Bihar

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation).
Bihar
बिहार
بہار
State
80-foot Gautam Buddha, Bodh Gaya, Bihar
80-foot Gautam Buddha, Bodh Gaya, Bihar
Official seal of Bihar
Seal
Location of Bihar in India
Location of Bihar in India
Map of Bihar
Map of Bihar
Coordinates (Patna): 25°22′N 85°08′E / 25.37°N 85.13°E / 25.37; 85.13Coordinates: 25°22′N 85°08′E / 25.37°N 85.13°E / 25.37; 85.13
Country  India
Region East India
Bihar Province

1 April 1936

Capital Patna
Largest city Patna
Districts 38
Government
 • Governor Ram Nath Kovind
 • Chief Minister Nitish Kumar
 • Legislature Bicameral
Legislative Council 75
Legislative Assembly 243
 • Parliamentary constituency 40
 • High Court Patna High Court
Area
 • Total 94,163 km2 (36,357 sq mi)
Area rank 13th
Population (2011)[1]
 • Total 103,804,637
 • Rank 3rd
 • Density 1,102/km2 (2,850/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Bihari
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
UN/LOCODE INBR
ISO 3166 code IN-BR
Vehicle registration BR
HDI Increase 0.447[2] (low)
HDI rank 16th (2010)
Literacy[3] 63.8% (total)
73.5% (male)
53.3% (female)
Official language Hindi[4]
Additional official language Urdu[5]
Website gov.bih.nic.in
Symbols of Bihar[6]
Animal Ox(बैल)
Bird Sparrow(गौरैया)
Flower Marigold(गेंदा)
Tree Peepal(पीपल)
Location of Bihar in India before the creation of Jharkhand

Bihar (/bˈhɑːr/; Hindustani pronunciation: [bɪˈɦaːr]) is a state in East India.[7][8] It is the 13th-largest state of India, with an area of 94,163 km2 (36,357 sq mi). The third-largest state of India by population, it is contiguous with Uttar Pradesh to its west, Nepal to the north, the northern part of West Bengal to the east, with Jharkhand to the south. The Bihar plain is split by the river Ganges which flows from west to east.[7]

On November 15, 2000, southern Bihar was ceded to form the new state of Jharkhand.[9] Only 11.3% of the population of Bihar lives in urban areas, which is lowest in India after Himachal Pradesh.[10] Additionally, almost 58% of Biharis are below the age of 25,[11] giving Bihar the highest proportion of young people compared to any other state in India. The official languages of the state are Hindi and Urdu.[4][5] Other languages commonly used within the state include Bhojpuri, Maithili, Magahi, Bajjika, and Angika (Maithili being the only one of these to be publicly accepted by the government).[12][13]

In ancient and classical India, Bihar was considered a centre of power, learning, and culture.[14] From Magadha arose India's first empire, the Maurya empire, as well as one of the world's most widely adhered-to religions, Buddhism.[15] Magadha empires, notably under the Maurya and Gupta dynasties, unified large parts of South Asia under a central rule.[16]

Since the late 1970s, Bihar has lagged far behind other Indian states in terms of social and economic development.[17][18][19] Many economists and social scientists claim that this is a direct result of the policies of the central government, such as the Freight equalisation policy,[20][21] its apathy towards Bihar,[11][22][23] lack of Bihari sub-nationalism,[21][24][25] and the Permanent Settlement of 1793 by the British East India Company.[21] The state government has, however, made significant strides in developing the state.[26] Improved governance has led to an economic revival in the state through increased investment in infrastructure,[27] better health care facilities, greater emphasis on education, and a reduction in crime and corruption.[28][29]

Etymology[edit]

The Mahabodhi Temple, among the four holy sites related to the life of the Lord Buddha and UNESCO World Heritage Site

The name Bihar is derived from the Sanskrit and Pali word, Vihara (Devanagari: विहार), meaning "abode". The region roughly encompassing the present state was dotted with Buddhist vihara, the abodes of Buddhist monks in the ancient and medieval periods. Medieval writer Minhaj al-Siraj Juzjani records in the Tabakat-i-Nasiri that in 1198 AD, Bakhtiyar Khalji committed a massacre in a town now known as Bihar Sharif, about 70 km away from Bodh Gaya.[30][31]

History[edit]

Main article: History of Bihar

Ancient[edit]

Copy of the seal excavated from Kundpur, Vaishali. The Brahmi letters on the seal means: Kundpur was in Vaishali. Prince Vardhaman (Mahavira) used this seal after the Judgement

Regions of Bihar—such as Magadha, Mithila, Anga, and Vaishali—are mentioned in religious texts and epics of ancient India. The power centre of ancient Bihar was in the region of modern-day southwestern Bihar called Magadha, which remained the centre of power, learning, and culture in India for 1000 years.

The Haryanka dynasty, founded in 684 BC, ruled Magadha from the city of Rajgriha (modern Rajgir). The two well-known kings from this dynasty were Bimbisara and his son Ajatashatru, who imprisoned his father to ascend the throne. Ajatashatru founded the city of Pataliputra which later became the capital of Magadha. He declared war and conquered Vajji, another powerful Mahajanapada north of Ganges with its capital at Vaishali. Vaishali was ruled by the Licchvi, who had a republican form of government where the king was elected from the number of rajas. Based on the information found in texts pertaining to Jainism and Buddhism, Vaishali was established as a republic by the 6th century BCE, before the birth of Gautama Buddha in 563 BCE, making it the world's first republic. The Haryanka dynasty was followed by the Shishunaga dynasty. Later the Nanda Dynasty ruled a vast tract stretching from Bengal to Punjab.

