Bikas K. Chakrabarti
|Bikas K. Chakrabarti|
14 December 1952 |
|Institutions||Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata
Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata
|Alma mater||University of Calcutta|
Bikas Kanta Chakrabarti (born in Calcutta on December 14, 1952) is an Indian physicist. He is a professor of Physics at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata and Visiting Professor of Economics, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata. He is married, has two sons and lives in Kolkata.
Chakrabarti received his Ph. D. degree from Calcutta University (Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics) in 1979. After that he visited (as post-doctoral fellow) Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford and Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Cologne. He joined the faculty of the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics in 1983, where he presently is Senior Professor (Former Director). He is also a Visiting Professor of Economics in Indian Statistical Institute.
He has authored/co-authored more than 175 papers in Physics, Economics and interdisciplinary journals, 7 reviews [1 European Physical Journal B, 2 Physics Reports & 4 Reviews of Modern Physics (out of a total 34 reviews published in RMP so far, authored/coauthored by at least one scientist from India, since 1929; Source: Journal Search, Affiliation: India —Errata excluded)] and 8 books [2 Cambridge University Press, 2 Oxford University Press, 2 Springer, 2 Wiley-VCH].
He is Editorial Board member of JOURNALS: *European Physical Journal B: Condensed Matter & Complex Systems (present), *Indian Journal of Physics (present), *Journal of Economic Interaction and Coordination (Official Journal of the Association of Economic Science with Heterogeneous Interacting Agents) (present), *Journal of Magnetism & Magnetic Materials (present), *Natural Science (past), *Pramana (journal) (past), *Scientific Reports (present), *SciPost (present).
He is Editor of BOOK SERIES: *Physics of Society: Econophysics & Sociophysics (with Mauro Gallegati, Alan Kirman & H. Eugene Stanley) of Cambridge University Press, *Statistical Physics of Fracture & Breakdown (with Purusatam Ray) of Wiley.
Advantages of Quantum tunnelling (through steep but narrow effective barriers) in searching for the global solution(s) of problems with NP-hardness (avoiding the innumerable localized ones), shown first by Chakrabarti & his team in 1989 and in the subsequent works on Quantum annealing, have ultimately led to an exciting development of a class of special-purpose (Analog) Quantum Computers (e.g., by D-Wave Systems; version DW2X installed by Google-NASA is understood to be 100 million times faster for some typical computationally hard jobs): See the last part of the next entry for some typical recent citations in this context.
Some of Chakrabarti's recent citations include
♦ Feature article on "The Physics of our Finances", saying "So in 2000, Bikas Chakrabarti's team in the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics in Kolkata, India ... (introduced another model with distributed savings, and with) this tweak, the model correctly reproduced the whole wealth distribution curve ... If these simple models do capture something of the essence of the real-world economics, then they offer some good news.", p. 41, New Scientist, 28 July 2012. "... (Bikas) started to have meetings on econophysics and I think the first one was probably in 1995 (he decided to start it in 1993–1994). Probably the first meeting in my life on this field that I went to was this meeting. In that sense Kolkata is — you can say — the nest from which the chicken was born ...", said H. Eugene Stanley in his interview (pp. 73-78) with Editor of IIM Kozhikode Society & Management Review (July 2013).
♦ The book Interacting Multiagent Systems, Oxford Univ. Press (2014) by L. Pareschi & G. Toscani (Dept. Math., Univs. Feara & Pavia) discussed the "Chakraborti-Chakrabarti model" as well as "Chatterjee-Chakrabarti-manna model" of income/wealth distributions (in p. 167, pp. 205-210 and elsewhere). The book Guidance of an Enterprising Economy, MIT Press (2016) by Martin Shubik & E. Smith (Economics, Yale University & Santa Fe Inst.) noted: "It was shown in Chakraborti & Chakrabarti (European Physical Journal B, 2000) that uniform saving propensity of the agents constrains the entropy maximizing dynamics in such a way that the distribution becomes gamma-like, while (quenched) nonuniform saving propensity of the agents leads to a steady state distribution with a Pareto-like power-law tail (Chatterjee, Chakrabarti & Manna, Physica A, 2004). A detailed discussion of such steady state distributions for these and related kinetic exchange models is provided in Econophysics of Income & Walth Distributions (Chakrabarti et al., Cambridge University Press, 2013)." (in p. 75; also pp. 40, 290).
