Location of Bihar in India
|Coordinates (Patna): Coordinates:|
|Formation||22 March 1912|
|Statehood||26 January 1950|
|• Governor||Lal Ji Tandon|
|• Chief Minister||Nitish Kumar (JD(U))|
|• Deputy Chief Minister||Sushil Kumar Modi (BJP)|
|• Legislature||Bicameral |
Legislative Council 75
Legislative Assembly 243
|• High Court||Patna High Court|
|• Total||94,163 km2 (36,357 sq mi)|
|• Density||1,102/km2 (2,850/sq mi)|
|• Major Ethnolinguistic Groups||Bhojpuris, Maithils, Magahis|
|• Total||₹5.15 lakh crore (US$74 billion)|
|• Per capita||₹49,673 (US$720)|
|• Other recognised||Maithili (recognised under the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India), Urdu (in 15 districts)|
|Time zone||UTC+05:30 (IST)|
|ISO 3166 code||IN-BR|
|HDI (2017)||0.566 (medium) · 29th|
|Sex ratio (2011)||918 ♀/1000 ♂|
Bihar (//; Hindi pronunciation: [bɪˈɦaːr] (listen)) is a state in eastern India. It is the thirteenth-largest Indian state, with an area of 94,163 km2 (36,357 sq mi). The third-largest state by population, it is contiguous with Uttar Pradesh to its west, Nepal to the north, the northern part of West Bengal to the east, with Jharkhand to the south. The Bihar plain is split by the river Ganges, which flows from west to east. Three main regions converge in the state: Magadh, Mithila, and Bhojpur.
On 15 November 2000, southern Bihar was ceded to form the new state of Jharkhand. Only 11.3% of the population of Bihar lives in urban areas, which is the lowest in India after Himachal Pradesh. Additionally, almost 58% of Biharis are below the age of 25, giving Bihar the highest proportion of young people of any Indian state.
In ancient and classical India, the area that is now Bihar was considered a centre of power, learning, and culture. From Magadha arose India's first empire, the Maurya empire, as well as one of the world's most widely adhered-to religions, Buddhism. Magadha empires, notably under the Maurya and Gupta dynasties, unified large parts of South Asia under a central rule. Another region of Bihar is Mithila which was an early centre of learning and the centre of the Videha kingdom.
Since the late 1970s, Bihar has lagged far behind other Indian states in terms of social and economic development. Many economists and social scientists claim that this is a direct result of the policies of the central government, such as the Freight equalisation policy, its apathy towards Bihar, lack of Bihari sub-nationalism, and the Permanent Settlement of 1793 by the British East India Company. The state government has, however, made significant strides in developing the state. Improved governance has led to an economic revival in the state through increased investment in infrastructure, better health care facilities, greater emphasis on education, and a reduction in crime and corruption.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography and climate
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Government and administration
- 6 Public Health
- 7 Economy
- 8 Culture
- 9 Religion
- 10 Media
- 11 Transport
- 12 Tourism
- 13 Education
- 14 See also
- 15 References
- 16 Further reading
- 17 External links
The name Bihar is derived from the Sanskrit and Pali word vihāra (Devanagari: विहार), meaning "abode". The region roughly encompassing the present state was dotted with Buddhist vihara, the abodes of Buddhist monks in the ancient and medieval periods. Medieval writer Minhaj al-Siraj Juzjani records in the Tabaqat-i Nasiri that in 1198 Bakhtiyar Khalji committed a massacre in a town identified with the word, later known as Bihar Sharif, about 70 km away from Bodh Gaya.
Chirand, on the northern bank of the Ganga River, in Saran district, has an archaeological record from the Neolithic age (about 2500–1345 BC). Regions of Bihar—such as Magadha, Mithila and Anga—are mentioned in religious texts and epics of ancient India.
Mithila gained prominence after the establishment of the Videha Kingdom in ancient India. During the late Vedic period (c. 1100-500 BCE), Videha became one of the major political and cultural centers of South Asia, along with Kuru and Pañcāla. The kings of the Videha Kingdom were called Janakas. Sita, a daughter of one of the Janaks of Mithila is mentioned as the consort of Lord Rama, in the Hindu epic, Ramayana, written by Valmiki.[page needed] The Videha Kingdom later became incorporated into the Vajji confederacy which had its capital in the city of Vaishali, which is also in Mithila. Vajji had a republican form of government where the king was elected from the number of rajas. Based on the information found in texts pertaining to Jainism and Buddhism, Vajji was established as a republic by the 6th century BCE, before the birth of Gautama Buddha in 563 BCE, making it the first known republic in India.
The Haryanka dynasty, founded in 684 BC, ruled Magadha from the city of Rajgriha (modern Rajgir). The two well-known kings from this dynasty were Bimbisara and his son Ajatashatru, who imprisoned his father to ascend the throne. Ajatashatru founded the city of Pataliputra which later became the capital of Magadha. He declared war and conquered the Vajji. The Haryanka dynasty was followed by the Shishunaga dynasty. Later the Nanda Dynasty ruled a vast tract stretching from Bengal to Punjab.
The Nanda dynasty was replaced by the Maurya Empire, India's first empire. The Maurya Empire and the religion of Buddhism arose in the region that now makes up modern Bihar. The Mauryan Empire, which originated from Magadha in 325 BC, was founded by Chandragupta Maurya, who was born in Magadha. It had its capital at Pataliputra (modern Patna). The Mauryan emperor, Ashoka, who was born in Pataliputra (Patna) is believed to be one of the greatest rulers in the history of the world.
The Gupta Empire, which originated in Magadha in 240 AD, is referred as the Golden Age of India in science, mathematics, astronomy, commerce, religion, and Indian philosophy. Bihar and Bengal was invaded by Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynasty in the 11th century.
Buddhism in Magadha went into decline due to the invasion of Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji, during which many of the viharas and the famed universities of Nalanda and Vikramashila were destroyed. It was claimed that thousands of Buddhist monks were massacred during the 12th century. D. N. Jha suggests, instead, that these incidents were the result of Buddhist-Brahmin skirmishes in a fight for supremacy. After fall of Pala Empire, Chero dynasty ruled some parts of Bihar from 12th century to 16th century till Mughal rule. In 1540, the great Pathan chieftain, Sher Shah Suri, from Sasaram, took northern India from the Mughals, defeating the Mughal army of Emperor Humayun. Sher Shah declared Delhi his capital.
From the 11th century to the 20th century, Mithila was ruled by various indigenous dynasties. The first of these were the Karnatas, followed by the Oiniwar dynasty and finally Raj Darbhanga. It was during this period that the capital of Mithila was shifted to Darbhanga.
After the Battle of Buxar (1764), the British East India Company obtained the diwani rights (rights to administer, and collect revenue or tax) for Bihar, Bengal and Odisha. The rich resources of fertile land, water and skilled labour had attracted the foreign imperialists, particularly the Dutch and British, in the 18th century. A number of agriculture-based industries had been started in Bihar by foreign entrepreneurs. Bihar remained a part of the Bengal Presidency of British India until 1912, when the province of Bihar and Orissa was carved out as a separate province. Since 2010, Bihar has celebrated its birthday as Bihar Diwas on 22 March.
Pre- and post-Independence
Farmers in Champaran had revolted against indigo cultivation in 1914 (at Pipra) and 1916 (Turkaulia). In April 1917, Mahatma Gandhi visited Champaran, where Raj Kumar Shukla had drawn his attention to the exploitation of the peasants by European indigo planters. The Champaran Satyagraha that followed received support from many Bihari nationalists, such as Rajendra Prasad and Anugrah Narayan Sinha.
In the northern and central regions of Bihar, the Kisan Sabha (peasant movement) was an important consequence of the independence movement. It began in 1929 under the leadership of Swami Sahajanand Saraswati who formed the Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha (BPKS), to mobilise peasant grievances against the zamindari attacks on their occupancy rights. The movement intensified and spread from Bihar across the rest of India, culminating in the formation of the All India Kisan Sabha (AIKS) at the Lucknow session of the Indian National Congress in April 1936, where Saraswati was elected as its first president.