The Nanda dynasty was replaced by the Maurya Empire, India's first empire. The Maurya Empire and the religion of Buddhism arose in the region that now makes up modern Bihar. The Mauryan Empire, which originated from Magadha in 325 BC, was founded by Chandragupta Maurya, who was born in Magadha. It had its capital at Pataliputra (modern Patna). The Mauryan emperor, Ashoka, who was born in Pataliputra (Patna) is believed to be one of the greatest rulers in the history of the world.[32][33]

The Gupta Empire, which originated in Magadha in 240 AD, is referred as the Golden Age of India in science, mathematics, astronomy, commerce, religion, and Indian philosophy.[34] Bihar and Bengal was invaded by Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynasty in the 11th century.[35][36]

Medieval[edit]

Buddhism in Magadha went into decline due to the invasion of Muhammad Bin Bakhtiar Khilji, during which many of the viharas and the famed universities of Nalanda and Vikramashila were destroyed, and thousands of Buddhist monks were massacred during 12th century.[37][38][39] D. N. Jha suggests, instead, that these incidents were the result of Buddhist-Brahmin skirmishes in a fight for supremacy.[40] In 1540 the great Pathan chieftain, Sher Shah Suri, from Sasaram, Bihar, took over northern India from the Mughals. He defeated the Mughal army of emperor Humayun and drove the Mughals out of India. Sher Shah declared Delhi his capital.

The tenth and the last Guru of Sikhism, Guru Gobind Singh was born in Patna.

Colonial Era[edit]

After the Battle of Buxar (1764), the British East India Company obtained the diwani rights (rights to administer, and collect revenue or tax) for Bihar, Bengal and Odisha. The rich resources of fertile land, water and skilled labour had attracted the foreign imperialists, particularly the Dutch and British, in the 18th century. A number of agriculture-based industries had been started in Bihar by foreign entrepreneurs.[41] Bihar remained a part of the Bengal Presidency of British India until 1912, when the province of Bihar and Orissa was carved out as a separate province. Since 2010, Bihar has celebrated its birthday as Bihar Diwas on 22 March.[42][43]

Pre- and post-Independence[edit]

(Sitting L to R)Rajendra Prasad and Anugrah Narayan Sinha during Mahatma Gandhi's 1917 Champaran Satyagraha

Farmers in Champaran had revolted against indigo cultivation in 1914 (at Pipra) and 1916 (Turkaulia). In April 1917, Mahatma Gandhi visited Champaran, where Raj Kumar Shukla had drawn his attention to the exploitation of the peasants by European indigo planters. The Champaran Satyagraha that followed received support from many Bihari nationalists, such as Rajendra Prasad and Anugrah Narayan Sinha.[44][45]

In the northern and central regions of Bihar, the Kisan Sabha (peasant movement) was an important consequence of the independence movement. It began in 1929 under the leadership of Swami Sahajanand Saraswati who formed the Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha (BPKS), to mobilise peasant grievances against the zamindari attacks on their occupancy rights. The movement intensified and spread from Bihar across the rest of India, culminating in the formation of the All India Kisan Sabha (AIKS) at the Lucknow session of the Indian National Congress in April 1936, where Saraswati was elected as its first president.[46]

Bihari migrant workers have faced violence and prejudice in many parts of India, such as Maharashtra, Punjab and Assam after independence.[47][48]

Geography and climate[edit]

River Map of Bihar
Mountain of Ashrams, near Sena Village, at Buddha Gaya
Flooded farmlands in northern Bihar during the 2008 Bihar flood
Climate
Classification ETh
Avg. temperature 27 °C (81 °F)
• Summer 34 °C (93 °F)
• Winter 10 °C (50 °F)
Precipitation 1,200 mm (47 in)

Bihar has a diverse climate. Its temperature is subtropical in general, with hot summers and cool winters. Bihar is a vast stretch of fertile plain. It is drained by the Ganges River, including its northern tributaries Gandak and Koshi, originating in the Nepal Himalayas and the Bagmati originating in the Kathmandu Valley that regularly flood parts of the Bihar plains. The total area covered by the state of Bihar is 94,163 km2 (36,357 sq mi). the state is located between 24°-20'-10" N ~ 27°-31'-15" N latitude and between 83°-19'-50" E ~ 88°-17'-40" E longitude. Its average elevation above sea level is 173 feet (53 m).

The Ganges divides Bihar into two unequal halves and flows through the middle from west to east. Other Ganges tributaries are the Son, Budhi Gandak, Chandan, Orhani and Phalgu. Though the Himalayas begin at the foothills, a short distance inside Nepal and to the north of Bihar, the mountains influence Bihar's landforms, climate, hydrology and culture. Central parts of Bihar have some small hills, for example the Rajgir hills. To the south is the Chota Nagpur plateau, which was part of Bihar until 2000 but now is part of a separate state called Jharkhand.

Flora and fauna[edit]

Bauhinia acuminata, locally known as Kachnaar
Main articles: Flora of Bihar and Fauna of Bihar

Bihar has notified forest area of 6,764.14 km2 (2,612 sq mi), which is 7.2% of its geographical area.[49][not in citation given] The sub Himalayan foothill of Someshwar and the Dun ranges in the Champaran district are another belt of moist deciduous forests. These also consist of scrub, grass and reeds. Here the rainfall is above 1,600 millimetres (63 in) and thus promotes luxuriant Sal forests in the area. The most important trees are Shorea Robusta, Sal Cedrela Toona, Khair, and Semal. Deciduous forests also occur in the Saharsa and Purnia districts.[50] Shorea Robusta (sal), Diospyros melanoxylon (kendu), Boswellia serrata (salai), Terminalia tomentose (Asan), Terminalia bellerica (Bahera), Terminalia Arjuna (Arjun), Pterocarpus Marsupium (Paisar), Madhuca indica (Mahua) are the common flora across the forest of Bihar.

Valmiki National Park, West Champaran district, covering about 800 km2 (309 sq mi) of forest, is the 18th Tiger Reserve of India and is ranked fourth in terms of density of tiger population.[51] It has a diverse landscape, sheltering rich wildlife habitats and floral and faunal composition, along with the prime protected carnivores.

Demographics[edit]

Main article: Demographics of Bihar
See also: Bihari people

After the 2011 Census, Bihar was the third most populous state of India with total population of 104,099,452 (54,278,157 male and 49,821,295 female).[53] Nearly 89% of Bihar's population lived in rural areas. Almost 58% of Bihar's population was below 25 years age, which is the highest in India. The density was 881. The sex ratio was 919 females per 1000 males. Most of Bihar's population belongs to Indo-Aryan-speaking ethnic groups along with few Dravidian-speaking and Austroasiatic-speaking people mostly in Chhotanagpur Plateau (now part of Jharkhand). It also attracted Punjabi Hindu refugees during the Partition of British India in 1947.[54] Bihar has a total literacy rate of 63.82% (75.7% for males and 55.1% for females), recording a growth of 20% in female literacy over the period of a decade.[55][56]

At 11.3%, Bihar has the second lowest urbanisation rate in India.[57] As of the 2011 census, population density surpassed 1,000 per square kilometre, making Bihar India's most densely-populated state, but still lower than West Java or Banten of Indonesia.

