jamaican preschool teacher, and Selwyn George Latore, a welder and small-time Jamaican politician. His father left the family when Wallace was two years old, and his mother worked two jobs while raising him. Wallace grew up in the Clinton Hill section of Brooklyn, New York City on 226 St. James Place near the border of Bedford-Stuyvesant, considered at the time to be within the latter neighborhood's boundaries. At the Queen of All Saints Middle School, Wallace excelled in class, winning several awards as an English student. He was nicknamed "Big" because of his overweight size by age 10. He said he started dealing when he was around the age of 12. His mother, often away at work, did not know of her son's drug sales until Wallace was an adult.
At his request, Wallace transferred out of the Roman Catholic Bishop Loughlin Memorial High School to attend the state-funded George Westinghouse Career and Technical Education High School, which future rappers DMX, Jay-Z and Busta Rhymes also attended at the time. According to his mother, Wallace was still a good student, but he developed a "smart-ass" attitude at the new school. At seventeen, Wallace dropped out of school and became further involved in crime. In 1989, he was arrested on weapons charges in Brooklyn and sentenced to five years' probation. In 1990, he was arrested on a violation of his probation. A year later, Wallace was arrested in North Carolina for dealing crack cocaine. He spent nine months in jail before making bail.
Wallace began rapping when he was a teenager. He entertained people on the streets and performed with local groups the Old Gold Brothers and the Techniques. After being released from jail, Wallace made a demo tape under the name Biggie Smalls, a reference to a character in the 1975 film Let's Do It Again as well as his stature; he stood at 6 feet 3 inches (1.91 m) and weighed as much as 300 to 380 pounds (140–170 kg) according to differing accounts. The tape was reportedly made with no serious intent of getting a recording deal, but was promoted by New York-based DJ Mister Cee, who had previously worked with Big Daddy Kane, and was heard by the editor of The Source.
In March 1992, Wallace was featured in The Source's Unsigned Hype column, dedicated to aspiring rappers, and made a recording off the back of this success. The demo tape was heard by Uptown Records A&R and record producer Sean Combs, who arranged for a meeting with Wallace. He was signed to Uptown immediately and made an appearance on label mates, Heavy D & the Boyz' "A Buncha Niggas" (from the album Blue Funk). Soon after signing his recording contract, Combs was fired from Uptown and started a new label. Wallace followed and in mid-1992, signed to Combs' new imprint label, Bad Boy Records.
On August 8, 1993, Wallace's longtime girlfriend gave birth to his first child, T'yanna. Wallace had split with the girlfriend for some time before T'yanna's birth. Wallace wanted his daughter to complete her education, despite being a high school dropout himself. Wallace said that if his mother had promised him what he promised his daughter, everything she wanted, Wallace would have been not only a graduate but also at the top of his class. He continued selling drugs after the birth to support his daughter financially. Once Combs discovered this, he forced Wallace to quit.
Later in the year, Wallace gained exposure on a remix to Mary J. Blige's single "Real Love", under the pseudonym The Notorious B.I.G. He recorded under this name for the remainder of his career, after finding the original moniker "Biggie Smalls" was already in use. "Real Love" peaked at No. 7 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart and was followed by a remix of Blige's "What's the 411?". He continued this success, to a lesser extent, on remixes with Neneh Cherry ("Buddy X") and reggae artist Super Cat ("Dolly My Baby", also featuring Combs) in 1993. In April 1993, his solo track, "Party and Bullshit", appeared on the Who's the Man? soundtrack. In July 1994, he appeared alongside LL Cool J and Busta Rhymes on a remix to label mate Craig Mack's "Flava in Ya Ear", reaching No. 9 on the Billboard Hot 100.
1994: Ready to Die and marriage
On August 4, 1994, Wallace married R&B singer Faith Evans after they met at a Bad Boy photoshoot. Five days later, Wallace had his first pop chart success as a solo artist with double A-side, "Juicy/Unbelievable", which reached No. 27 as the lead single to his debut album.
Ready to Die was released on September 13, 1994, and reached No. 13 on the Billboard 200 chart, eventually being certified four times Platinum. The album, released at a time when West Coast hip hop was prominent in the U.S. charts, according to Rolling Stone, "almost single-handedly... shifted the focus back to East Coast rap". It immediately gained strong reviews and has received much praise in retrospect. In addition to "Juicy", the record produced two hit singles: the Platinum-selling "Big Poppa", which reached No. 1 on the U.S. rap chart, and "One More Chance" featuring Faith Evans, a loosely related remix of an album track and its best selling single.
Busta Rhymes claimed to have seen Wallace giving out free copies of Ready to Die from his home, which Rhymes reasoned as "his way of marketing himself."
Around the time of the album's release, Wallace became friends with Tupac Shakur, also a rapper. Cousin Lil' Cease recalled the pair being close, often traveling together whenever they were not active in furthering their careers. According to him, Wallace was a frequent guest at Shakur's home and they constantly spent time together when Shakur was in California or Washington, D.C.. It was claimed by Yukmouth, an Oakland emcee, that Wallace's style was inspired by that of Shakur.