Geography and climate
|Avg. temperature||27 °C (81 °F)|
|• Summer||34 °C (93 °F)|
|• Winter||10 °C (50 °F)|
|Precipitation||1,200 mm (47 in)|
Bihar has a diverse climate. Its temperature is subtropical in general, with hot summers and cold winters. Bihar is a vast stretch of fertile plain. It is drained by the Ganges River, including its northern tributaries Gandak and Koshi, originating in the Nepal Himalayas and the Bagmati originating in the Kathmandu Valley that regularly flood parts of the Bihar plains. The total area covered by the state of Bihar is 94,163 km2 (36,357 sq mi). the state is located between 24°-20'-10" N ~ 27°-31'-15" N latitude and between 83°-19'-50" E ~ 88°-17'-40" E longitude. Its average elevation above sea level is 173 feet (53 m).
The Ganges divides Bihar into two unequal halves and flows through the middle from west to east. Other Ganges tributaries are the Son, Budhi Gandak, Chandan, Orhani and Phalgu. Though the Himalayas begin at the foothills, a short distance inside Nepal and to the north of Bihar, the mountains influence Bihar's landforms, climate, hydrology and culture. Central parts of Bihar have some small hills, for example, the Rajgir hills. To the south is the Chota Nagpur plateau, which was part of Bihar until 2000 but now is part of a separate state called Jharkhand.
Flora and fauna
Bihar has notified forest area of 6,764.14 km2 (2,612 sq mi), which is 7.2% of its geographical area.[not in citation given] The sub Himalayan foothill of Someshwar and the Dun ranges in the Champaran district are another belt of moist deciduous forests. These also consist of scrub, grass and reeds. Here the rainfall is above 1,600 millimetres (63 in) and thus promotes luxuriant Sal forests in the area. The most important trees are Shorea Robusta, Sal Cedrela Toona, Khair, and Semal. Deciduous forests also occur in the Saharsa and Purnia districts. Shorea robusta (sal), Diospyros melanoxylon (kendu), Boswellia serrata (salai), Terminalia tomentose (asan), Terminalia bellerica (bahera), Terminalia Arjuna (arjun), Pterocarpus marsupium (paisar), Madhuca indica (mahua) are the common flora across the forest of Bihar.
Valmiki National Park, West Champaran district, covering about 800 km2 (309 sq mi) of forest, is the 18th Tiger Reserve of India and is ranked fourth in terms of density of tiger population. It has a diverse landscape, sheltering rich wildlife habitats and floral and faunal composition, along with the prime protected carnivores.
|Source:Census of India|
After the 2011 Census, Bihar was the third most populous state of India with total population of 104,099,452 (54,278,157 male and 49,821,295 female). Nearly 89% of Bihar's population lived in rural areas. The density was 1,106. The sex ratio was 918 females per 1000 males. Almost 58% of Bihar's population was below 25 years age, which is the highest in India. Most of Bihar's population belongs to Indo-Aryan-speaking ethnic groups along with few Dravidian-speaking and Austroasiatic-speaking people mostly in Chhotanagpur Plateau (now part of Jharkhand). It also attracted Punjabi Hindu refugees during the Partition of British India in 1947. Bihar has a total literacy rate of 63.82% (73.39% for males and 53.33% for females), recording a growth of 20% in female literacy over the period of a decade.
At 11.3%, Bihar has the second lowest urbanisation rate in India. As of the 2011 census[update], population density surpassed 1,000 per square kilometre, making Bihar India's most densely-populated state, but still lower than West Java or Banten of Indonesia.
Government and administration
The constitutional head of the government of Bihar is the governor, who is appointed by the President of India. The real executive power rests with the chief minister and the cabinet. The political party or the coalition of political parties having a majority in the Legislative Assembly forms the government.
The head of the bureaucracy of the state is the chief secretary. Under this position, is a hierarchy of officials drawn from the Indian Administrative Service, Indian Police Service, Indian Forest Service, and different wings of the state civil services. The judiciary is headed by the Chief Justice. Bihar has a High Court which has been functioning since 1916. All the branches of the government are located in the state capital, Patna.
- See also: Political parties in Bihar, Elections in Bihar and List of politicians from Bihar; Bihar Legislative Assembly election, 2015
By 2004, 14 years after Lalu Prasad Yadav's victory, The Economist magazine said that "Bihar [had] become a byword for the worst of India, of widespread and inescapable poverty, of corrupt politicians indistinguishable from mafia-dons they patronise, caste-ridden social order that has retained the worst feudal cruelties". In 2005, the World Bank believed that issues faced by the state were "enormous" because of "persistent poverty, complex social stratification, unsatisfactory infrastructure and weak governance". Currently, there are two main political formations: the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) which comprises Bharatiya Janata Party, Lok Janashakti Party, Rashtriya Lok Samta Party, Hindustani Awam Morcha and JD(U) (Joined recently after breaking the Grand Alliance with RJD and INC), Second is alliance between RJD and Indian National Congress. There are many other political formations. The Communist Party of India had a strong presence in Bihar at one time, but is weakened now. The CPM and Forward Bloc have a minor presence, along with the other extreme Left.
In contrast to prior governments, which emphasised divisions of caste and religion, Nitish Kumar's manifesto was based on economic development, curbs on crime and corruption and greater social equality for all sections of society. Since 2010, the government has confiscated the properties of corrupt officials and redeployed them as schools buildings. Simultaneously they introduced Bihar Special Court Act to curb crime. It has also legislated for a two-hour break on Fridays, including lunch, to enable Muslim employees to pray and thus cut down on post-lunch absenteeism by them. The government has prohibited the sale and consumption of alcohol in the state since March 2016; this ban has been linked to a drop in tourism to Bihar.
In Bihar, attempts have been made to establish a well-functioning department of public health. National efforts like the National Health Mission, the Clinical Establishments Act of 2010, and the formation of the Empowered Action Group (EAG) catalyze the disbursement of federal funds by expanding healthcare access and improving the quality of healthcare services to states in need. However, Bihar's ability to fully utilize this funding is lacking. Bihar's health care system has the appropriate policies in place to allow for the implementation of comprehensive healthcare treatment. However, it is in the execution and management of the funding and services where it falls behind. Overall, the lack of consistent monitoring tools for policy evaluation explain why a strategic, evidence based public health system has been slow to take root in the state of Bihar. Consequently, Bihar generally ranks weakest in health outcomes in comparison to other Indian states and even among its EAG counterparts.
Research indicates that Bihar relies on privatized hospitals to provide healthcare to the masses, it has high levels of unacknowledged corruption and also implements a vertical system of disease management. In fact, the ratio of private spending on health care relative to public spending in Bihar is the second highest in India. These factors have been found to be associated with slower healthcare delivery and a higher degree of economic burden as a consequence of steep healthcare costs. Much of this is because Bihar lacks in the continuity and transparency of health reporting as required by the Clinical Establishments Act of 2010. In turn, this prevents the government from making evidence based conclusions about policy changes and hospital effectiveness. Rather, Bihar's health department displays patterns of ill-informed spending, inconsistent hiring, and erratic spending on healthcare infrastructure.
For example, according to the Government of India's "Ministry of Health & Family Welfare Health and Family Welfare Census Data 2008-2015", the number of healthcare professionals including registered nurses, auxiliary nurses, physicians and health supervisors at each hospital in Bihar have remained significantly lower compared to those working in Kerala, and do not seem to follow any sort of pattern. Rather, its number of registered healthcare professionals remains constant over time. Compared to Bihar, we see that Kerala's number of registered healthcare professionals consistently increase over time. According to “Rural Health Statistics 2015”, the greatest shortfalls exist among physicians and specialists across the state at least 75%. This extends to the number of actual health centers across Bihar as well, as it only has 50% of the sub-health centers, 60% of the primary health centers, and a mere 9% of the community health centers it needs based on the national government's supply to population norms. At a closer look, the number of hospital beds that Bihar includes in each government-run hospital actually decreased between 2008 and 2015, compared to the consistently increasing number of hospital beds in government-run Kerala hospitals. Given the population of Bihar (population: 99 million) is much denser than Kerala (population: 35 million), these numbers suggest that Bihar is significantly behind in the number of healthcare professionals that should be employed within the state. It is likely that because there is a lack of data reporting, analysis and evaluation within Bihar that these trends exist.