Religion in Bihar[58]
Religion Percent
Hindus
  
82.7%
Muslims
  
16.9%
Christians
  
0.1%
Others
  
0.3%

According to the 2011 census, 82.7% of Bihar's population practised Hinduism, while 16.9% followed Islam.[58]

Government and administration[edit]

The constitutional head of the Government of Bihar is the Governor, who is appointed by the President of India. The real executive power rests with the Chief Minister and the cabinet. The political party or the coalition of political parties having a majority in the Legislative Assembly forms the Government.

The head of the bureaucracy of the State is the Chief Secretary. Under this position, is a hierarchy of officials drawn from the Indian Administrative Service, Indian Police Service, and different wings of the State Civil Services. The judiciary is headed by the Chief Justice. Bihar has a High Court which has been functioning since 1916. All the branches of the government are located in the state capital, Patna.

The state is divided into nine divisions and 38 districts, for administrative purposes.

Politics[edit]

Main article: Politics of Bihar
See also: Political parties in Bihar, Elections in Bihar and List of politicians from Bihar; Bihar Legislative Assembly election, 2015

By 2004, 14 years after Lalu Prasad Yadav's victory, The Economist magazine said that "Bihar [had] become a byword for the worst of India, of widespread and inescapable poverty, of corrupt politicians indistinguishable from mafia-dons they patronise, caste-ridden social order that has retained the worst feudal cruelties".[60] In 2005, the World Bank believed that issues faced by the state were "enormous" because of "persistent poverty, complex social stratification, unsatisfactory infrastructure and weak governance".[61] Currently, there are two main political formations: the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) which comprises Bharatiya Janata Party, Lok Janashakti Party, Rashtriya Lok Samta Party and Hindustani Awam Morcha. JD(U)-led coalition which includes RJD and Indian National Congress. There are many other political formations. The Communist Party of India had a strong presence in Bihar at one time, but is weakened now.[62] The CPM and Forward Bloc have a minor presence, along with the other extreme Left.[63]

In contrast to prior governments, which emphasised divisions of caste and religion, Nitish Kumar's manifesto was based on economic development, curbs on crime and corruption and greater social equality for all sections of society. Since 2010, the government has confiscated the properties of corrupt officials and redeployed them as schools buildings.[64] Simultaneously they introduced Bihar Special Court Act to curb crime.[65] It has also legislated for a two-hour break on Fridays, including lunch, to enable Muslim employees to pray and thus cut down on post-lunch absenteeism by them.[66] The government has prohibited the sale and consumption of alcohol in the state since March 2016. [67][68]

Economy[edit]

Year Gross State Domestic Product
(millions of Indian Rupees)[69]
1980
73,530
1985
142,950
1990
264,290
1995
244,830
2000
469,430
2005
710,060
[70]
Bihar accounts for 71% of India's annual litchi production.[71]
A village market
Main article: Economy of Bihar

Gross state domestic product of Bihar for the year 2013/2014 has been around 3683.37 billion INR. By sectors, its composition is:

Agriculture = 22%
Industry = 5%
Services = 73%.

Bihar is the fastest growing state in terms of gross state domestic product (GSDP), clocking a growth rate of 17.06% in FY 2014-15.[72] The economy of Bihar is projected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 13.4% during 2012-2017 i.e. the 12th Five-Year Plan. Bihar has witnessed strong growth in per capita net state domestic product (NSDP). At current prices, per capita NSDP of the state grew at a CAGR of 12.91 per cent during 2004-05 to 2014-15.[73] Bihar's per capita income has gone up by 40.6 per cent in the financial year 2014-15.[74]

Agriculture[edit]

Bihar is the largest producer of vegetables and the second-largest producer of fruits in India. Bihar has high agricultural production making it one of the strongest sectors of the state. About 80 per cent of the state’s population is employed in agriculture, which is higher as compared to India’s average.[73] The main agricultural products produced in Bihar are litchi, guava, mango, pineapple, brinjal, lady's finger, cauliflower, cabbage, rice, wheat and sugarcane. Though good soil and favourable climatic conditions such as good rainfall favour agriculture, it has to encounter flood threat as well, which may drain off the fertile soil, if not conserved properly.[75] The state (mostly southern parts) faces droughts almost every year affecting production of crops such as paddy.[76]

Industry[edit]

Bihar has emerged as brewery hub with major domestic and foreign firms setting up production units in the state. Three major firms – United Breweries Group, Danish Brewery Company Carlsberg Group and Cobra Beer – are to set up new units in Patna and Muzaffarpur in 2012.[77]

Hajipur, near Patna, remains a major industrial city in the Bihar, linked to the capital city through the Ganges bridge and good road infrastructure.[78]

The state's debt was estimated at 77% of GDP by 2007.[79] The Finance Ministry has given top priority to create investment opportunities for big industrial houses like Reliance Industries. Further developments have taken place in the growth of small industries, improvements in IT infrastructure, the new software park in Patna, and the completion of the expressway from the Purvanchal border through Bihar to Jharkhand. In August 2008, a Patna registered company called the Security and Intelligence Services (SIS) India Limited[80] took over the Australian guard and mobile patrol services business of American conglomerate, United Technologies Corporation (UTC). SIS is registered and taxed in Bihar.[81] The capital city, Patna, is one of the better-off cities in India when measured by per capita income.[82]^ The State Government is setting up an Information Technology (IT) City at Rajgir in Nalanda district.[83] Additionally, India's first Media Hub is also proposed to be set up in Bihar.[84]

Income distribution: north-south divide[edit]

In terms of income, the districts of Patna, Munger and Begusarai were the three best-off out of a total of 38 districts in the state, recording the highest per capita gross district domestic product of 31,441, 10,087 and 9,312, respectively in 2004–05.[82]

Culture[edit]

Main article: Culture of Bihar

Language and literature[edit]

Hindi and Urdu are the official languages of the State.[4][5] Other languages of the state are Bhojpuri (38.5 million speakers), Maithili (25 million), Magahi (20 million), Bajjika (8.7 million), and Angika (0.7 million), of which only Maithili is recognised by the government of India.[12][13]

Urdu—which is the mother tongue of Muslims—is secondary to Hindi in official use. It was only recently that Maithili was also included as one of the state's official languages, although such use of it is negligible. Presently, the Bihari languages are considered one of the five subgroups of Hindi by the government of India, although Maithili was declared a separate language. Bihari languages are considered to be derived from the language of the erstwhile Magadha state, Magadhi Prakrit, along with Assamese, Bengali, and Odia. Surajpuri is spoken in northeastern districts such as Kishanganj.

