Bihari Muslims

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Bihari Muslim
Total population
17.5 million in Bihar alone
Regions with significant populations
 India Pakistan Bangladesh United States United Kingdom Canada Australia
Languages
UrduHindiSurjapuriMaithiliBhojpuri[1]
Religion
Allah-green.svg Islam (Sunni and Shi'a)
Related ethnic groups
Bihari peoplesIndian Muslims

Bihari Muslims are people originating and tracing descent from the Indian state of Bihar who practice the religion of Islam.

The vast majority of Bihari Muslims are followers of the Sunni sect and even in pre-Mughal Bihar, all the Ulemas, Mullas and Sufis were Sunnis.[2] There is however a significant community of Shia Muslims residing in Patna who descend from settlers from Lucknow who came in the 1800s.[3]

Origin[edit]

In common with the rest of India, the overwhelming majority of Muslims in Bihar are descended from native converts from various caste groups.[4] The rise in the Muslim population can traced to the early twelfth century with many conversions taking place during the rule of the Sur Empire which had its capital in Sasaram, Bihar.[5]

History[edit]

Some of the Kings and chieftains of medieval Bihar were Muslim. The chieftaincy of Kharagpur Raj in modern-day Munger district was originally controlled by Hindu Rajputs. In 1615 after a failed rebellion by Raja Sangram Singh, his son Toral Mal was made to convert by the Mughal Emperor and he changed his name to Roz Afzun.[6]

The Faujdars of Purnea (also known as the Nawabs of Purnea) created an autonomous territory for themselves under the leadership of Saif Khan and ruled in parts of Eastern Bihar in the early 1700's. They were engaged in a protracted conflict with the neighbouring Kingdom of Nepal.[7]

Many Bihari Muslims migrated to Pakistan and Bangladesh (then East Pakistan) after independence in 1947.[8]

Society[edit]

Muslims are spread throughout the State of Bihar, but are mainly concentrated in some districts, especially Kishanganj, Katihar, Araria, Purnia, Bhagalpur, Madhubani, Sitamarhi, Champaran, Siwan, Samastipur, Madhepura, Darbhanga, Begusarai, Nawada, Gaya, Jehanabad and Muzaffarpur.[citation needed]

Distribution by district[edit]

The following table shows the Muslim population of Bihar by district[9]:

Number District Population (2001) Muslim population Percentage
1 Kishanganj 1,296,348 1,123456 85%
2 Katihar 2,392,638 1,024,678 43%
3 Araria 2,158,608 887,972 42%
4 Purnia 2,543,942 935,239 38%
5 Darbhanga 3,295,789 748,971 23%
6 Sitamarhi 2,682,720 568,992 21%
7 West Champaran 3,043,466 646,597 21%
8 East Champaran 3,939,773 755,005 19%
9 Bhagalpur 2,423,172 423,246 18%
10 Madhubani 3,575,281 941,579 26%
11 Siwan 2,714,349 494,176 18%
12 Gopalganj 2,152,638 367,219 17%
13 Supaul 1,732,578 302,120 17%
14 Sheohar 515,961 80,076 16%
15 Muzaffarpur 4,746,714 752,358 15%
16 Saharsa 1,508,182 217,922 14%
17 Begusarai 2,349,366 313,713 13%
18 Banka 1,608,773 190,051 12%
19 Gaya 3,473,428 403,439 12%
20 Jamui 1,398,796 170,334 12%
21 Nawada 1,809,696 204,457 11%
22 Madhepura 1,526,646 173,605 11%
23 Aurangabad 2,013,055 221,436 11%
24 Kaimur 1,289,074 123,048 10%
25 Khagaria 1,280,354 131,441 10%
26 Rohtas 2,450,748 246,760 10%
27 Samastipur 3,394,793 355,897 10%
28 Saran 3,248,701 337,767 10%
29 Vaishali 2,718,421 259,158 10%
30 Jehanabad 1,514,315 124,149 8%
31 Munger 1,337,797 98,791 7.4%
32 Patna 4,718,592 366,164 8%
33 Bhojpur 2,243,144 163,193 7%
34 Nalanda 2,370,528 176,871 7%
35 Sheikhpura 525,502 37,755 7%
37 Buxar 1,402,396 86,382 6%
38 Lakhisarai 802,225 35,378 4%

Sum total of this table is 14,780,500 Muslims out of 83.0 millions total population in 2001 census, hence Muslims were 16.5% of total population in Bihar. In 2011 census, total population grew to 103.9985 millions, of which 16.9% or 17,557,809 were Muslims.[10] During 2001–2011, Muslims grew by 33.433%, while non-Muslims grew by 23.537%. District-wise break up by religions for 2011 is not available.

Muslim communities[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Case of Bhojpuri and Hindi in Mauritius". lexpress.mu. 27 July 2007. Archived from the original on 27 September 2016. Retrieved 26 September 2016.
  2. ^ Prasad, Ram Chandra (7 November 1983). "Bihar". National Book Trust, India – via Google Books.
  3. ^ Chaturvedi, Ritu (7 November 2018). Bihar Through the Ages. Sarup & Sons. ISBN 9788176257985 – via Google Books.
  4. ^ "Bihar Information". Director, Public Relations. 7 November 1984 – via Google Books.
  5. ^ Alam, Mohd Sanjeer (27 January 2012). Religion, Community, and Education: The Case of Rural Bihar. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199088652 – via Google Books.
  6. ^ Yogendra P. Roy (1992). "Tahawar Singh-A Muslim Raja of Kharagpur Raj (1676 - 1727)". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 53: 333–334. JSTOR 44142804.
  7. ^ P. J. Marshall (2 November 2006). Bengal: The British Bridgehead: Eastern India 1740-1828. Cambridge University Press. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-521-02822-6.
  8. ^ Ghosh, Partha S. (23 May 2016). Migrants, Refugees and the Stateless in South Asia. SAGE Publishing India. ISBN 9789351508533 – via Google Books.
  9. ^ "Error Value". www.censusindia.gov.in. Archived from the original on 8 April 2016.
  10. ^ Singh, Vijaita (25 August 2015). "Bihar elections among factors in religious data of Census 2011 release". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 30 December 2017 – via www.thehindu.com.

External links[edit]