Despite these shortcomings, Bihar has shown gradual signs of public health improvement in a few areas. There is indeed a shortage of skilled healthcare professionals, but Bihar still benefits from a surplus of female health workers compared to male health workers. In terms of key impact indicators, between 2010 and 2013, the crude birth rate decreased by 2.3%, crude death rate decreased by 5.6%, infant mortality rate decreased by 12.7%, neo-natal mortality rate decreased by 8.6%, under 5 mortality rate decreased by 9.1%, and maternal mortality ratio decreased by 10.2%.
It would suit Bihar well to continue to adapt common cost effective practices to strengthen their health systems data measurement and research. Research has shown that the implementation of patient and caregiver surveys, exit interviews at health centers, vignettes, and audit studies are simple methods of bolstering reporting and evaluation in lower income areas such as Bihar.
|Year||Gross State Domestic Product|
(millions of Indian Rupees)
Gross state domestic product of Bihar for the year 2013/2014 has been around 3683.37 billion INR. By sectors, its composition is:
- Agriculture = 22%
- Industry = 5%
- Services = 73%.
Bihar is the fastest growing state in terms of gross state domestic product (GSDP), clocking a growth rate of 17.06% in FY 2014–15. The economy of Bihar was projected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 13.4% during 2012–2017, i.e. the 12th Five-Year Plan. Bihar has witnessed strong growth in per capita net state domestic product (NSDP). At current prices, per capita NSDP of the state grew at a CAGR of 12.91 per cent during 2004–05 to 2014–15. Bihar's per capita income went up by 40.6 per cent in the financial year 2014–15.
Bihar is the fourth-largest producer of vegetables and the eighth-largest producer of fruits in India. Bihar has high agricultural production making it one of the strongest sectors of the state. About 80 percent of the state's population is employed in agriculture, which is higher as compared to India's average. The main agricultural products produced in Bihar are litchi, guava, mango, pineapple, brinjal, lady's finger, cauliflower, cabbage, rice, wheat and sugarcane, and sunflower. Though good soil and favourable climatic conditions such as good rainfall favour agriculture, it has to encounter flood threat as well, which may drain off the fertile soil, if not conserved properly. The state (mostly southern parts) faces droughts almost every year affecting production of crops such as paddy.
Prior to prohibition, Bihar emerged as a brewery hub with major domestic and foreign firms setting up production units in the state. In August 2018, United Breweries Limited announced it would begin production of non-alcoholic beer at its previously defunct brewery in Bihar.
The state's debt was estimated at 77% of GDP by 2007. The Finance Ministry has given top priority to create investment opportunities for big industrial houses like Reliance Industries. Further developments have taken place in the growth of small industries, improvements in IT infrastructure, the new software park in Patna, Darbhanga, Bhagalpur and the completion of the expressway from the Purvanchal border through Bihar to Jharkhand. In August 2008, a Patna registered company called the Security and Intelligence Services (SIS) India Limited took over the Australian guard and mobile patrol services business of American conglomerate, United Technologies Corporation (UTC). SIS is registered and taxed in Bihar. The capital city, Patna, is one of the better-off cities in India when measured by per capita income.^ The State Government is setting up an Information Technology (IT) City at Rajgir in Nalanda district. Additionally, India's first Media Hub is also proposed to be set up in Bihar.
In terms of income, the districts of Patna, Munger, and Begusarai were the three best-off out of a total of 38 districts in the state, recording the highest per capita gross district domestic product of ₹31,441, ₹10,087 and ₹9,312, respectively, in 2004–05.
Language and literature
Hindi is the official language of the state. Urdu is the second official language in 15 districts of the state. Maithili (including its dialect Bajjika), Bhojpuri, Angika and Magahi are also widely spoken in the state. Maithili is a recognised regional language of India under the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India. Proponents are calling for Bhojpuri and Magahi to receive the same status.
There are several traditional styles of painting practiced in Bihar. One is Mithila painting, a style of Indian painting used in the Mithila region of Bihar. Traditionally, the painting was one of the skills that was passed down from generation to generation in the families of the Mithila region, mainly by women. Painting was usually done on walls during festivals, religious events, and other milestones of the life cycle, like birth, Upanayanam (the sacred thread ceremony), and marriage.
Mithila painting was traditionally done on huts' freshly plastered mud walls, but today it is also done on cloth, handmade paper, and canvas. Famous Mithila painters have included Smt Bharti Dayal, Mahasundari Devi, the late Ganga Devi, and Sita Devi.
Mithila painting is also called Madhubani art. It mostly depicts human beings and their association with nature. Common scenes illustrate deities like Krishna, Ram, Shiva, Durga, Lakshmi, and Saraswati from ancient epics. Natural objects like the sun, moon, and religious plants like Tulsi are also widely painted, along with scenes from the royal court and social events like weddings. Generally, no space is left empty.
Historically, the Patna School of Painting (Patna Salaam), sometimes called Company Painting, flourished in Bihar during the early 18th to mid-20th centuries. The Patna School of Painting was an offshoot of the well-known Mughal Miniature School of Painting. Those who practiced this art form were descendants of Hindu artisans of Mughal painting. Facing persecution from the Mughal Emperor, Aurangzeb, these artisans found refuge, via Murshidabad, in Patna during the late 18th century. Their art shared the characteristics of the Mughal painters, but whereas the Mughal style depicted only royalty and court scenes, the Patna artists also started painting bazaar scenes. They used watercolours on paper and on mica. The style's subject matter evolved to include scenes of Indian daily life, local rulers, festivals, and ceremonies. This school of painting formed the basis for the formation of the Patna Art School under the leadership of Shri Radha Mohan. The School is an important center of fine arts in Bihar.
Bihar has produced musicians like Bharat Ratna Ustad Bismillah Khan and dhrupad singers like the Malliks (Darbhanga Gharana) and the Mishras (Bettiah Gharana) along with poets like Vidyapati Thakur who contributed to Maithili Music. The classical music in Bihar is a form of the Hindustani classical music. Gaya is another centre of excellence in classical music, particularly of the Tappa and Thumri varieties. Pandit Govardhan Mishra – son of the Ram Prasad Mishra, himself an accomplished singer – is perhaps the finest living exponent of Tappa singing in India today, according to Padma Shri Gajendra Narayan Singh, founding secretary of the Sangeet Natak Academi of Bihar. Gajendra Narayan Singh also writes, in his memoir, that Champanagar, Banaili, was another major centre of classical music. Rajkumar Shyamanand Sinha of Champanagar, Banaili princely state, was a great patron of music and was himself one of the finest exponents of classical vocal music in Bihar in his time. Singh, in another book on Indian classical music, has written that "Kumar Shyamanand Singh of Banaili estate had such expertise in singing that many great singers including Kesarbai Kerkar acknowledged his ability. After listening to bandishes from Kumar Sahib, Pandit Jasraj was moved to tears and lamented that, alas, he did not have such ability himself." [free translation of Hindi text].
During the 19th century, when the condition of Bihar worsened under the British misrule, many Biharis had to emigrate as indentured labourers to the West Indies, Fiji, and Mauritius. During this time many sad plays and songs called birha became popular, in the Bhojpur region, thus Bhojpuri Birha. Dramas incorporating this theme continue to be popular in the theatres of Patna.[better source needed]
Magahi folk singers
Bihar has a robust Bhojpuri-language film industry. There is also a smaller production of Magadhi-, Maithili-, as well as Angika-language films. The first film with Bhojpuri dialogue was Ganga Jamuna, released in 1961. Bhaiyaa, the first Magadhi film, was released in 1961. The first Maithili movie was Kanyadan released in 1965. Maithili film Mithila Makhaan won the National Film Award for Best Maithili Film in 2016. The history of films entirely in Bhojpuri begins in 1962 with the well-received film Ganga Maiyya Tohe Piyari Chadhaibo ("Mother Ganges, I will offer you a yellow sari"), which was directed by Kundan Kumar. 1963's Lagi nahin chute ram was the all-time hit Bhojpuri film, and had higher attendance than Mughal-e-Azam in the eastern and northern regions of India. Bollywood's Nadiya Ke Paar is another of the most famous Bhojpuri-language movies. However, in the following years, films were produced only in fits and starts. Films such as Bidesiya ("Foreigner", 1963, directed by S. N. Tripathi) and Ganga ("Ganges", 1965, directed by Kundan Kumar) were profitable and popular, but in general Bhojpuri films were not commonly produced in the 1960s and 1970s.