Performing arts[edit]

See also: Music of Bihar
Magahi folk singers

Gaya is another centre of excellence in classical music, particularly of the Tappa and Thumri varieties. Pandit Govardhan Mishra – son of the Ram Prasad Mishra, himself an accomplished singer – is perhaps the finest living exponent of Tappa singing in India today, according to Padma Shri Gajendra Narayan Singh, founding secretary of the Sangeet Natak Academi of Bihar. Gajendra Narayan Singh also writes, in his memoir, that Champanagar, Banaili, was another major centre of classical music. Rajkumar Shyamanand Sinha of Champanagar, Banaili princely state, was a great patron of music and was himself one of the finest exponents of classical vocal music in Bihar in his time.[85] Singh, in another book on Indian classical music, has written that "Kumar Shyamanand Singh of Banaili estate had such expertise in singing that many great singers including Kesarbai Kerkar acknowledged his ability. After listening to bandishes from Kumar Sahib, Pandit Jasraj was moved to tears and lamented that, alas!, he did not have such ability himself." [free translation of Hindi text].[86][87]

During the 19th century, when the condition of Bihar worsened under the British misrule, many Biharis had to emigrate as indentured labourers to the West Indies, Fiji, and Mauritius. During this time many sad plays and songs called birha became popular, in the Bhojpur area, thus Bhojpuri Birha. Dramas incorporating this theme continue to be popular in the theatres of Patna.[88][better source needed]

Cinema[edit]

Main article: Cinema of Bihar

Bihar has a robust Bhojpuri-language film industry. There is also a smaller production of Magadhi-, Maithili-, as well as Angika-language films. The first film with Bhojpuri dialogue was Ganga Jamuna, released in 1961.[89] Bhaiyaa, the first Magadhi film, was released in 1961.[90] The first Maithili movie was Kanyadan released in 1965,[91] of which a significant portion was made in the Maithili language.

The history of films entirely in Bhojpuri begins in 1962 with the well-received film Ganga Maiyya Tohe Piyari Chadhaibo ("Mother Ganges, I will offer you a yellow sari"), which was directed by Kundan Kumar.[92] 1963's Lagi nahin chute ram was the all-time hit Bhojpuri film, and had higher attendance than Mughal-e-Azam in the eastern and northern regions of India. Bollywood's Nadiya Ke Paar is another of the most famous Bhojpuri-language movies. However, in the following years, films were produced only in fits and starts. Films such as Bidesiya ("Foreigner", 1963, directed by S. N. Tripathi) and Ganga ("Ganges", 1965, directed by Kundan Kumar) were profitable and popular, but in general Bhojpuri films were not commonly produced in the 1960s and 1970s.

In the 1980s, enough Bhojpuri films were produced to tentatively support a dedicated industry. Films such as Mai ("Mom", 1989, directed by Rajkumar Sharma) and Hamar Bhauji ("My Brother's Wife", 1983, directed by Kalpataru) continued to have at least sporadic success at the box office. However, this trend faded out by the end of the decade, and by 1990, the nascent industry seemed to be completely finished.[93]

The Bhojpuri film industry took off again in 2001 with the super hit Saiyyan Hamar ("My Sweetheart", directed by Mohan Prasad), which vaulted the hero of that film, Ravi Kishan, to superstardom.[94] This success was quickly followed by several other remarkably successful films, including Panditji Batai Na Biyah Kab Hoi ("Priest, tell me when I will marry", 2005, directed by Mohan Prasad) and Sasura Bada Paisa Wala ("My father-in-law, the rich guy", 2005). In a measure of the Bhojpuri film industry's rise, both of these did much better business in the states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar than mainstream Bollywood hits at the time, and both films, made on extremely tight budgets, earned back more than ten times their production costs.[95] Sasura Bada Paisa Wala also introduced Manoj Tiwari, formerly a well-loved folk singer, to the wider audiences of Bhojpuri cinema. The success of Ravi Kishan & Manoj Tiwari's films has led to a dramatic increase in Bhojpuri cinema's visibility, and the industry now supports an awards show[96] and a trade magazine, Bhojpuri City,[97] which chronicles the production and release of what are now over one hundred films per year.

Religion[edit]

Main article: Religion in Bihar

Gautam Buddha attained Enlightenment at Bodh Gaya, a town located in the modern day district of Gaya in Bihar. Vasupujya, the 12th Jain Tirthankara was born in Champapuri, Bhagalpur. Vardhamana Mahavira, the 24th and the last Tirthankara of Jainism, was born in Vaishali around the 6th century BC.[98]

Media[edit]

Main article: Media in Bihar

Biharbandhu was the first Hindi newspaper published in Bihar. It was started in 1872 by Madan Mohan Bhatta, a Maharashtrian Brahman who settled in Biharsharif.[99] Hindi journalism in Bihar, and specially Patna, could make little headway initially, because of a lack of respect for Hindi among the people at large. Many Hindi journals were born and, after a lapse of time, vanished. Many journals were shelved even in the planning stages.[100] But once Hindi had the support of being an official language, it started making inroads, even into the remote areas of Bihar. Hindi journalism acquired wisdom and maturity, and its longevity was assured. Hindi was introduced in the law courts in Bihar in 1880.[99][101]

Urdu journalism and poetry has a glorious past in Bihar. Many poets belong to Bihar, such as Shaad Azimabadi, Kaif Azimabadi, and Kalim Ajiz. Shanurahman, a world-famous radio announcer, is from Bihar. Many Urdu dailies— such as Qomi Tanzim and Sahara—are published in Bihar. There is a monthly Urdu magazine called Voice of Bihar – which is the first of its kind and is becoming popular among the Urdu speaking people.