♦ FOCUS article "Breakthrough in Quantum Computation", saying "A new class of quantum computers utilizing quantum tunneling has been achieved (as pioneered by D-wave with their 128 superconducting logic elements). The idea of computation using quantum annealing technique was first mooted by a group of Calcutta based scientists ..." in its Editorial Note and "... The seminal proposal (of Bikas Chakrabarti & his team from Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta) was taken up by other groups in the world ...", wrote Indrani Bose in Science & Culture (Indian Science News Association; (Sept-Oct, 2013) pp. 381-382. See also (arxiv version) "Quantum Annealing & Computation: A Brief Documentary Note", Science & Culture (Nov-Dec, 2013) pp. 485-500. For a few typical recent discussions, see the following:
- Nature Physics (March 2014) by Boixo et al. (Univ. S. California, ETH, ...) saying "The phenomenon of quantum tunneling suggests that it can be more efficient to explore the state space quantum mechanically in a quantum annealer [Ray, Chakrabarti & Chakrabarti Physical Review B (1989); Finnila et al., Chemical Physics Letters (1994); Kadowaki & Nishimori, Physical Review E (1998)].".
- Heim et al. (ETH & Google, Zurich) in Science (April 2015) say "Quantum annealing [Ray, Chakrabarti & Chakrabarti, Physical Review B (1989); Kadowaki & Nishimori, Physical Review E (1998); Farhi et al., Science (2001); Das & Chakrabarti, Reviews of Modern Physics (2008)] uses quantum tunneling instead of thermal excitations to escape from local minima, which can be advantageous in systems with tall but narrow barriers, which are easier to tunnel through than to thermally climb over.".
- Mandra, Guerreschi & Aspuru-Guzik (Dept. Chem., Harvard Univ.) in their Physical Review A (December 2015) start with the opening sentence "In 2001, Farhi et al. [Science (2001)] proposed a new paradigm to carry out quantum computation ... that builds on previous results developed by the statistical & chemical physics communities in the context of quantum annealing techniques [Ray, Chakrabarti & Chakrabarti, Physical Review B (1989); Kadowaki & Nishimori, Physical Review E (1998); Finnila et al., Chemical Physics Letters (1994); Lee & Berne, Journal of Physical Chemistry A (2000)].".
- Boixo et al. (Google, NASA Ames, D-Wave Group, ...; & acknowledging discussions with Farhi, Leggett, et al.) in their Nature Communications (January 2016) start the paper with the sentence "Quantum annealing [Finnila et al., Chemical Physics Letters (1994); Kadowaki & Nishimori, Physical Review E (1998); Farhi et al., arXiv (2002); Brooke et al., Science (1999); Santoro et al., Science (2002)] is a technique inspired by classical simulated annealing [Ray, Chakrabarti & Chakrabarti, Physical Review B (1989)] that aims to take advantage of quantum tunnelling.".
- Matsuura et al. (Niels Bohr Inst., Yukawa Inst., Tokyo Inst. Tech., Univ. S. California) in their Physical Review Letters (June, 2016) introduce by saying "Quantum annealing, a quantum algorithm to solve optimization problems [Kadowaki & Nishimori, Physical Review E (1998); Ray, Chakrabarti & Chakrabarti, Physical Review B (1989); Brooke et al., Science (1999); Brooke et al., Nature (2001); Santoro et al., Science (2002); Kaminsky et al., Quantum Computing (Springer, 2004)] that is a special case of universal adiabatic quantum computing, has garnered a great deal of recent attention as it provides an accessible path to large-scale, albeit nonuniversal, quantum computation using present-day technology.".
- Muthukrishnan, Albash & Lidar (Depts. Physics, Chemistry, Electrical Engineering, ..., Univ. S. California) write in the Introduction of their Physical Review X (July, 2016), "It is often stated that quantum annealing [Ray, Chakrabarti & Chakrabarti, Physical Review B (1989); Finnila et al. Chemical Physics Letters (1994); Kadowaki & Nishimori, Physical Review E (1998); Farhi et al., Science (2001); Das & Chakrabarti, Reviews of Modern Physics (2008)] uses tunneling instead of thermal excitations to escape from local minima, which can be advantageous in systems with tall but thin barriers that are easier to tunnel through than to thermally climb over [Heim et al., Science (2015); Das & Chakrabarti, Reviews of Modern Physics (2008), Suzuki, Inoue & Chakrabarti, Quantum Ising Phases & Transitions, Springer (2013)]. ... We demonstrate that the role of tunneling is significantly more subtle ...".
- Knysh (NASA Ames, California) in his investigations in Nature Communications (August, 2016) on some eventual "bottlenecks", starts by writing "Quantum algorithms offer hope for tackling computer science problems that are intractable for classical computers. ... Those problems are targeted by the quantum adiabatic annealing algorithm [Kadowaki & Nishimori, Physical Review E (1998); Farhi et al., arXiv (2000); Das & Chakrabarti, Reviews of Modern Physics (2008)].".