Wallace formed a friendship with Shaquille O'Neal. O'Neal remembered his first time hearing of Wallace was during listening to the song "Gimme the Loot", where Wallace mentioned him in the lyrics, attracting O'Neal to his music. O'Neal requested a collaboration with Wallace, which resulted in the song "You Can't Stop the Reign". Sean Combs related that Wallace would not do collaborations with "anybody he didn't really respect", adding that Wallace paid O'Neal "respect by shouting him out."
1995: Junior M.A.F.I.A., Conspiracy and coastal feud
In August 1995, Wallace's protégé group, Junior M.A.F.I.A. ("Junior Masters At Finding Intelligent Attitudes"), released their debut album Conspiracy. The group consisted of his friends from childhood and included rappers such as Lil' Kim and Lil' Cease, who went on to have solo careers. The record went Gold and its singles, "Player's Anthem" and "Get Money" both featuring Wallace, went Gold and Platinum. Wallace continued to work with R&B artists, collaborating with R&B groups 112 (on "Only You") and Total (on "Can't You See"), with both reaching the top 20 of the Hot 100. By the end of the year, Wallace was the top-selling male solo artist and rapper on the U.S. pop and R&B charts. In July 1995, he appeared on the cover of The Source with the caption "The King of New York Takes Over", a reference to his Frank White alias from the 1990 film King of New York. At the Source Awards in August 1995, he was named Best New Artist (Solo), Lyricist of the Year, Live Performer of the Year, and his debut Album of the Year. At the Billboard Awards, he was Rap Artist of the Year.
In his year of success, Wallace became involved in a rivalry between the East and West Coast hip hop scenes with Shakur, now his former friend. In an interview with Vibe in April 1995, while serving time in Clinton Correctional Facility, Shakur accused Uptown Records' founder Andre Harrell, Sean Combs, and Wallace of having prior knowledge of a robbery that resulted in him being shot five times and losing thousands of dollars worth of jewelry on the night of November 30, 1994. Though Wallace and his entourage were in the same Manhattan-based recording studio at the time of the shooting, they denied the accusation. Wallace said: "It just happened to be a coincidence that he [Shakur] was in the studio. He just, he couldn't really say who really had something to do with it at the time. So he just kinda' leaned the blame on me." In 2012, a man named Dexter Isaac, serving a life sentence for unrelated crimes, claimed that he attacked Shakur that night and that the robbery was orchestrated by James Rosemond aka Jimmy Henchman.
1996: More arrests, Tupac Shakur's death and second child
Wallace began recording his second studio album in September 1995. The album, recorded in New York, Trinidad, and Los Angeles, was interrupted during its 18 months of creation by injury, legal wranglings and the highly publicized hip hop dispute in which he was involved. During this time, he also worked with R&B/pop singer, songwriter and producer Michael Jackson for the HIStory album. Lil' Cease claimed in 2013 that Wallace denied his wishes to meet Jackson, citing that he did not "trust Michael with kids".
On March 23, 1996, Wallace was arrested outside a Manhattan nightclub for chasing and threatening to kill two autograph seekers, smashing the windows of their taxicab and then pulling one of the fans out and punching them. He pleaded guilty to second-degree harassment and was sentenced to 100 hours of community service. In mid-1996, he was arrested at his home in Teaneck, New Jersey, for drug and weapons possession charges.
In June 1996, Shakur released "Hit 'Em Up", a diss song in which he claimed to have had sex with Wallace's wife (at the time estranged) and that Wallace copied his style and image. Wallace referred to the first claim about his wife's pregnancy on Jay-Z's "Brooklyn's Finest" where he raps: "If Faye (Faith Evans, his wife at the time) have twins, she'd probably have two 'Pacs. Get it? 2Pac's?" However, Wallace did not directly respond to the record during his lifetime, stating in a 1997 radio interview that it was "not [his] style" to respond.
Shakur was shot multiple times in a drive-by shooting in Las Vegas, Nevada, on September 7, 1996, and died six days later on September 13, 1996 of complications from the gunshot wounds. Rumors of Wallace's involvement with Shakur's murder were reported almost immediately. A two-part series Chuck Philips wrote for the Los Angeles Times in 2002, "Who Killed Tupac Shakur?", based on police reports and multiple sources reported that "the shooting was carried out by a Compton gang called the Southside Crips to avenge the beating of one of its members by Shakur a few hours earlier" and that Wallace paid for the gun. His family publicly denied the report, producing documents purporting to show that the rapper was in New York and New Jersey at the time. The New York Times called the documents inconclusive, stating:
The pages purport to be three computer printouts from Daddy's House, indicating that Wallace was in the studio recording a song called Nasty Boy on the night Shakur was shot. They indicate that Wallace wrote half the session, was In and out/sat around and laid down a ref, shorthand for a reference vocal, the equivalent of a first take. But nothing indicates when the documents were created. And Louis Alfred, the recording engineer listed on the sheets, said in an interview that he remembered recording the song with Wallace in a late-night session, not during the day. He could not recall the date of the session but said it was likely not the night Shakur was shot. We would have heard about it, Mr. Alfred said."