The beginning of the 20th century was marked by a number of notable new publications. A monthly magazine named Bharat Ratna was started in Patna, in 1901. It was followed by Ksahtriya Hitaishi, Aryavarta from Dinapure, Udyoga, and Chaitanya Chandrika.[102] Udyog was edited by Vijyaanand Tripathy, a famous poet of the time, and Chaitanya Chandrika by Krishna Chaitanya Goswami, a literary figure of that time. The literary activity was not confined to Patna alone but to other districts of Bihar.[99][103]

Hindustan, Dainik Jagran, Aaj, Magnificent Bihar, Nayee Baat, and Prabhat Khabar are some of the Hindi newspapers of Bihar. National English dailies like The Times of India, Hindustan Times, Navbharat Times, The Telegraph, and The Economic Times have readers in the urban regions.

Transportation[edit]

Main article: Transport in Bihar
Patna river port on national inland waterways-1 at Gai Ghat
Steamers and dredgers at Gai Ghat, Patna

Airways[edit]

Bihar has three operational airports at Patna, Gaya Airport, and Purnea Airport. The Patna airport is categorised as a restricted international airport, with customs facilities to receive international chartered flights.

Inland Waterways[edit]

The Ganges – navigable throughout the year – was the principal river highway across the vast north Indo-Gangetic Plain. Vessels capable of accommodating five hundred merchants were known to ply this river in the ancient period; it served as a conduit for overseas trade, as goods were carried from Pataliputra (later Patna) and Champa (later Bhagalpur) out to the seas and to ports in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. The role of the Ganges as a channel for trade was enhanced by its natural links – it embraces all the major rivers and streams in both north and south Bihar.[104]

Tourism[edit]

Main article: Tourism in Bihar

The culture and heritage of Bihar can be observed from the large number of ancient monuments spread throughout the state. Bihar is visited by many tourists from around the world,[105] with about 24,000,000 (24 million) tourists visiting the state each year.[105]

In earlier days, tourism in the region was purely based on educational tourism, as Bihar was home of some prominent ancient universities like Nalanda & Vikramashila.[106][107]

Education[edit]

Front view of administrative building of IIT Patna

Historically, Bihar has been a major centre of learning, home to the ancient universities of Nalanda (established in 450 CE), Odantapurā (established in 550CE) and Vikramashila (established in 783 CE).[108] This tradition of learning may have been stultified during the period of Turkic invasions, c. 1000 CE, at which point it is believed major education centres, maintained by reclusive communities of Buddhist monks removed from the local populace, were suppressed by the Turkic raids originating from central Asia .[109]

Bihar saw a revival of its education system during the later part of the British rule, when Patna University, the seventh oldest university of the Indian subcontinent, was established in 1917.[110] Some other centres of high learning established under British rule are Patna College (established 1839), Bihar School of Engineering (1900; now known as National Institute of Technology, Patna), Prince of Wales Medical College (1925; now Patna Medical College and Hospital), and Science College, Patna (1928), among others.

Literacy rate from 1951 to 2011[111]
Year Total Males Females
1961 21.95 35.85 8.11
1971 23.17 35.86 9.86
1981 32.32 47.11 16.61
1991 37.49 51.37 21.99
2001 47.53 60.32 33.57
2011 63.82 73.39 53.33

Bihar is striving to increase female literacy, now at 53.3%, as the government establishes educational institutions. At the time of independence, women's literacy in Bihar was 4.22%. Bihar has a National Institute of Technology (NIT) and an Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) in Patna. A recent survey by Pratham rated the receptivity of Bihari children to their teaching as being better than those in other states.[112] The National Employability Report of Engineering Graduates, 2014[113] puts graduates from Bihar in the top 25 percent of the country, and rating Bihar as one of the three top states at producing engineering graduates in terms of quality and employability.[114]

Loknayak Jai Prakash Institute Of Technology

As of December 2013, there are 7 government engineering colleges in the public sector, and 12 engineering colleges in the private sector, in Bihar, besides government-aided BIT Patna and Women's Institute of Technology, Darbhanga. The overall annual intake of these technical institutes in Bihar is only 6,200.[115][116][117] In Bihar, government colleges are located at Muzaffarpur, Bhagalpur, Gaya, Darbhanga, Motihari, Nalanda, and Saran (Chhapra). All institutes are recognised by All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), affiliated with Aryabhatta Knowledge University (AKU). As it is, the foundation stone of the eighth engineering college of the state government, Ramdhari Singh Dinkar Engineering College, was laid on 22 December 2013 at Begusarai,[118][119] while the process of creating the infrastructure for two new engineering colleges – one each at Madhepura and Sitamarhi – has started.[120][121]

NIT Patna Main building

NIT Patna is the second oldest engineering college of India. Its origin can be traced to 1886, with the establishment of a survey training school, subsequently renamed Bihar College of Engineering in 1932. In 2004, the government of India upgraded the college to National Institute of Technology (NIT) status. In 2007, NIT Patna was granted Institute of National Importance status, in accordance with the National Institutes of Technology Act, 2007.

Bihar established several new educational institutes between 2006 and 2008. BIT Mesra started its Patna extension centre in September 2006. On 8 August 2008, Indian Institutes of Technology Patna was inaugurated with students from all over India [122] In 2008, NSIT opened its new college in Bihta, which is now emerging as an education hub.[123][124] BCE, Bhagalpur, MIT, Muzaffarpur, and the National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Hajipur (NIPER)[125] are in Bihar. On 4 August 2008, National Institute of Fashion Technology Patna was established as the ninth such institute in India.[126] Chanakya National Law University and Chandragupt Institute of Management were established in the later half of 2008. Steps are being taken to revive the ancient Nalanda Mahavihara as Nalanda International University. Countries such as Japan, Korea, and China have also taken initiatives. The Aryabhatt Knowledge University in Patna is a centre with which all the engineering and medical colleges in Bihar are affiliated.[citation needed] The A.N. Sinha Institute[127] of Social Studies is a premier research institute in the state.