In the 1980s, enough Bhojpuri films were produced to tentatively support a dedicated industry. Films such as Mai ("Mom", 1989, directed by Rajkumar Sharma) and Hamar Bhauji ("My Brother's Wife", 1983, directed by Kalpataru) continued to have at least sporadic success at the box office. However, this trend faded out by the end of the decade, and by 1990, the nascent industry seemed to be completely finished.
The Bhojpuri film industry took off again in 2001 with the super hit Saiyyan Hamar ("My Sweetheart", directed by Mohan Prasad), which vaulted the hero of that film, Ravi Kishan, to superstardom. This success was quickly followed by several other remarkably successful films, including Panditji Batai Na Biyah Kab Hoi ("Priest, tell me when I will marry", 2005, directed by Mohan Prasad) and Sasura Bada Paisa Wala ("My father-in-law, the rich guy", 2005). In a measure of the Bhojpuri film industry's rise, both of these did much better business in the states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar than mainstream Bollywood hits at the time, and both films, made on extremely tight budgets, earned back more than ten times their production costs. Sasura Bada Paisa Wala also introduced Manoj Tiwari, formerly a well-loved folk singer, to the wider audiences of Bhojpuri cinema. The success of Ravi Kishan & Manoj Tiwari's films has led to a dramatic increase in Bhojpuri cinema's visibility, and the industry now supports an awards show and a trade magazine, Bhojpuri City, which chronicles the production and release of what are now over one hundred films per year.
Hindu Goddess Sita, the consort of Lord Rama is believed to be born in Sitamarhi district in the Mithila region of modern-day Bihar. Gautama Buddha attained Enlightenment at Bodh Gaya, a town located in the modern day district of Gaya in Bihar. Vasupujya, the 12th Jain Tirthankara was born in Champapuri, Bhagalpur. Vardhamana Mahavira, the 24th and the last Tirthankara of Jainism, was born in Vaishali around the 6th century BC.
Biharbandhu was the first Hindi newspaper published in Bihar. It was started in 1872 by Madan Mohan Bhatta, a Marathi Brahman who settled in Bihar Sharif. Hindi journalism in Bihar, and specially Patna, could make little headway initially. Many Hindi journals were born and, after a lapse of time, vanished. Many journals were shelved even in the planning stages. But once Hindi had the support of being an official language, it started making inroads, even into the remote areas of Bihar. Hindi journalism acquired wisdom and maturity, and its longevity was assured. Hindi was introduced in the law courts in Bihar in 1880.
Urdu journalism and poetry has a glorious past in Bihar. Many poets belong to Bihar, such as Shaad Azimabadi, Kaif Azimabadi, and Kalim Ajiz. Shanurahman, a world-famous radio announcer, is from Bihar. Many Urdu dailies— such as Qomi Tanzim and Sahara—are published in Bihar. There is a monthly Urdu magazine called Voice of Bihar – which is the first of its kind and is becoming popular among the Urdu speaking people.
The beginning of the 20th century was marked by a number of notable new publications. A monthly magazine named Bharat Ratna was started in Patna, in 1901. It was followed by Ksahtriya Hitaishi, Aryavarta from Dinapure, Udyoga, and Chaitanya Chandrika. Udyog was edited by Vijyaanand Tripathy, a famous poet of the time, and Chaitanya Chandrika by Krishna Chaitanya Goswami, a literary figure of that time. The literary activity was not confined to Patna alone but to other districts of Bihar.
Hindustan, Dainik Jagran, Rajasthan Patrika, Aaj, and Prabhat Khabar are some of the Hindi newspapers of Bihar. National English dailies like The Times of India, Hindustan Times, Navbharat Times, The Telegraph, and The Economic Times have readers in the urban regions.
Bihar has three operational airports: Lok Nayak Jayaprakash Airport, Patna; Gaya Airport; and Purnea Airport. The Patna airport is categorised as a restricted international airport, with customs facilities to receive international chartered flights. Gaya airport is a full-fledged operational airport handling domestic as well as international flights from Buddhist countries. An airport at Muzaffarpur is under construction. Darbhanga Airport is scheduled to start operation in under UDAN 2 scheme.
The Ganges – navigable throughout the year – was the principal river highway across the vast north Indo-Gangetic Plain. Vessels capable of accommodating five hundred merchants were known to ply this river in the ancient period; it served as a conduit for overseas trade, as goods were carried from Pataliputra (later Patna) and Champa (later Bhagalpur) out to the seas and to ports in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. The role of the Ganges as a channel for trade was enhanced by its natural links – it embraces all the major rivers and streams in both north and south Bihar.
The culture and heritage of Bihar can be observed from the large number of ancient monuments spread throughout the state. Bihar is visited by many tourists from around the world, with about 24,000,000 (24 million) tourists visiting the state each year.
Sabhyata Dwar in Patna
Historically, Bihar has been a major centre of learning, home to the ancient universities of Nalanda (established in 450 CE), Odantapurā (established in 550CE) and Vikramashila (established in 783 CE). This tradition of learning may have been stultified during the period of Turkic invasions, c. 1000 CE, at which point it is believed major education centres, maintained by reclusive communities of Buddhist monks removed from the local populace, were suppressed by the Turkic raids originating from central Asia .
Bihar saw a revival of its education system during the later part of the British rule, when Patna University, the seventh oldest university of the Indian subcontinent, was established in 1917. Some other centres of high learning established under British rule are Patna College (established 1839), Bihar School of Engineering (1900; now known as National Institute of Technology, Patna), Prince of Wales Medical College (1925; now Patna Medical College and Hospital), Science College, Patna (1928), and Patna Women's College, among others.
A recent survey by Pratham rated the receptivity of Bihari children to their teaching as being better than those in other states. Bihar is striving to increase female literacy, now at 53.3%, as the government establishes educational institutions. At the time of independence, women's literacy in Bihar was 4.22%.
Bihar has a National Institute of Technology (NIT) and an Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) in Patna. The National Employability Report of Engineering Graduates, 2014 puts graduates from Bihar in the top 25 percent of the country, and rating Bihar as one of the three top states at producing engineering graduates in terms of quality and employability.
As of December 2013, there are seven government engineering colleges in the public sector, and 12 engineering colleges in the private sector, in Bihar, besides government-aided BIT Patna and Women's Institute of Technology, Darbhanga. The overall annual intake of students of these technical institutes in Bihar is only 6,200.
In Bihar, government colleges are located at Muzaffarpur, Bhagalpur, Gaya, Darbhanga, Motihari, Nalanda, and Saran (Chhapra). All institutes are recognised by All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), affiliated with Aryabhatta Knowledge University (AKU). As it is, the foundation stone of the eighth engineering college of the state government, Ramdhari Singh Dinkar Engineering College, was laid on 22 December 2013 at Begusarai, while the process of creating the infrastructure for two new engineering colleges – one each at Madhepura and Sitamarhi – has started.
NIT Patna is the second oldest engineering college of India. Its origin can be traced to 1886, with the establishment of a survey training school, subsequently renamed Bihar College of Engineering in 1932. In 2004, the government of India upgraded the college to National Institute of Technology (NIT) status. In 2007, NIT Patna was granted Institute of National Importance status, in accordance with the National Institutes of Technology Act, 2007.
Bihar established several new educational institutes between 2006 and 2008. BIT Mesra started its Patna extension centre in September 2006. On 8 August 2008, Indian Institutes of Technology Patna was inaugurated with students from all over India In 2008, NSIT opened its new college in Bihta, which is now emerging as an education hub. BCE, Bhagalpur, MIT, Muzaffarpur, and the National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Hajipur (NIPER) are in Bihar. On 4 August 2008, National Institute of Fashion Technology Patna was established as the ninth such institute in India. Chanakya National Law University and Chandragupt Institute of Management were established in the later half of 2008. Steps are being taken to revive the ancient Nalanda Mahavihara as Nalanda International University. Countries such as Japan, Korea, and China have also taken initiatives. The A.N. Sinha Institute of Social Studies is a premier research institute in the state.