Moreover, Philips' article was based on multiple sources. As the Assistant Managing Editor of the LA Times Mark Duvoisin wrote: "Philips' story has withstood all challenges to its accuracy, ...[and] remains the definitive account of the Shakur slaying." Faith Evans remembered her husband calling her the night of Shakur's death and crying due to him being in shock. Evans added, "I think it’s fair to say he was probably afraid, given everything that was going on at that time and all the hype that was put on this so-called beef that he didn’t really have in his heart against anyone." Wayne Barrow, Wallace's co-manager at the time, said Wallace was recording the song "Nasty Girl" the night Shakur was shot. Shortly after Shakur's death, he met with Snoop Dogg, who claimed that Wallace played the song "Somebody Gotta Die" for him, in which Snoop Dogg was mentioned, and declared he never hated Shakur.
On October 29, 1996, Faith Evans gave birth to Wallace's son, Christopher "C.J." Wallace, Jr. The following month, Junior M.A.F.I.A. member Lil' Kim released her debut album, Hard Core, under Wallace's direction while the two were having a "love affair". Lil' Kim recalled being Wallace's "biggest fan" and her being "his pride and joy." In a 2012 interview, Lil' Kim said Wallace prevented her from doing a remix of the Jodeci single "Love U 4 Life" by locking her in a room and according to her, Wallace stated that she was not "gonna go do no song with them," likely because of the group's close affiliation with Tupac and Death Row Records.
1997: Life After Death and car accident
During the recording sessions for his second album, tentatively named "Life After Death... 'Til Death Do Us Part", later shortened to Life After Death, Wallace was involved in a car accident that shattered his left leg and temporarily confined him to a wheelchair. The injury forced him to use a cane. He and Lil' Cease were arrested for smoking marijuana in public and had their car repossessed. Wallace chose a Chevrolet Lumina rental SUV as a substitute, despite Lil' Cease's objections. The vehicle had brake problems before the accident but Wallace dismissed them. According to Lil' Cease, Wallace's leg was shattered when they hit a rail along with Lil's Cease's jaw. Wallace spent months in a hospital following the accident and had to complete therapy. Despite his hospitalization, he continued to work on the album. The accident was referred to in the lyrics of "Long Kiss Goodnight": "Ya still tickle me, I used to be as strong as Ripple be / Til Lil' Cease crippled me."
In January 1997, Wallace was ordered to pay US$41,000 in damages following an incident involving a friend of a concert promoter who claimed Wallace and his entourage beat him up following a dispute in May 1995. He faced criminal assault charges for the incident which remains unresolved, but all robbery charges were dropped. Following the events of the previous year, Wallace spoke of a desire to focus on his "peace of mind". "My mom... my son... my daughter... my family... my friends are what matters to me now".
Death and funeral
Wallace traveled to Los Angeles in February 1997, to promote his upcoming second studio album and film a music video for its lead single, "Hypnotize". The album, Life After Death, was scheduled for release on March 25, 1997.
On March 7, he presented an award to Toni Braxton at the 1997 Soul Train Music Awards in Los Angeles and was booed by some of the audience. After the ceremony, Wallace attended an after party hosted by Vibe magazine and Qwest Records at the Petersen Automotive Museum in Los Angeles. Other guests included Faith Evans, Aaliyah, Sean Combs, and members of the Bloods and Crips gangs.
On March 9, Wallace left in a GMC Suburban SUV at 12:30 a.m. (PST). By 12:45 a.m. (PST), the streets were crowded with people leaving the event. Wallace's SUV stopped at a red light at the corner of Wilshire Blvd & South Fairfax Ave 50 yards (46 m) from the museum. A dark colored Chevrolet Impala SS pulled up alongside Wallace's SUV. The driver of the Impala, a black male dressed in a blue suit and bow tie, rolled down his window, drew a 9mm blue-steel pistol and fired at the SUV. Four bullets hit Wallace. His entourage rushed him to Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, where doctors performed an emergency thoracotomy, but he was pronounced dead at 1:15 a.m. (PST), six months after Tupac Shakur was killed.
Wallace's autopsy was released to the public in December 2012, over a decade after his death. According to the report, three of the four shots were not fatal. The first bullet hit in his left forearm and traveled down to his wrist; the second hit him in the back, missing all vital organs, and exited through his left shoulder; and the third hit his outer left thigh and left through his inner thigh. The report said that the third bullet struck "the left side of the scrotum, causing a very shallow, 3⁄8 inch [10 mm] linear laceration." The fourth bullet was fatal, entering through his right hip and striking several vital organs, before stopping in his left shoulder area. That bullet struck his colon, liver, heart and upper lobe of his left lung.
Wallace's murder remains unsolved and there are many theories regarding the identities and motives of the murderers. Immediately after the shooting, reports surfaced linking Wallace's murder to the murder of Tupac Shakur, because of the similarities in the drive-by shootings and the involvement of Shakur and Wallace in the East Coast–West Coast hip hop rivalry. In 1997, Los Angeles Times authors Chuck Philips and Matt Laitt reported that the key suspect was a member of the Crips acting in service of a personal financial motive.