Bihar e-Governance Services & Technologies (BeST) and the Government of Bihar have initiated a unique program to establish a centre of excellence called Bihar Knowledge Center, a finishing school to equip students with the latest skills and customised short-term training programs at an affordable cost. The centre aims to attract the youth of the state to improve their technical, professional, and soft skills, to meet the current requirements of the industrial job market.[128]

Bihar has the Central Institute of Plastic Engineering & Technology (CIPET) and the Institute of Hotel Management (a central government unit) in Hajipur.

Rajendra College, Chhapra

The Central University of Bihar (CUB) is one of the sixteen Central Universities newly established by the Government of India under the Central Universities Act, 2009 (Section 25 of 2009). The university is temporarily located on the premises of the Birla Institute of Technology, Patna. The university is likely to be relocated to Panchanpur, approximately 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from Gaya, on 300 acres (120 ha) of land to be transferred soon from the military. On 28 February 2014, Lok Sabha Speaker Meira Kumar laid the foundation stone.

One of India's premier medical institutes – AIIMS Patna – is in Patna. It is affiliated with AIIMS, New Delhi.

Nalanda University was re-established in 2014.

See also[edit]

Wikisource-logo.svg Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Behar". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

References[edit]

  1. ^ "census of india". Census of India 2001. Government of India. 27 May 2002. Archived from the original on 3 April 2007. Retrieved 14 April 2007. 
  2. ^ "Inequality- Adjusted Human Development Index for India's States". UNDP. Retrieved 6 August 2015. 
  3. ^ "Literacy Rate in India". Indiaonlinepages.com. Retrieved 3 August 2016. 
  4. ^ a b c "The Bihar Official Language Act, 1950" (PDF). Cabinet Secretariat Department, Government of Bihar. 1950. Retrieved 9 April 2015. 
  5. ^ a b c Benedikter, Thomas (2009). Language Policy and Linguistic Minorities in India: An Appraisal of the Linguistic Rights of Minorities in India. Münster: LIT Verlag. p. 89. ISBN 9783643102317. Retrieved 10 April 2015. 
  6. ^ "Bihar". Webindia123.com. Retrieved 27 February 2015. 
  7. ^ a b "State Profile". Government of Bihar. Retrieved 17 April 2015. 
  8. ^ "Food riots, anger as floods swamp South Asia". Reuters India. 22 August 2008. 
  9. ^ Dutt, Ashok K. "Jharkhand". Encyclopædia Britannica. 
  10. ^ "At 11.3%, it has the lowest urban population among big states and the second lowest if one counts the small mountainous state of Himachal Pradesh (10%). 2011 census". 
  11. ^ a b Guruswamy, Mohan; Kaul, Abhishek (15 December 2003). "The Economic Strangulation of Bihar" (PDF). New Delhi, India: Centre for Policy Alternatives. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 May 2009. Retrieved 17 August 2015. 
  12. ^ a b Chitransh, Anugya (1 September 2012). "Bhojpuri is not the only language in Bihar". Hill Post. Retrieved 10 April 2015. 
  13. ^ a b Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh, eds. (11 September 2003). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge Language Family Series. Routledge. p. 500. ISBN 978-0415772945. ...the number of speakers of Bihari languages are difficult to indicate because of unreliable sources. In the urban region most educated speakers of the language name Hindi as their language because this is what they use in formal contexts and believe it to be the appropriate response because of lack of awareness. The uneducated and the urban population of the region return Hindi as the generic name for their language. 
  14. ^ Bihar, Past & Present: souvenir, 13th Annual Congress of Epigraphica by P. N. Ojha, Kashi Prasad Jayaswal Research Institute
  15. ^ Mishra Pankaj, The Problem, Seminar 450 – February 1997
  16. ^ "The History of Bihar". Bihar Government. 
  17. ^ "Bihar's 'first' Economic Survey Report tabled". The Times of India. 7 March 2007. Retrieved 22 August 2008. 
  18. ^ Bal Thackeray (5 March 2008). "Biharis an unwanted lot". The Times of India. Retrieved 5 March 2008. 
  19. ^ Wajihuddin, Mohammed (10 August 2008). "'Bihari' has become an abuse". The Times of India. Retrieved 10 August 2008. 
  20. ^ Das, Arvind N. (1992). The Republic of Bihar. New Delhi: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-012351-2. 
  21. ^ a b c Goswami, Urmi A (16 February 2005). "'Bihar Needs an Icon, a person who stands above his caste' (Dr Shaibal Gupta – Rediff Interview)". Rediff. Archived from the original on 20 February 2005. Retrieved 16 February 2005. 
  22. ^ Guruswamy, Mohan; Baitha, Ramnis Attar; Mohanty, Jeevan Prakash (15 June 2004). "Centrally Planned Inequality: The Tale of Two States – Punjab and Bihar" (PDF). New Delhi, India: Centre for Policy Alternatives. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 March 2009. Retrieved 17 August 2015. 
  23. ^ Guruswamy, Mohan; Mohanty, Jeevan Prakash (15 February 2004). "The De-urbanisation of Bihar" (PDF). New Delhi, India: Centre for Policy Alternatives. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 March 2009. Retrieved 17 August 2015. 
  24. ^ Ahmed Farzand and Mishra Subhash, Leaders of Bihar unite to counter Raj Thackeray Archived 7 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine., India Today, 31 October 2008 Archived 7 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine.[dead link]
  25. ^ Gupta, Shaibal. "Bihar: Identity and Development". Asian Development Research Institute, Patna. Archived from the original on 30 March 2005. Retrieved 30 April 2006. 
  26. ^ Phadnis, Aditi (26 July 2008). "Lalu in the red". Business Standard. Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 22 August 2015. 