Bihar e-Governance Services & Technologies (BeST) and the Government of Bihar have initiated a unique program to establish a centre of excellence called Bihar Knowledge Center, a finishing school to equip students with the latest skills and customised short-term training programs at an affordable cost. The centre aims to attract the youth of the state to improve their technical, professional, and soft skills, to meet the current requirements of the industrial job market.
Bihar has the Central Institute of Plastic Engineering & Technology (CIPET) and the Institute of Hotel Management (a central government unit) in Hajipur.
The Central University of Bihar (CUB) is one of the sixteen central universities newly established by the Government of India under the Central Universities Act, 2009 (Section 25 of 2009). The university is temporarily located on the premises of the Birla Institute of Technology, Patna. The university is likely to be relocated to Panchanpur, approximately 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from Gaya, on 300 acres (120 ha) of land to be transferred soon from the military. On 28 February 2014, Lok Sabha Speaker Meira Kumar laid the foundation stone.
Nalanda University was re-established in 2014.
The Indian Institute of Management Bodh Gaya was established in 2015.
The Indian Institute of Information Technology, Bhagalpur, was established in 2017.
|Bhojpuri edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
|Maithili edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
- Bihar Diwas
- Bihar Startup Policy
- Outline of Bihar
- Outline of India
- "Nitish Kumar to take oath as Chief Minister of Bihar, Sushil Modi to be deputy CM – Times of India". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 27 July 2017.
- "State Profile". Government of Bihar. Archived from the original on 22 September 2017. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
- "census of india". Census of India 2001. Government of India. 27 May 2002. Archived from the original on 3 April 2007. Retrieved 14 April 2007.
- "Bihar Budget Analysis 2018–19" (PDF). PRS Legislative Research. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 April 2018. Retrieved 24 June 2018.
- "The Bihar Official Language Act, 1950" (PDF). Cabinet Secretariat Department, Government of Bihar. 1950. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 April 2015. Retrieved 9 April 2015.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Benedikter, Thomas (2009). Language Policy and Linguistic Minorities in India: An Appraisal of the Linguistic Rights of Minorities in India. Münster: LIT Verlag. p. 89. ISBN 978-3-643-10231-7. Archived from the original on 19 October 2015. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
- "Sub-national HDI – Area Database". Global Data Lab. Institute for Management Research, Radboud University. Archived from the original on 23 September 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
- "6 – State of Literacy". Provisional Population Totals – India (PDF) (Report). Censusindia.gov.in. pp. 108. 111. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 July 2015. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
- "Census 2011 (Final Data) – Demographic details, Literate Population (Total, Rural & Urban)" (PDF). planningcommission.gov.in. Planning Commission, Government of India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 January 2018. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
- "State Profile". Government of Bihar. Archived from the original on 22 September 2017. Retrieved 17 April 2015.
- Roy, Ramashray; Wallace, Paul (6 February 2007). India's 2004 Elections: Grass-Roots and National Perspectives. p. 212. ISBN 9788132101109. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
- Dutt, Ashok K. "Jharkhand". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 8 March 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
- "At 11.3%, it has the lowest urban population among big states and the second lowest if one counts the small mountainous state of Himachal Pradesh (10%). 2011 census". Archived from the original on 14 November 2015. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
- Guruswamy, Mohan; Kaul, Abhishek (15 December 2003). "The Economic Strangulation of Bihar" (PDF). New Delhi, India: Centre for Policy Alternatives. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 May 2009. Retrieved 17 August 2015.
- Bihar, Past & Present: souvenir, 13th Annual Congress of Epigraphica by P. N. Ojha, Kashi Prasad Jayaswal Research Institute
- Mishra Pankaj, The Problem, Seminar 450 – February 1997
- "The History of Bihar". Bihar Government. Archived from the original on 31 March 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2008.
- Mandal, R. B. (2010). Wetlands Management in North Bihar. p. 87. ISBN 9788180697074. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
- Kumāra, Braja Bihārī (1998). Small States Syndrome in India. p. 146. ISBN 9788170226918. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
- "Bihar's 'first' Economic Survey Report tabled". The Times of India. 7 March 2007. Archived from the original on 18 May 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2008.
- Bal Thackeray (5 March 2008). "Biharis an unwanted lot". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 10 March 2008. Retrieved 5 March 2008.
- Wajihuddin, Mohammed (10 August 2008). "'Bihari' has become an abuse". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 5 May 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2008.
- Das, Arvind N. (1992). The Republic of Bihar. New Delhi: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-012351-7.
- Goswami, Urmi A (16 February 2005). "'Bihar Needs an Icon, a person who stands above his caste' (Dr Shaibal Gupta – Rediff Interview)". Rediff. Archived from the original on 20 February 2005. Retrieved 16 February 2005.
- Guruswamy, Mohan; Baitha, Ramnis Attar; Mohanty, Jeevan Prakash (15 June 2004). "Centrally Planned Inequality: The Tale of Two States – Punjab and Bihar" (PDF). New Delhi, India: Centre for Policy Alternatives. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 March 2009. Retrieved 17 August 2015.
- Guruswamy, Mohan; Mohanty, Jeevan Prakash (15 February 2004). "The De-urbanisation of Bihar" (PDF). New Delhi, India: Centre for Policy Alternatives. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 March 2009. Retrieved 17 August 2015.
- Ahmed Farzand and Mishra Subhash, Leaders of Bihar unite to counter Raj Thackeray , India Today, 31 October 2008
- Gupta, Shaibal. "Bihar: Identity and Development". Asian Development Research Institute, Patna. Archived from the original on 30 March 2005. Retrieved 30 April 2006.
- Phadnis, Aditi (26 July 2008). "Lalu in the red". Business Standard. Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- Goswami, Urmi A (17 June 2008). "Biharis get work at home, bashers realise their worth". The Economic Times. India. Archived from the original on 13 February 2009. Retrieved 17 June 2008.
- Dharma, Supriya; Jha, Abhay Mohan (15 July 2008). "Bihar witnesses a quiet transformation". NDTV. Archived from the original on 18 July 2008. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- Jha, Abhay Mohan (8 March 2008). "English makes inroads in Bihar villages". NDTV. Archived from the original on 9 March 2008. Retrieved 8 March 2008.
- Minhaj writes that the inhabitants were 100,000 Brahmins.--Bodh Gaya; by Frederick M. Asher; p. 14
- Kartar Singh Duggal The Sikh Gurus: their lives and teachings; p. 4; with shaven heads.[clarification needed]
- "BIHAR: A QUICK GUIDE TO SARAN". Archived from the original on 23 March 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
- "Oldest hamlet faces extinction threat". Archived from the original on 23 March 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
- "State Profile". gov.bih.nic.in. Archived from the original on 22 September 2017. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
- Michael Witzel (1989), Tracing the Vedic dialects in Dialectes dans les litteratures Indo-Aryennes ed. Caillat, Paris, pages 13, 17 116–124, 141–143
- Michael Witzel (1989), Tracing the Vedic dialects in Dialectes dans les litteratures Indo-Aryennes ed. Caillat, Paris, pages 13, 141–143
- Michael Witzel (1989), Tracing the Vedic dialects in Dialectes dans les litteratures Indo-Aryennes ed. Caillat, Paris
- Raychaudhuri Hemchandra (1972), Political History of Ancient India, Calcutta: University of Calcutta, pp. 85–86
- Panth, Rabindra (2007). India's Perception Through Chinese Travellers. Nava Nalanda Mahavihara. p. 61. ISBN 9788188242122. Archived from the original on 12 November 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
- A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms, by Fa-hsien (chapter27)
- "The Gupta Period of India". Ushistory.org. Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- Ali, A. Yusuf (1925). The Making of India. A. & C. Black. p. 60.
- The Cambridge Shorter History of India, p. 145
- The Maha-Bodhi By Maha Bodhi Society, Calcutta (page 8)
- Smith V. A., Early history of India
- Elliot, History of India, Vol 4
- Jha, D. N. (9 July 2014). "Grist to the reactionary mill". The Indian Express. Archived from the original on 3 February 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- Bihar General Knowledge Digest. books.google.co.in.