Biggie's funeral was held on March 18, 1997 at the Frank E. Campbell Funeral Chapel in Manhattan. There were among 350 mourners at the funeral, including Queen Latifah, Flava Flav, Mary J. Blige, Lil' Kim, Lil' Cease, Run–D.M.C., DJ Kool Herc, Busta Rhymes, Salt-N-Pepa, DJ Spinderella, Foxy Brown, Sister Souljah and others. After the funeral, his body was cremated and the ashes were given to his family.
Sixteen days after his death, Wallace's double-disc second album was released as planned with the shortened title of Life After Death and hit No. 1 on the Billboard 200 charts, after making a premature appearance at No. 176 due to street-date violations. The record album featured a much wider range of guests and producers than its predecessor. It gained strong reviews and in 2000 was certified Diamond, the highest RIAA certification awarded to a solo hip hop album.
Its lead single, "Hypnotize", was the last music video recording in which Wallace would participate. His biggest chart success was with its follow-up "Mo Money Mo Problems", featuring Sean Combs (under the rap alias "Puff Daddy") and Mase. Both singles reached No. 1 in the Hot 100, making Wallace the first artist to achieve this feat posthumously. The third single, "Sky's The Limit", featuring the band 112, was noted for its use of children in the music video, directed by Spike Jonze, who were used to portray Wallace and his contemporaries, including Sean Combs, Lil' Kim, and Busta Rhymes. Wallace was named Artist of the Year and "Hypnotize" Single of the Year by Spin magazine in December 1997.
In mid-1997, Combs released his debut album, No Way Out, which featured Wallace on five songs, notably on the third single "Victory". The most prominent single from the record album was "I'll Be Missing You", featuring Combs, Faith Evans and 112, which was dedicated to Wallace's memory. At the 1998 Grammy Awards, Life After Death and its first two singles received nominations in the rap category. The album award was won by Combs' No Way Out and "I'll Be Missing You" won the award in the category of Best Rap Performance By A Duo Or Group in which "Mo Money Mo Problems" was nominated.
Wallace had founded a hip hop supergroup called The Commission, which consisted of Jay-Z, Lil' Cease, Combs, Charli Baltimore and himself. The Commission was mentioned by Wallace in the lyrics of "What's Beef" on Life After Death and "Victory" from No Way Out but never completed an album. A song on Duets: The Final Chapter titled "Whatchu Want (The Commission)" featuring Jay-Z was based on the group.
In December 1999, Bad Boy released Born Again. The album consisted of previously unreleased material mixed with guest appearances including many artists Wallace had never collaborated with in his lifetime. It gained some positive reviews but received criticism for its unlikely pairings; The Source describing it as "compiling some of the most awkward collaborations of his career". Nevertheless, the album sold 2 million copies. Wallace appeared on Michael Jackson's 2001 album, Invincible. Over the course of time, his vocals were heard on hit songs such as "Foolish" by Ashanti and "Realest Niggas" in 2002, and the song "Runnin' (Dying to Live)" with Shakur the following year. In 2005, Duets: The Final Chapter continued the pattern started on Born Again, criticized for the lack of significant vocals by Wallace on some of its songs. Its lead single "Nasty Girl" became Wallace's first UK No. 1 single. Combs and Voletta Wallace have stated the album will be the last release primarily featuring new material.
|Problems playing these files? See media help.|
Wallace mostly rapped on his songs in a deep tone described by Rolling Stone as a "thick, jaunty grumble", which went deeper on Life After Death. He was often accompanied on songs with ad libs from Sean "Puffy" Combs. On The Source's Unsigned Hype, his style was described as "cool, nasal, and filtered, to bless his own material".
Allmusic describe Wallace as having "a talent for piling multiple rhymes on top of one another in quick succession". Time magazine wrote Wallace rapped with an ability to "make multi-syllabic rhymes sound... smooth", while Krims describes Wallace's rhythmic style as "effusive." Before starting a verse, Wallace sometimes used onomatopoeic vocables to "warm up" (for example "uhhh" at the beginning of "Hypnotize" and "Big Poppa" and "whaat" after certain rhymes in songs such as "My Downfall").
Lateef of Latyrx notes that Wallace had, "intense and complex flows", Fredro Starr of Onyx says, "Biggie was a master of the flow", and Bishop Lamont states that Wallace mastered "all the hemispheres of the music". "Notorious B.I.G. also often used the single-line rhyme scheme to add variety and interest to his flow". Big Daddy Kane suggests that Wallace didn't need a large vocabulary to impress listeners – "he just put his words together a slick way and it worked real good for him". Wallace was known to compose lyrics in his head, rather than write them down on paper, in a similar way to Jay-Z.
Wallace would occasionally vary from his usual style. On "Playa Hater" from his second album, he sang in a slow-falsetto. On his collaboration with Bone Thugs-n-Harmony, "Notorious Thugs", he modified his style to match the rapid rhyme flow of the group.
Themes and lyrical content
Wallace's lyrical topics and themes included mafioso tales ("Niggas Bleed"), his drug dealing past ("10 Crack Commandments"), materialistic bragging ("Hypnotize"), as well as humor ("Just Playing (Dreams)"), and romance ("Me & My Bitch"). Rolling Stone named Wallace in 2004 as "one of the few young male songwriters in any pop style writing credible love songs".