  27. ^ Goswami, Urmi A (17 June 2008). "Biharis get work at home, bashers realise their worth". The Economic Times. India. Retrieved 17 June 2008. 
  28. ^ Dharma, Supriya; Jha, Abhay Mohan (15 July 2008). "Bihar witnesses a quiet transformation". NDTV. Archived from the original on 18 July 2008. Retrieved 22 August 2015. 
  29. ^ Jha, Abhay Mohan (8 March 2008). "English makes inroads in Bihar villages". NDTV. Archived from the original on 9 March 2008. Retrieved 8 March 2008. 
  30. ^ Minhaj writes that the inhabitants were 100,000 Brahmins.--Bodh Gaya; by Frederick M. Asher; p. 14
  31. ^ Kartar Singh Duggal The Sikh Gurus: their lives and teachings; p. 4; with shaven heads.[clarification needed]
  32. ^ Panth, Rabindra (2007). India's Perception Through Chinese Travellers. Nava Nalanda Mahavihara. p. 61. ISBN 9788188242122. Retrieved 6 March 2015. 
  33. ^ A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms, by Fa-hsien (chapter27)
  34. ^ "The Gupta Period of India". Ushistory.org. Retrieved 2013-11-19. 
  35. ^ Ali, A. Yusuf (1925). The Making of India. A. & C. Black. p. 60. 
  36. ^ The Cambridge Shorter History of India p.145
  37. ^ The Maha-Bodhi By Maha Bodhi Society, Calcutta (page 8)
  38. ^ Smith V. A., Early history of India
  39. ^ Elliot, History of India, Vol 4
  40. ^ Jha, D. N. (9 July 2014). "Grist to the reactionary mill". The Indian Express. Retrieved 3 February 2015. 
  41. ^ "Early Agro based Industries". Bihargatha. 2011. Archived from the original on 10 September 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2015. 
  42. ^ Welcome to Bihar!! | Bihar Diwas 2012 Archived 17 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  43. ^ Madan Kumar (23 March 2016). "Chief Minister thanks NaMo for Bihar Diwas greetings". The Times of India. Retrieved 2 September 2016. 
  44. ^ Brown, Judith Margaret (1972). Gandhi's Rise to Power, Indian Politics 1915–1922: Indian Politics 1915–1922. New Delhi: Cambridge University Press Archive. p. 384. ISBN 978-0-521-09873-1. 
  45. ^ "Eminent Gandhian Dr A N Sinha, First Bihar Deputy CM cum Finance Minister". Indian Post. Retrieved 20 May 2008. 
  46. ^ Bandyopādhyāya, Śekhara (2004). From Plassey to Partition: A History of Modern India. Orient Longman. pp. 406–407. ISBN 978-81-250-2596-2. 
  47. ^ Kumod Verma (14 February 2008). "Scared Biharis arrive from Mumbai". The Times of India. Retrieved 14 February 2008. 
  48. ^ Hussain, Wasbir (11 August 2007). "30 Killed in Northeast Violence in India". Washington Post. Retrieved 25 February 2006. 
  49. ^ "Natural Resources". Government of Bihar. Retrieved 17 April 2015. 
  50. ^ "Forest in Bihar". Forest Ministry of Bihar. 
  51. ^ Valmiki Tiger Reserve[dead link]
  52. ^ "Census Population" (PDF). Census of India. Ministry of Finance India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 December 2008. Retrieved 18 December 2008. 
  53. ^ "States Census 2011". Census 2011. Census2011.co.in. Retrieved 6 June 2016. 
  54. ^ "Census GIS HouseHold". Censusindiamaps.net. Archived from the original on 6 July 2010. Retrieved 15 October 2009. [dead link]
  55. ^ "Female literacy rate leapfrogs to 53 pc in Bihar: Nitish Kumar". Retrieved 27 February 2015. 
  56. ^ "Literacy rate". Censusindia.gov.in. Archived from the original on 13 November 2009. Retrieved 15 October 2009. 
  57. ^ "Urban and Rural Population of India 2011". 
  58. ^ a b "Population by religion community - 2011". Census of India, 2011. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 25 August 2015. 
  59. ^ (2011 Census of India estimate)"India: Bihar". City Population. Thomas Brinkhoff. 25 January 2014. Retrieved 23 February 2015 – via Population Census India. 
  60. ^ "Bihar a byword for worst of India: The Economist". The Indian Express. 25 February 2004. 
  61. ^ "Bihar – Towards a Development Strategy". World Bank. Archived from the original on 6 October 2013. [dead link]
  62. ^ "State Wise Seat Won & Valid Votes Polled by Political Parties" (PDF). Election Commission of India. 
  63. ^ "The Decline of Communist Mass Base in Bihar: Jagannath Sardar". 25 September 2011. 
  64. ^ "Nitish Kumar government orders corrupt official's home to be made into school". Retrieved 27 February 2015. 
  65. ^ NK. "Online News, Information & Entertainment - newkerala.com, India". Archived from the original on 10 May 2013. Retrieved 27 February 2015. [dead link]
  66. ^ "Bihar fixes time for Friday prayers by its employees". The Indian Express. 25 July 2012. 
  67. ^ http://thewire.in/70591/bihar-brings-new-law-alcohol-ban-hc-quashed-old-one/
  68. ^ http://english.pradesh18.com/news/bihar/bihar-witnesses-serious-drop-in-tourism-after-liquor-ban-912876.html
  69. ^ "National Accounts Division : Press release & Statements". Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. Archived from the original on 13 April 2006. Retrieved 16 August 2006. 
  70. ^ "Bihar's economy climbs to $12b by 2005". Specials.rediff.com. 31 March 2009. Retrieved 15 October 2009. 
  71. ^ Das, Anand ST (5 July 2008). "Distressed Delicacy". Tehelka. 5 (26). Retrieved 14 February 2015. 
  72. ^ "Bihar fastest growing state, Maharashtra tops in economic size: Report". dna. 2 December 2015. 
  73. ^ a b [1]
  74. ^ "Bihar posts avg GDP growth rate of 10.5% last decade". Business Standard. 25 February 2016. 
  75. ^ [2]
  76. ^ [3]
  77. ^ "Bihar emerging as brewery hub". Economic Times. 16 January 2012. Retrieved 16 January 2012. 
  78. ^ About Hajipur Industrial Area- Page(2)
  79. ^ "Bihar's debt soars to 77% of GDP". Specials.rediff.com. 31 March 2009. Retrieved 15 October 2009. 
  80. ^ "History". Sisindia.com. 29 July 1993. Archived from the original on 28 February 2009. Retrieved 15 October 2009. 
  81. ^ Ahmad, Faizan (25 August 2008). "Bihar security firm sets foot in Australia". The Times of India. Retrieved 14 February 2015. 
  82. ^ a b Nigam, Aditi (27 April 2008). "For Bihar, P stands for Patna and prosperity". The Financial Express. Retrieved 14 February 2015. 