- Wild et al. (Depts. Phys. & Engg., Harvard Univ., Caltech, CUNY, Tech. Univ. Munich, Univ. California Berkeley) in their Physical Review Letters (October 2016) start by saying "The adiabatic theorem provides a powerful tool to characterize the evolution of a quantum system under a time-dependent Hamiltonian. ... Adiabatic evolution can also serve as a platform for quantum information processing [Farhi et al., arXiv 2000; Farhi et al., Science (2001); Das & Chakrabarti, Reviews of Modern Physics (2008); Bapst et al., Physics Reports (2013), Santoro & Tosatti, Journal of Physics A: Math. Gen. (2006); Laumann et al., European Physical Journal: Spl. Top. (2015)].".
- Chancellor et al. (Depts. Phys. & Engg., Univs. Durham, Oxford, London) in the introduction of their Scientific Reports (November, 2016) say "There have been many promising advances in quantum annealing, since the idea that quantum fluctuations could help explore rough energy landscapes [Ray, Chakrabarti & Chakrabarti, Physical Review B (1989)], through the algorithm first being explicitly proposed [Finnila et al. Chemical Physics Letters (1994)], further refined [Kadowaki & Nishimori, Physical Review E (1998)], and the basic concepts demonstrated experimentally in a condensed matter system [Brooke et al., Science (1999)]. ... For an overview ... see Das & Chakrabarti, Reviews of Modern Physics (2008).".
Awards and distinctions
- Young Scientist Award of Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi (1984)
- Professeur Invité, University of Paris, UP13, Lab-PMTM, CNRS (1988)
- Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Award of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, India (1997)
- Fellow, Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore (Elected, 1997)
- Fellow, Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi (Elected, 2003)
- Honorary Visiting Professor, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata (2007- )
- Outstanding Referee Award of the American Physical Society (2010)
- Professeur Invité, École Centrale Paris (2010)
- J C Bose National Fellow, Department of Science and Technology (India) (2011-2020)
- Fellow, SciPost Editorial College (Physics) (2016)
- Executive Editor (Region: India) European Physical Journal B (2016- )
Important books and reviews
- Quantum Ising Phases and Transitions in Transverse Ising Models, Bikas K. Chakrabarti, Amit Dutta and Parangama Sen, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg (1996).
- Statistical Physics of Fracture and Breakdown in Disordered Solids, Bikas K. Chakrabarti and L. Gilles Benguigui, Oxford University Press, Oxford (1997).
- Econophysics: An Introduction, Sitabhra Sinha, Arnab Chatterjee, Anirban Chakraborti and Bikas K. Chakrabarti, Wiley-VCH, Berlin (2011).
- Econophysics of Income & Wealth Distributions, Bikas K. Chakrabarti, Anirban Chakraborti, Satya R. Chakravarty and Arnab Chatterjee, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2013).
- Quantum Ising Phases and Transitions in Transverse Ising Models, Sei Suzuki, Jun-ichi Inoue and Bikas K. Chakrabarti, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg (2013).
- Sociophysics: An Introduction, Parangama Sen and Bikas K. Chakrabarti, Oxford University Press, Oxford (2014).
- Quantum Phase Transitions in Transverse Field Spin Models: From Statistical Physics to Quantum Information, Amit Dutta, Gabriel Aeppli, Bikas K. Chakrabarti, Uma Divakaran, Thomas Felix Rosenbaum & Diptiman Sen, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge & Delhi (2015).
- Statistical Physics of Fracture, Breakdown & Earthquake, Soumyajyoti Biswas, Purusattam Ray & Bikas K. Chakrabarti, Wiley-VCH, Berlin (2015).
- Dynamic Transitions and Hysteresis, B. K. Chakrabarti & M. Acharyya, Reviews of Modern Physics 71 (1999) 847-859.
- Quantum Annealing and Analog Quantum Computations, A. Das & B. K. Chakrabarti, Reviews of Modern Physics 80 (2008) 1061-1081.
- Failure Processes in Elastic Fiber Bundles, S. Pradhan, A. Hansen & B. K. Chakrabarti, Reviews of Modern Physics 82 (2010) 499-555.
- Statistical Physics of Fracture, Friction and Earthquakes, H. Kawamura, T. Hatano, N. Kato, S. Biswas & B. K. Chakrabarti, Reviews of Modern Physics 84 (2012) 839-884.
- Statistical Mechanics of Competitive Resource Allocation using Agent-Based Models, A. Chakraborti, D. Challet, A. Chatterjee, M. Marsili, Y.-C. Zhang & B. K. Chakrabarti, Physics Reports 552 (2015) 1-25.