Guerilla Black, in the book How to Rap, describes how Wallace was able to both "glorify the upper echelon" and "[make] you feel his struggle". According to Touré of The New York Times in 1994, Wallace's lyrics "[mixed] autobiographical details about crime and violence with emotional honesty". Marriott of The New York Times (in 1997) believed his lyrics were not strictly autobiographical and wrote he "had a knack for exaggeration that increased sales". Wallace described his debut as "a big pie, with each slice indicating a different point in my life involving bitches and niggaz... from the beginning to the end".
Ready to Die is described by Rolling Stone as a contrast of "bleak" street visions and being "full of high-spirited fun, bringing the pleasure principle back to hip-hop". Allmusic write of "a sense of doom" in some of his songs and the NY Times note some being "laced with paranoia"; Wallace described himself as feeling "broke and depressed" when he made his debut. The final song on the album, "Suicidal Thoughts", featured Wallace contemplating suicide and concluded with him committing the act.
On Life After Death, Wallace's lyrics went "deeper". Krims explains how upbeat, dance-oriented tracks (which featured less heavily on his debut) alternate with "reality rap" songs on the record and suggests that he was "going pimp" through some of the lyrical topics of the former. XXL magazine wrote that Wallace "revamped his image" through the portrayal of himself between the albums, going from "midlevel hustler" on his debut to "drug lord".
Allmusic wrote that the success of Ready to Die is "mostly due to Wallace's skill as a storyteller"; in 1994, Rolling Stone described Wallace's ability in this technique as painting "a sonic picture so vibrant that you're transported right to the scene". On Life After Death Wallace notably demonstrated this skill on "I Got a Story to Tell", creating a story as a rap for the first half of the song and then retelling the same story "for his boys" in conversation form.
Considered one of the best artists in hip hop music, Wallace was described by AllMusic as "the savior of East Coast hip-hop". The Source magazine named Wallace the greatest rapper of all time in its 150th issue in 2002. In 2003, when XXL magazine asked several hip hop artists to list their five favorite MCs, Wallace's name appeared on more rappers' lists than anyone else. In 2006, MTV ranked him at No. 3 on their list of The Greatest MCs of All Time, calling him possibly "the most skillful ever on the mic". Editors of About.com ranked him No. 4 on their list of the Top 50 MCs of Our Time (1987–2007). In 2012, The Source ranked him No. 3 on their list of the Top 50 Lyrical Leaders of all time. Rolling Stone has referred to him as the "greatest rapper that ever lived". In 2015, Billboard named Wallace as the greatest rapper of all time.
Since his death, Wallace's lyrics have been sampled and quoted by a variety of hip hop, R&B and pop artists including Jay-Z, 50 Cent, Alicia Keys, Fat Joe, Nelly, Ja Rule, Eminem, Lil Wayne, Game, Clinton Sparks, Michael Jackson and Usher. On August 28, 2005, at the 2005 MTV Video Music Awards, Sean Combs (then using the rap alias "P. Diddy") and Snoop Dogg paid tribute to Wallace: an orchestra played while the vocals from "Juicy" and "Warning" played on the arena speakers. In September 2005, VH1 held its second annual "Hip Hop Honors", with a tribute to Wallace headlining the show.
Wallace had begun to promote a clothing line called Brooklyn Mint, which was to produce plus-sized clothing but fell dormant after he died. In 2004, his managers, Mark Pitts and Wayne Barrow, launched the clothing line, with help from Jay-Z, selling T-shirts with images of Wallace on them. A portion of the proceeds go to the Christopher Wallace Foundation and to Jay-Z's Shawn Carter Scholarship Foundation. In 2005, Voletta Wallace hired branding and licensing agency Wicked Cow Entertainment to guide the estate's licensing efforts. Wallace-branded products on the market include action figures, blankets, and cell phone content.
The Christopher Wallace Memorial Foundation holds an annual black-tie dinner ("B.I.G. Night Out") to raise funds for children's school equipment and supplies and to honor the memory of the late rapper. For this particular event, because it is a children's schools' charity, "B.I.G." is also said to stand for "Books Instead of Guns".
There is an oversize portrait mural of Wallace as Che Guevara on Fulton Street in Brooklyn a half mile west from the star's old block. A fan petitioned to have the corner of Fulton Street and St. James Place, near Wallace's childhood home renamed in his honor, garnering support from local businesses and attracting more than 560 signatures. The Notorious B.I.G.'s children C.J. and Ty'anna are set to star in an animated series called House of Wallace.
Notorious is a 2009 biographical film about Wallace and his life that starred rapper Jamal Woolard as Wallace. The film was directed by George Tillman, Jr. and distributed by Fox Searchlight Pictures. Producers included Sean "Diddy" Combs, Wallace's former managers Wayne Barrow and Mark Pitts, as well as Voletta Wallace. On January 16, 2009, the movie's debut at the Grand 18 theater in Greensboro, North Carolina was postponed after a man was shot in the parking lot before the show. The film grossed over $44,000,000 worldwide.