  83. ^ "Bihar's first IT City to come up at Nalanda : Nitish Kumar". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
  84. ^ "Bihar prepares to be India's 1st Multimedia Hub within 3 Years". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
  85. ^ Singh, Gajendra Narayan (2008) [2002]. Surile Logon Ki Sangat. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers & Distributors. ISBN 9788184570724. 
  86. ^ Singh, Gajendra Narayan (1999). Swargangh. 
  87. ^ "Collections". Padma Shri Gajendra Narayan Singh. Archived from the original on 11 August 2014. 
  88. ^ Jugnu, Haidar Ali. Sati Sulochana - Bhojpuri Birha By Haidar Ali- Jugnu. YouTube. hamaarbhojpuri. Retrieved 25 July 2014. 
  89. ^ Ganga Maiyya Tohe Piyari CharaihboFirst Bhojpuri language film
  90. ^ BhaiyaaFirst Magadhi language film
  91. ^ KanyadanFirst Maithili language film
  92. ^ "Ganga Maiyya Tohe Piyari Chadhaibo (1962)". IMDb. Retrieved 27 February 2015. 
  93. ^ Tripathy, Ratnakar (2007) 'BHOJPURI CINEMA', South Asian Popular Culture, 5:2, 145–165
  94. ^ "For my female audiences, I'll wear a really flimsy dhoti". The Telegraph. Kolkota, India. 14 April 2006. Retrieved 15 October 2009. 
  95. ^ "Move over Bollywood, Here's Bhojpuri". BBC News. 
  96. ^ "Home". Bhojpuri Film Award. Archived from the original on 2 November 2009. Retrieved 15 October 2009. 
  97. ^ "bhojpuricity.com". bhojpuricity.com. Retrieved 15 October 2009. 
  98. ^ Pathak Prabhu Nath,Society and Culture in Early Bihar, Commonwealth Publishers, 1988, p. 140
  99. ^ a b c Ahmad, Qeyamuddin, ed. (1988). Patna Through the Ages: Glimpses of History, Society and Economy. New Delhi: Commonwealth Publishers. 
  100. ^ Rajendra Abhinandan Granth, "Nagri Pracharini Sabha", Arrah, 3 March 1950, pp. 353
  101. ^ Kumar, Nagendra (1971). Journalism in Bihar: A Supplement to Bihar State Gazette. Government of Bihar, Gazetteers Branch. p. 28. Retrieved 17 April 2015. 
  102. ^ Bihar ki Sahityik Pragati, Bihar Hindi Sahitya Sammelan, Patna 1956, p. 73
  103. ^ Jayanti Smarak Granth, pp. 583–585
  104. ^ Yang, Anand A (1998). Bazaar India: Markets, Society, and the Colonial State in Gangetic Bihar. ISBN 978-0-520-21100-1. Retrieved 15 October 2009. 
  105. ^ a b Statics Tourism in Bihar on Indian Government's website Archived 22 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  106. ^ Wriggins, Sally Hovey. Xuanzang: A Buddhist Pilgrim on the Silk Road. Westview Press, 1996. Revised and updated as The Silk Road Journey With Xuanzang. Westview Press, 2003. ISBN 0-8133-6599-6.
  107. ^ A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms: Being an account by the Chinese Monk Fa-Hien of his travels in India and Ceylon (A.D. 399–414) in search of the Buddhist Books of Discipline. Oxford, Clarendon Press. Reprint: New York, Paragon Book Reprint Corp. 1965. ISBN 0-486-21344-7 Archived 24 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  108. ^ Altekar, Anant Sadashiv (1965). Education in Ancient India, Sixth, Varanasi: Nand Kishore & Bros.
  109. ^ Scott, David (May 1995). "Buddhism and Islam: Past to Present Encounters and Interfaith Lessons". Numen. 42 (2): 141. doi:10.1163/1568527952598657. JSTOR 3270172. 
  110. ^ "Profile of Patna University". Patna University. Retrieved 14 April 2015. 
  111. ^ "Census Statistics for Bihar". Gov.bih.nic.in. Retrieved 15 October 2009. 
  112. ^ Pratham.org | Pratham – A Network of Societal Missions to Achieve Universal Primary Education in India Archived 14 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
  113. ^ "National Employability Report - Engineers, Annual Report 2014" (PDF). www.aspiringminds.com. www.aspiringminds.com. p. 22. Retrieved 2 September 2016. 
  114. ^ "Delhi, Bihar produce top engineers in India: Report". The Times Of India. 
  115. ^ "Parents want wards to go for tech education outside Bihar". Times of India. 11 December 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2013. 
  116. ^ "CM inaugurates new engineering college at Chhapra". The Times Of India. 26 December 2012. Retrieved 26 December 2012. 
  117. ^ "7th engineering college of state to open in July". Times of India. 8 November 2011. Retrieved 11 November 2011. 
  118. ^ "CM lays foundation of engineering college". Times of India. 23 December 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013. 
  119. ^ "Nitish lists special tag cry as LS poll plank". Calcutta, India: The Telegraph. 23 December 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013. 
  120. ^ "Shortage of engineering colleges in Bihar". Times of India. 6 January 2012. Retrieved 6 January 2012. 
  121. ^ "New engineering colleges, polytechs to get impetus soon". Times of India. 26 December 2011. Retrieved 26 December 2011. 
  122. ^ Jha, Abhay Mohan (4 August 2008). "Brand new IIT in Patna impresses all". NDTV. Archived from the original on 7 August 2008. Retrieved 4 August 2008. 
  123. ^ Netaji Subhash Institute of Technology (Nsit), Netaji Subhash Institute of Technology (Nsit) Address, Admission, Netaji Subhash Institute of Technology (Nsit) Courses, Ranking...
  124. ^ "Welcome to Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology - Bihta, Patna". Retrieved 27 February 2015. 
  125. ^ NITPU Chandigarh. "National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, S.A.S. Nagar". Niper.ac.in. Retrieved 15 October 2009. 
  126. ^ NIFT starts classes in Patna Archived 11 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.[dead link]
  127. ^ "Premier Research Institute: ANSISS". Official website. 
  128. ^ "Bihar Knowledge Center". 2008. Archived from the original on 28 April 2009. Retrieved 3 August 2016. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Radhakanta Barik – Land & Caste Politics in Bihar (Shipra Publications, Delhi, 2006)

External links[edit]

Government
General information