- Jha, Makhan (1997). Anthropology of Ancient Hindu Kingdoms: A Study in Civilizational Perspective. ISBN 9788175330344. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
- Mandal, R. B. (2010). Wetlands management in North Bihar. ISBN 9788180697074. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
- Jha, Makhan (1997). Anthropology of Ancient Hindu Kingdoms: A Study in Civilizational Perspective. ISBN 9788175330344. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
- "Early Agro based Industries". Bihargatha. 2011. Archived from the original on 10 September 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2015.
- Welcome to Bihar!! | Bihar Diwas 2012 Archived 17 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- Madan Kumar (23 March 2016). "Chief Minister thanks NaMo for Bihar Diwas greetings". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 9 October 2016. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
- Brown, Judith Margaret (1972). Gandhi's Rise to Power, Indian Politics 1915–1922: Indian Politics 1915–1922. New Delhi: Cambridge University Press Archive. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-521-09873-1. Archived from the original on 10 May 2018. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- "Eminent Gandhian Dr A N Sinha, First Bihar Deputy CM cum Finance Minister". Indian Post. Archived from the original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 20 May 2008.
- Bandyopādhyāya, Śekhara (2004). From Plassey to Partition: A History of Modern India. Orient Longman. pp. 406–407. ISBN 978-81-250-2596-2.
- Kumod Verma (14 February 2008). "Scared Biharis arrive from Mumbai". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 22 October 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2008.
- Hussain, Wasbir (11 August 2007). "30 Killed in Northeast Violence in India". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 7 November 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2006.
- "Natural Resources". Government of Bihar. Archived from the original on 18 April 2015. Retrieved 17 April 2015.
- "Forest in Bihar". Forest Ministry of Bihar. Archived from the original on 10 April 2009. Retrieved 28 November 2008.
- "VALMIKI". 27 May 2004. Archived from the original on 27 May 2004. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
- "Census Population" (PDF). Census of India. Ministry of Finance India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 December 2008. Retrieved 18 December 2008.
- "Language – India, States and Union Territories" (PDF). Census of India 2011. Office of the Registrar General. pp. 13–14. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 November 2018. Retrieved 15 October 2018.
- "States Census 2011". Census 2011. Census2011.co.in. Archived from the original on 14 February 2014. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
- "Census GIS HouseHold". Censusindiamaps.net. Archived from the original on 6 July 2010. Retrieved 15 October 2009.[permanent dead link]
- "Urban and Rural Population of India 2011". Archived from the original on 15 March 2012. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
- "Population by religion community – 2011". Census of India, 2011. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 25 August 2015.
- Singh, Vijaita (25 August 2015). "Bihar elections among factors in religious data of Census 2011 release". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 30 December 2017. Retrieved 26 October 2017 – via www.TheHindu.com.
- "Bihar Civic elections likely in May 2017". Archived from the original on 31 March 2017. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
- Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar (20 March 2017). "बिहार : नगर विकास एवं आवास विभाग की पहल, पुनर्गठन से नगर परिषदों की बढ़ जायेगी संख्या" [Bihar: Initiatives of the Department of Urban Development and Housing, will increase the number of city councils by restructuring]. Prabhat Khabar (in Hindi). Archived from the original on 24 March 2017. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
- "पहली बार कोई महिला बनेगी पटना नगर निगम की मेयर". Archived from the original on 24 March 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
- "Ward delimitation begins in Chhapra". Archived from the original on 27 February 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
- "छपरा को निगम बख्तियारपुर को मिला नगर परिषद का दर्जा". 14 February 2017. Archived from the original on 24 March 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
- "Bihar a byword for worst of India: The Economist". The Indian Express. 25 February 2004. Archived from the original on 10 October 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2009.
- "Bihar – Towards a Development Strategy" (PDF). Washington DC: World Bank. 2005. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 March 2019. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
- "State Wise Seat Won & Valid Votes Polled by Political Parties" (PDF). Election Commission of India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 April 2015. Retrieved 20 September 2015.
- "The Decline of Communist Mass Base in Bihar: Jagannath Sardar". 25 September 2011. Archived from the original on 6 January 2016. Retrieved 20 September 2015.
- "Nitish Kumar government orders corrupt official's home to be made into school". Archived from the original on 4 May 2015. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
- "Court upholds Bihar Special Court Act". Archived from the original on 5 January 2012. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
- "Bihar fixes time for Friday prayers by its employees". The Indian Express. 25 July 2012. Archived from the original on 20 February 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
- "Bihar Brings New Law on Alcohol Ban After HC Quashed Old One". The Wire. PTI. 4 October 2016. Archived from the original on 9 January 2017. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
- "Bihar witnesses serious drop in tourism after liquor ban". Pradesh18. 3 September 2016. Archived from the original on 2 December 2016. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
- Berman, P; Bhawalkar, M; Jha, R (2017). "Tracking financial resources for primary health care in BIHAR, India. A report of the Resource Tracking and Management Project" (PDF). Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 July 2018. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
- "Quality improvement efforts in public health facilities of Bihar – Some general findings, Sector Wide Approach to Strengthening Health (SWASTH) in Bihar, Government of Bihar Initiative Supported by Department for International Development (DFID)". 2016. Archived from the original on 20 July 2018.
- Karvande, Shilpa; Sonawane, Devendra; Chavan, Sandeep; Mistry, Nerges (20 February 2016). "What does quality of care mean for maternal health providers from two vulnerable states of India? Case study of Bihar and Jharkhand". Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition. 35 (1): 6. doi:10.1186/s41043-016-0043-3. ISSN 2072-1315. PMC 5025984. PMID 26897522.
- Quintussi, Marta; Van de Poel, Ellen; Panda, Pradeep; Rutten, Frans (26 April 2015). "Economic consequences of ill-health for households in northern rural India". BMC Health Services Research. 15 (1): 179. doi:10.1186/s12913-015-0833-0. ISSN 1472-6963. PMC 4419476. PMID 25928097.
- Raza, Wameq A.; van de Poel, Ellen; Bedi, Arjun; Rutten, Frans (28 December 2015). "Impact of Community-based Health Insurance on Access and Financial Protection: Evidence from Three Randomized Control Trials in Rural India". Health Economics. 25 (6): 675–687. doi:10.1002/hec.3307. ISSN 1057-9230. PMID 26708298.
- Strategic issues and challenges in health management. Ramani, K. V., Mavalankar, Dileep., Govil, Dipti. New Delhi: Sage. 2008. ISBN 978-8132100201. OCLC 316005200.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Government of India- Ministry of Health & Family Welfare- Health and Family Welfare Census Data, 2008–2015
- "Census of India: Provisional Population Totals India: Paper1: Census 2011". Censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 2014-08-16.
- Das, Jishnu; Holla, Alaka; Mohpal, Aakash; Muralidharan, Karthik (December 2016). "Quality and Accountability in Health Care Delivery: Audit-Study Evidence from Primary Care in India". American Economic Review. 106 (12): 3765–3799. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.715.1611. doi:10.1257/aer.20151138. ISSN 0002-8282.
- "National Accounts Division : Press release & Statements". Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. Archived from the original on 13 April 2006. Retrieved 16 August 2006.
- "Bihar's economy climbs to $12b by 2005". Specials.rediff.com. 31 March 2009. Archived from the original on 5 August 2009. Retrieved 15 October 2009.
- Das, Anand ST (5 July 2008). "Distressed Delicacy". Tehelka. 5 (26). Archived from the original on 14 February 2015. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- "Bihar fastest growing state, Maharashtra tops in economic size: Report". dna. 2 December 2015. Archived from the original on 15 July 2016. Retrieved 22 July 2016.
- "Industrial Development & Economic Growth in Bihar". India Brand Equity Foundation. September 2018. Archived from the original on 10 May 2018. Retrieved 15 October 2018.
- "Bihar posts avg GDP growth rate of 10.5% last decade". Business Standard. 25 February 2016. Archived from the original on 5 July 2016. Retrieved 22 July 2016.