In early October 2007, open casting calls for the role of Wallace began. Actors, rappers and unknowns all tried out. Beanie Sigel auditioned for the role, but was not picked. Sean Kingston claimed that he would play the role of Wallace, but producers denied it. Eventually it was announced that rapper Jamal Woolard was chosen to play Wallace while Wallace's son, Christopher Wallace, Jr. was cast to play Wallace as a child. Other cast members include Angela Bassett as Voletta Wallace, Derek Luke as Sean Combs, Antonique Smith as Faith Evans, Naturi Naughton formerly of 3LW as Lil' Kim, and Anthony Mackie as Tupac Shakur. Bad Boy released a soundtrack album to the film on January 13, 2009; the album contains hit singles of B.I.G. such as "Hypnotize", "Juicy", and "Warning" as well as rarities.
- Studio album
|1994||Ready to Die|
- Collaboration album
|1995||Conspiracy (with Junior M.A.F.I.A.)|
- Posthumous studio albums
|1997||Life After Death|
- Compilation albums
|2005||Duets: The Final Chapter|
|2009||Notorious: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack|
Awards and nominations
- Notorious B.I.G: In His Own Words, And Those of His Friends (March 7, 2007). MTV News. Retrieved March 11, 2007.
- The 10 Greatest Rappers of All Time (November 12, 2015). Billboard. Retrieved November 15, 2015.
- Huey, Steve. "Notorious B.I.G. > Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved October 7, 2006.
- "Top 100 Albums". RIAA. May 4, 2006. Archived from the original on December 8, 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2006.
- Huey, Steve. "Ready to Die > Overview". Allmusic. Retrieved October 7, 2006.
- "Top Selling Artists". RIAA. Retrieved May 3, 2013.
- Lang, Holly (2007). The Notorious B.I.G: A Biography. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 1–2. ISBN 9780313341564.
- Coker, Cheo H. (March 8, 2005). "Excerpt: Unbelievable – The Life, Death, and Afterlife of The Notorious B.I.G.". Vibe. Archived from the original on February 16, 2009.
- Franklin, Marcus (January 17, 2009). "Much change in Biggie Smalls' neighborhood". The Insider. Associated Press. Archived from the original on December 8, 2012. Retrieved October 10, 2010.
- "Biggie's 'One-Room Shack' in Bed-Stuy Now up for Sale". Bed-stuy.patch.com. April 3, 2013. Retrieved December 31, 2013.
- Sullivan, Randall (December 5, 2005). "The Unsolved Mystery of the Notorious B.I.G.". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on April 29, 2009. Retrieved October 7, 2006.
- Touré (December 18, 1994). "Pop Music; Biggie Smalls, Rap's Man of the Moment" The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2008.
- Marriott, Michel (March 17, 1997). "The Short Life of a Rap Star, Shadowed by Many Troubles". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2008.
- "Police May Release Sketch of Biggie Gunman" (March 11, 1997). MTV News. Retrieved December 23, 2006.
- "Notorious BIG Photos - Biography". Atlantic Records. Archived from the original on December 8, 2012. Retrieved November 30, 2006.
- Swihart, Stanton. "Blue Funk > Overview". Allmusic. Retrieved October 6, 2006.
- Duncan, Andrea et al. The Making of Ready to Die:Family Business. XXL, March 9, 2006. Retrieved March 18, 2007
- Heller, Corinne (March 9, 2012). "Notorious B.I.G.'s daughter makes radio debut on 15th anniversary of his death". OnTheRedCarpet.com. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- Lang, Holly (2007). The Notorious B.I.G.: A Biography. Greenwood. p. 16. ISBN 978-0313341564.
- "The Notorious B.I.G. releases his autobiographical debut 'Ready to Die.'". Rolling Stone. June 1, 1995.
- Scott, Cathy (2000). The Murder of Biggie Smalls. New York City: St. Martin's Press. p. 31. ISBN 0-312-26620-0.
- "Soundtracks for Who's the Man? (1993)". IMDb. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- "Craig Mack - Chart history". Billboard. Retrieved May 3, 2013.
- Chappell, Kevin (April 1999). "After Biggie: Faith Evans has a new love, a new baby, a new career – singer". Ebony.
- "The Notorious B.I.G. - Awards". AllMusic. Retrieved May 3, 2013.
- "Artist Chart History". Billboard.com. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved October 7, 2006.
- "RIAA searchable database". RIAA. Archived from the original on October 15, 2006. Retrieved October 7, 2006.
- Ready to Die (Explicit) Tower Records (Muze data). Retrieved December 10, 2006.
- Tyrangiel, Josh (November 13, 2006). "The All-TIME Albums" Time. Retrieved December 10, 2006.
- "Busta Rhymes Couldn't Believe It When He Saw Biggie Giving Away Copies of Ready to Die". egotripland.com. September 14, 2012.
- Ziegbe, Mawuse (June 16, 2010). "Tupac And Biggie Probably Celebrated Birthdays Together, Lil’ Cease Says". MTV.
- Kyles, Yohance (January 19, 2015). "Yukmouth Talks Tupac’s Impact On Hip Hop; Says Pac Influenced Biggie’s Style". allhiphop.com.
- Muhammad, Latifah (March 8, 2011). "Shaq Remembers Friendship with Notorious B.I.G.". The Boombox.
- Harris, Christopher (April 25, 2015). "Daz Dillinger Details Recording With The Notorious B.I.G.". HipHopDX.
- Lane, Hai, Lydia Junior M.A.F.I.A. Biography Allmusic. Retrieved February 18, 2007.
- "The Source Hip-Hop Music Awards 1995". The 411 online. Retrieved December 7, 2006.
- Bruno, Anthony The Murders of gangsta rappers Tupac Shakur and Notorious B.I.G. Court TV Crime Library. Retrieved January 24, 2007.
- "Notorious B.I.G.". Wild 107 Doghouse, KYLD 107.7 FM. MTV.com. Archived from the original (transcript of his last interview) on September 23, 2003.
- "Convicted Killer Confesses to Shooting West Coast Rapper Tupac Shakur". The Baltimore Sun. July 13, 2012. Retrieved August 21, 2012.
- Carney, Thomas "Live from Death Row". PBS. Retrieved December 9, 2006.
- Caramanica, Jon et al. (April 2003). "The Making of Life After Death: Many Men". XXL. Retrieved January 6, 2007.
- The Notorious B.I.G. – Bio. Billboard. Retrieved October 29, 2010.
- Ortiz, Edwin (October 1, 2013). "Lil Cease Says The Notorious B.I.G. Wouldn't Let Him into Michael Jackson Recording Session". Complex.
- Philips, Chuck (September 6, 2002). "Who Killed Tupac Shakur?". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 15, 2012.
- Philips, Chuck (September 7, 2002). "How Vegas police probe floundered in Tupac Shakur case". LA Times. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- Silveran, Stephen M. (September 9, 2002). "B.I.G. Family Denies Tupac Murder Claim". People. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- Leland, John (October 7, 2002). "New Theories Stir Speculation On Rap Deaths". New York Times. Retrieved September 30, 2013.
- Duvoisin, Mark (January 12, 2006). "L.A. Times Responds to Biggie Story". Rolling Stone. Retrieved September 19, 2013.
- Reid, Shaheem (September 10, 2002). "Faith Evans Says Biggie Cried When He Heard Tupac Was Shot". MTV.
- "Snoop Dogg Discusses Conflict with 2Pac and Friendship with Biggie". May 14, 2013.
- "Notorious B.I.G. Would Have Worked With Kanye West, Lil’ Kim Says". MTV. March 9, 2012.
- Markman, Rob (March 15, 2012). "Notorious B.I.G. 'Locked' Lil' Kim In A Room To Prevent Jodeci Collabo". MTV.
- Nelson, Jr., Keith (October 2, 2013). "EXCLUSIVE: Lil Cease Tells The Story Of How He Crippled The Notorious B.I.G. (VIDEO)". allhiphop.com.
- Harling, Danielle (February 9, 2015). "Lil Cease Says The Notorious B.I.G. Wrote A Portion Of "Life After Death" While Hospitalized". HipHopDx.
- "Notorious B.I.G. Loses Lawsuit". MTV News. January 27, 1997. Retrieved December 23, 2006.
- Brown, Jake (May 24, 2004). Ready to Die: The Story of Biggie Smalls Notorious B.I.G. Colossus Books. p. 122. ISBN 0-9749779-3-4.
- Birchmeier, Jason Life After Death review Allmusic. Retrieved January 8, 2007.
- "B.I.G. Gets Props from Spin". Rolling Stone. December 7, 1997. Archived from the original on December 7, 2012. Retrieved December 26, 2006.
- "1998 Grammy Awards – Rap music winners". CNN. 1998. Archived from the original on December 7, 2012. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- Born Again Tower Records (Muze data). Retrieved December 10, 2006.
- "Duets: The Final Chapter Music Review". Rolling Stone. January 12, 2006. Archived from the original on December 7, 2012. Retrieved December 10, 2006.
- Duets: The Final Chapter > Overview Allmusic. Retrieved December 10, 2006.
- Egere-Cooper, Matilda (January 27, 2006). "Notorious B.I.G.: an album too far?". The Independent. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- "Life After Death review". Rolling Stone. December 7, 1997. Archived from the original on December 7, 2012. Retrieved January 7, 2007.
- "Notorious B.I.G.:Biography". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on December 7, 2012. Retrieved December 26, 2006.
- "Biggie Smalls Unsigned Hype". The Source. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
- Krims, Adam (2000). Rap Music and the Poetics of Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 85. ISBN 0-521-63447-4.
- Smith, William E. (2005). Hip-hop as Performance and Ritual: Biography and Ethnography in Underground Hip Hop. Trafford Publishing. p. 163. ISBN 1-4120-5394-3.
- Edwards, Paul, 2009, How to Rap: The Art & Science of the Hip-Hop MC, Chicago Review Press, p. 100.
- Edwards, Paul, 2009, How to Rap: The Art & Science of the Hip-Hop MC, Chicago Review Press, p. 112.
- Edwards, Paul, 2009, How to Rap: The Art & Science of the Hip-Hop MC, Chicago Review Press, p. x.
- Edwards, Paul, 2009, How to Rap: The Art & Science of the Hip-Hop MC, Chicago Review Press, p. 53.
- Edwards, Paul, 2009, How to Rap: The Art & Science of the Hip-Hop MC, Chicago Review Press, p. 144.