- "Economy Of Bihar". www.ILoveIndia.com. Archived from the original on 26 October 2017. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
- "26 Bihar districts declared drought-hit – igovernment.in". www.iGovernment.in. Archived from the original on 26 October 2017. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
- "Bihar emerging as brewery hub". Economic Times. 16 January 2012. Archived from the original on 24 May 2014. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- "Prohibition forces United Breweries out of Bihar". livemint.com. 11 May 2017. Archived from the original on 28 January 2019. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
- Kulkarni, Mahesh (26 August 2018). "UB to launch non-alcoholic beer". Deccan Herald. Archived from the original on 28 January 2019. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
- "About Hajipur, General Information on Hajipur, Hajipur Profile". www.HajipurOnline.in. Archived from the original on 19 October 2015. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
- "Bihar's debt soars to 77% of GDP". Specials.rediff.com. 31 March 2009. Archived from the original on 5 August 2009. Retrieved 15 October 2009.
- "STPI New Centres" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 December 2016.
- "History". Sisindia.com. 29 July 1993. Archived from the original on 28 February 2009. Retrieved 15 October 2009.
- Ahmad, Faizan (25 August 2008). "Bihar security firm sets foot in Australia". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 18 May 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- Nigam, Aditi (27 April 2008). "For Bihar, P stands for Patna and prosperity". The Financial Express. Archived from the original on 21 April 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- "Bihar's first IT City to come up at Nalanda : Nitish Kumar". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Archived from the original on 17 April 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
- "Bihar prepares to be India's 1st Multimedia Hub within 3 Years". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Archived from the original on 26 April 2015. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
- Chitransh, Anugya (1 September 2012). "Bhojpuri is not the only language in Bihar". Hill Post. Archived from the original on 28 December 2014. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
- Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh, eds. (11 September 2003). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge Language Family Series. Routledge. p. 500. ISBN 978-0-415-77294-5.
...the number of speakers of Bihari languages are difficult to indicate because of unreliable sources. In the urban region most educated speakers of the language name Hindi as their language because this is what they use in formal contexts and believe it to be the appropriate response because of lack of awareness. The uneducated and the urban population of the region return Hindi as the generic name for their language.
- "लोकसभा में उठी मगही, भोजपुरी को आठवीं अनुसूची में शामिल करने की मां" [Demand for including Bhojpuri in the Eighth Schedule]. Firstpost (in Hindi). 22 March 2017. Archived from the original on 28 March 2019. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
- Carolyn Brown Heinz, 2006, “Documenting the Image in Mithila Art,” Visual Anthropology Review, Vol. 22, Issue 2, pp. 5-33
- Singh, Gajendra Narayan (2008) . Surile Logon Ki Sangat. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers & Distributors. ISBN 9788184570724.
- Singh, Gajendra Narayan (1999). Swargangh.
- "Collections". Padma Shri Gajendra Narayan Singh. Archived from the original on 11 August 2014.
- Jugnu, Haidar Ali. Sati Sulochana – Bhojpuri Birha By Haidar Ali- Jugnu. YouTube. hamaarbhojpuri. Archived from the original on 22 May 2015. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
- Ganga Maiyya Tohe Piyari Charaihbo – First Bhojpuri language film Archived 15 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- Bhaiyaa – First Magadhi language film
- Kanyadan – First Maithili language film
- "National Awards 2016: Here is the complete List of Winners". The Indian Express. 29 March 2016. Archived from the original on 28 March 2016. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
- "Ganga Maiyya Tohe Piyari Chadhaibo (1962)". IMDb. Archived from the original on 26 August 2012. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
- Tripathy, Ratnakar (2007) 'BHOJPURI CINEMA', South Asian Popular Culture, 5:2, 145–165
- "For my female audiences, I'll wear a really flimsy dhoti". The Telegraph. Kolkota, India. 14 April 2006. Archived from the original on 26 August 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2009.
- "Move over Bollywood, Here's Bhojpuri". BBC News.
- "Home". Bhojpuri Film Award. Archived from the original on 2 November 2009. Retrieved 15 October 2009.
- "bhojpuricity.com". bhojpuricity.com. Archived from the original on 4 September 2009. Retrieved 15 October 2009.
- "Sitamarhi". Britannica. Archived from the original on 27 April 2015. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- "History of Sitamarhi". Official site of Sitamarhi district. Archived from the original on 20 December 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Pathak Prabhu Nath,Society and Culture in Early Bihar, Commonwealth Publishers, 1988, p. 140
- "Sita temples in India that you may not know about". 3 April 2017. Archived from the original on 3 February 2018. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
- Ahmad, Qeyamuddin, ed. (1988). Patna Through the Ages: Glimpses of History, Society and Economy. New Delhi: Commonwealth Publishers.
- Rajendra Abhinandan Granth, "Nagri Pracharini Sabha", Arrah, 3 March 1950, pp. 353
- Kumar, Nagendra (1971). Journalism in Bihar: A Supplement to Bihar State Gazette. Government of Bihar, Gazetteers Branch. p. 28. Archived from the original on 23 November 2015. Retrieved 17 April 2015.
- Bihar ki Sahityik Pragati, Bihar Hindi Sahitya Sammelan, Patna 1956, p. 73
- Jayanti Smarak Granth, pp. 583–585
- Yang, Anand A (1998). Bazaar India: Markets, Society, and the Colonial State in Gangetic Bihar. ISBN 978-0-520-21100-1. Retrieved 15 October 2009.
- Statics Tourism in Bihar on Indian Government's website Archived 22 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- Wriggins, Sally Hovey. Xuanzang: A Buddhist Pilgrim on the Silk Road. Westview Press, 1996. Revised and updated as The Silk Road Journey With Xuanzang. Westview Press, 2003. ISBN 0-8133-6599-6.
- A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms: Being an account by the Chinese Monk Fa-Hien of his travels in India and Ceylon (A.D. 399–414) in search of the Buddhist Books of Discipline. Oxford, Clarendon Press. Reprint: New York, Paragon Book Reprint Corp. 1965. ISBN 0-486-21344-7 Archived 24 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- Altekar, Anant Sadashiv (1965). Education in Ancient India, Sixth, Varanasi: Nand Kishore & Bros.
- Scott, David (May 1995). "Buddhism and Islam: Past to Present Encounters and Interfaith Lessons". Numen. 42 (2): 141–155. doi:10.1163/1568527952598657. JSTOR 3270172.
- "Profile of Patna University". Patna University. Archived from the original on 10 April 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2015.
- Pratham.org | Pratham – A Network of Societal Missions to Achieve Universal Primary Education in India Archived 14 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine
- "Census Statistics for Bihar". Gov.bih.nic.in. Archived from the original on 24 May 2008. Retrieved 15 October 2009.
- "National Employability Report – Engineers, Annual Report 2014" (PDF). www.aspiringminds.com. www.aspiringminds.com. p. 22. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 October 2016. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
- "Delhi, Bihar produce top engineers in India: Report". The Times Of India. Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
- "Parents want wards to go for tech education outside Bihar". Times of India. 11 December 2013. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2013.
- "CM inaugurates new engineering college at Chhapra". The Times Of India. 26 December 2012. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
- "7th engineering college of state to open in July". Times of India. 8 November 2011. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 11 November 2011.
- "CM lays foundation of engineering college". Times of India. 23 December 2013. Archived from the original on 23 December 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
- "Nitish lists special tag cry as LS poll plank". Calcutta, India: The Telegraph. 23 December 2013. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
- "Shortage of engineering colleges in Bihar". Times of India. 6 January 2012. Archived from the original on 18 May 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
- "New engineering colleges, polytechs to get impetus soon". Times of India. 26 December 2011. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 26 December 2011.
- Jha, Abhay Mohan (4 August 2008). "Brand new IIT in Patna impresses all". NDTV. Archived from the original on 7 August 2008. Retrieved 4 August 2008.
- "Netaji Subhash Institute of Technology (Nsit), Netaji Subhash Institute of Technology (Nsit) Address, Admission, Netaji Subhash Institute of Technology (Nsit) Courses, Ranking, Contact Details". www.StudyGuideIndia.com. Archived from the original on 11 November 2016. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
- "Welcome to Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology – Bihta, Patna". Archived from the original on 15 February 2015. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
- NITPU Chandigarh. "National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, S.A.S. Nagar". Niper.ac.in. Archived from the original on 20 February 2010. Retrieved 15 October 2009.
- "NIFT starts classes in Patna with 60 students". TwoCircles.net. 12 August 2008. Archived from the original on 22 March 2019. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
- "Premier Research Institute: ANSISS". Official website. Archived from the original on 13 May 2010.
- "Bihar Knowledge Center". 2008. Archived from the original on 28 April 2009. Retrieved 3 August 2016.
- Swami Sahajanand Saraswati Rachnawali (Selected works of Swami Sahajanand Saraswati), Prakashan Sansthan, Delhi, 2003.
- Christopher Alan Bayly, Rulers, Townsmen, and Bazaars: North Indian Society in the Age of British Expansion, 1770–1870, Cambridge University Press, 1983.
- Anand A. Yang, Bazaar India: Markets, Society, and the Colonial State in Bihar, University of California Press, 1999.
- Acharya Hazari Prasad Dwivedi Rachnawali, Rajkamal Prakashan, Delhi.
- Swami Sahajanand and the Peasants of Jharkhand: A View from 1941 translated and edited by Walter Hauser along with the unedited Hindi original (Manohar Publishers, paperback, 2005).
- Sahajanand on Agricultural Labour and the Rural Poor translated and edited by Walter Hauser (Manohar Publishers, paperback, 2005).
- Religion, Politics, and the Peasants: A Memoir of India's Freedom Movement translated and edited by Walter Hauser (Manohar Publishers, hardbound, 2003).
- Pandit Yadunandan (Jadunandan) Sharma, 1947, Bakasht Mahamari Aur Uska Achook Ilaaz (Bakasht Epidemic and its Infalliable Remedy) in Hindi, Allahabad.
- Jagannath Sarkar, "Many Streams" Selected Essays by Jagannath Sarkar and Reminiscing Sketches" Compiled by Gautam Sarkar Edited by Mitali Sarkar, First Published May 2010, Navakarnataka Publications Private Limited, Bangalore.
- Indradeep Sinha, 1969, Sathi ke Kisanon ka Aitihasic Sangharsha (Historic Struggle of Sathi Peasants), in Hindi, Patna.
- Indradeep Sinha, Real face of JP's total revolution, Communist Party of India (1974).
- Indradeep Sinha, Some features of current agrarian situation in India, All India Kisan Sabha, (1987).
- Indradeep Sinha, The changing agrarian scene: Problems and tasks, Peoples Publishing House (1980).
- Indradeep Sinha, Some questions concerning Marxism and the peasantry, Communist Party of India (1982).
- Sinha, Udai Prakash; Kumar, Swargesh (2012). Bihar Tourism: Retrospect and Prospect. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 9788180697999. Retrieved 18 April 2015.
- Nand Kishore Shukla, The Trial of Baikunth Sukul: A Revolutionary Patriot, Har-Anand, 1999, 403 pages, ISBN 81-241-0143-4.
- Shramikon Ke Hitaishi Neta, Itihas Purush: Basawon Singh published by the Bihar Hindi Granth Academy (1st Edition, April 2000).
- Ramchandra Prasad, Ashok Kumar Sinha, Sri Krishna Singh in Adhunik Bharat ke Nirmata Series, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India.
- Walter Hauser, 1961, Peasant Organisation in India: A Case Study of the Bihar Kisan Sabha, 1929–1942, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Chicago, (Forthcoming publication).
- Rai, Algu, 1946, A Move for the Formation of an All-Indian Organisation for the Kisans, Azamgrah.
- N. G. Ranga, 1949, Revolutionary Peasants, New Delhi.
- N. G. Ranga, 1968, Fight For Freedom, New Delhi.
- Mahapandit Rahul Sankrityayan, 1943, Naye Bharet ke Naye Neta (New Leaders of New India), in Hindi, Allahabad.
- Mahapandit Rahul Sankrityayan, 1957, Dimagi Gulami (Mental Slavery), in Hindi, Allahabad.
- Manmath Nath Gupta, Apane samaya ka surya Dinkar, Alekha Prakasana (1981).
- Khagendra Thakur, Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar': Vyaktitva aur Krititva, Publications Division, 2008 Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India.
- Vijendra Narayan Singh, Bharatiya Sahitya ke Nirmata: Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar, Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi, 2005, ISBN 81-260-2142-X.
- Kumar Vimal, Ramdhari Singh Dinkar Rachna — Sanchayan, Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi, 2008, ISBN 978-81-260-2627-2.
- Mishra Shree Govind, History Of Bihar 1740–1772, Munshiram Manoharlal, 1970
- Verma B S, Socio-religious Economic And Literary Condition Of Bihar (From ca. 319 A.D. to 1000 A.D.), Munshiram Manoharlal, 1962
- Maitra A,Magahi Culture, Cosmo Publications, New Delhi, 1983
- Naipaul V S, India: A Wounded Civilization, Picador, 1977
- Trevithick Alan, The Revival Of Buddhist Pilgrimage At Bodh Gaya (1811–1949): Anagarika Dharmapala And The Mahabodhi Temple
- Jannuzi F. Tomasson, Agrarian Crisis In India: The Case Of Bihar, University of Texas Press, 1974, ISBN 0-292-76414-6, ISBN 978-0-292-76414-9
- Omalley L S S, History of Magadh, Veena Publication, 2005, ISBN 81-89224-01-8
- Shukla Prabhat Kumar, Indigo And The Raj: Peasant Protests In Bihar 1780–1917, Pragati Publications, 1993, ISBN 81-7307-004-0
- Ahmad Qeyamuddin, Patna Through The Ages: Glimpses of History, Society & Economy, Commonwealth Publishers, 1988
- Jain B D, Ardha Magadhi Reader, Sri Satguru Publications, Lahore, 1923
- Patra C, Life in Ancient India: As Depicted In The Digha Nikaya, Punthi Pustak, 1996, ISBN 81-85094-93-4
- Hazra Kanai Lal, Buddhism In India As Described By The Chinese Pilgrims AD 399–689, Munshiram Manoharlal, 1983, ISBN 81-215-0132-6
- McCrindle John W., Ancient India As Described By Megasthenes And Arrian, Munshiram Manoharlal
- McCrindle John W., Ancient India As Described By Ptolemy, Munshiram Manoharlal, 1927, ISBN 81-215-0945-9
- Sastry Harprasad, Magadhan Literature, Sri Satguru Publications, Calcutta, 1923
- Rai Alok, Hindi Nationalism, Orient Longman, 2000, ISBN 81-250-1979-0
- Waddell Austine L., Report On The Excavations At Pataliputra (Patna) – The Palibothra Of The Greeks, Asian Publicational Services, Calcutta, 1903
- Das Arvind N., The State of Bihar: an economic history without footnotes, Amsterdam: VU University Press, 1992
- Brass Paul R., The politics of India since Independence, Cambridge University Press, 1990
- Askari S. H., Mediaeval Bihar: Sultante and Mughal Period, Khuda Bakhsh Oriental Public Library, Patna, 1990
- Tayler William, Three Months at Patna during the Insurrection of 1857, Khuda Bakhsh Oriental Public Library, Patna, 2007
- Taylor P.J.O., "What really happened during the Mutiny: A day by day account of the major events of 1857–1859 in India", Oxford University Press, 1997, ISBN 0-19-564182-5
- Pathak Prabhu Nath, Society and Culture in Early Bihar (C.A.D. 200 – 600), Commonwealth Publishers, 1988
- Basham A. L., The Wonder that was India, Picador, 1954, ISBN 0-330-43909-X
- Nambisan Vijay, Bihar in the eye of the beholder, Penguin Books, 2000, ISBN 978-0-14-029449-1
- Pathak Mohan, Flood plains and Agricultural occupance, Deep & Deep Publication, 1991, ISBN 81-7100-289-7
- D'Souza Rohan, Drowned and Dammed:Colonial Capitalism and Flood Control in Eastern India, Oxford University Press, 2006,
- Radhakanta Barik – Land & Caste Politics in Bihar (Shipra Publications, Delhi, 2006)
- General information