- Andrea Duncan (March 9, 2006). The Making of Ready to Die: Family Business XXL. Retrieved March 18, 2008.
- Christgau, Robert Life After Death review Consumer Guide Reviews. Retrieved January 7, 2007.
- Notorious B.I.G.: Still the Illest. MTV. Retrieved December 26, 2006.
- Edwards, Paul, 2009, How to Rap: The Art & Science of the Hip-Hop MC, Chicago Review Press, p. 14.
- Edwards, Paul, 2009, How to Rap: The Art & Science of the Hip-Hop MC, Chicago Review Press, p. 44.
- Brown, Jake (May 24, 2004). Ready to Die: The Story of Biggie Smalls Notorious B.I.G. Colossus Books. p. 66. ISBN 0-9749779-3-4.
- Pareles, Jon (March 10, 1997). "Rapping, Living and Dying a Gangsta Life". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2008.
- Ex, Kris (November 6, 2006). "The History of Cocaine Rap:All White". XXL magazine. Retrieved February 10, 2007.
- Osorio, Kim. "Biggie Smalls Is The Illest". The Source. Retrieved March 2002.
- "Music Profiles – The Notorious B.I.G.". BBC News Online. Archived from the original on June 11, 2007. Retrieved January 27, 2007.
- The Greatest MCs of All Time. MTV. Retrieved December 26, 2006.
- "Top 50 MCs of Our Time: 1987 – 2007 – 50 Greatest Emcees of Our Time". Rap.about.com. Retrieved November 16, 2012.
- Blue, Johny (July 2012). "Top 50 Lyrical Leaders: 3. The Notorious B.I.G.". The Source (New York City: L. Londell McMillan).
- "Notorious B.I.G., 'Juicy'". The 50 Greatest Hip-Hop Songs of All Time. Rolling Stone. December 5, 2012. Retrieved September 9, 2013.
- Moss, Corey (August 25, 2005). "Green Day Clean Up, Kelly Clarkson Gets Wet, 50 Rips Into Fat Joe At VMAs". MTV News. Retrieved February 27, 2007.
- "VH1 to give Notorious B.I.G. Hip Hop Honors" (June 25, 2005). Associated Press. Retrieved February 17, 2006.
- Strong, Nolan (February 8, 2005). "B.I.G.'s Brooklyn Mint Clothing Line Debuts, Jay-Z Gets Down". AllHipHop. Retrieved September 7, 2007.
- The Licensing Letter (July 17, 2006). "Properties Available for Licensing". EPM.
- Wolfe, Roman (June 22, 2006). "Limited Action Figures of B.I.G., Public Enemy Coming This Fall". AllHipHop. Retrieved September 7, 2007.
- Reid, Shaheem; Calloway, Sway (March 21, 2003). "Biggie, Jam Master Jay, Left Eye and Their Mothers Honored at B.I.G. Night Out". MTV News. Retrieved August 1, 2006.
- Stewart, Henry. "Should We Name a Street After Biggie?".
- RJ Cubarrubia (March 12, 2013). "Notorious B.I.G.'s Children to Star in New Animated Series | Music News". Rolling Stone. Retrieved December 31, 2013.
- Director Selected for Biggie Biopic, Diddy to Executive Produce XXL (August 13, 2007). Retrieved November 28, 2007.
- "Shooting erupts at Notorious movie". Greensboro News & Record. January 17, 2009. Archived from the original on February 7, 2009. Retrieved October 13, 2009.
- "Notorious (2009)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved April 18, 2013.
- Melena Ryzik (October 8, 2007) Dreaming Big About Acting Big The New York Times. Retrieved November 28, 2007.
- Beanie Sigel Auditions for Role of Biggie Smalls in New Biopic (October 3, 2007). XXL. Retrieved November 28, 2007.
- "Sean Kingston: Big, But Not B.I.G.". Vibe. August 30, 2007. Archived from the original on November 5, 2007. Retrieved November 28, 2007.
- Brooklyn Rapper Gravy to Play Biggie in Upcoming Biopic (March 6, 2008). XXL. Retrieved November 28, 2007.
- Wallace, Voletta, "Christopher Wallace Jr.". Interview Magazine. Retrieved November 24, 2010.
- Gravy for Biggie (March 6, 2008). Joblo.com. Retrieved March 6, 2008.
- Reid, Shaheem (December 3, 2008). "'Notorious' Soundtrack Details Revealed: Features Jay-Z, Jadakiss, Faith Evans, Biggie's Son". MTV News. Retrieved December 27, 2008.
- Coker, Cheo Hodari (2004). Unbelievable: The Life, Death, and Afterlife of the Notorious B.I.G. New York: Three Rivers Press. ISBN 0-609-80835-4.
- Wallace, Voletta; McKenzie, Tremell and Evans, Faith (foreword) (2005). Biggie: Voletta Wallace Remembers Her Son, Christopher Wallace, aka Notorious B.I.G. Atria. ISBN 0-7434-7020-6.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to The Notorious B.I.G..|
- The Notorious B.I.G. at MTV
- The Notorious B.I.G. collected news and commentary at The New York Times
- The Notorious B.I.G. at the Internet Movie Database