A swimsuit competition, more commonly now called a bikini contest, is a beauty contest in which the physical attributes of contestants are judged and ranked while wearing a swimsuit. Bikini contests may be organised or sponsored by related companies for marketing purposes or to try to find and attract new talent to promote their products, masquerading as mild adult entertainment in the forms of a beauty contest. Swimwear competitions have been a part of beauty pageants, such as the Miss America and Miss World pageants and by organizations such as Hawaiian Tropic, and may also be held in a bar or nightclub, during intermissions of boxing or wrestling matches or at a car show. Bodybuilding competitions may also feature a bikini contest segment. Participants in such contests may be competing for prizes including trophies, money, and modeling contracts.
Types of bikini contests
|Entertainment||Hooters bikini contest in Courtyard, Jacksonville, Florida, 2005.|
|Wrestling||Charles Wright hosting a bikini contest as part of the Hulkamania Tour in Melbourne, 2009. Wrestlers like Eve Torres and Kelly Kelly are also bikini models.|
|Pageant||Contestants at swimsuit round of Miss Philippines, 2008. Though many pageants are playing down the bikini contest part, participants in some beauty contests like the Miss Teen USA pageant, are required to wear bikinis as part of the competition.|
|Fitness||Fitness models at Hong Kong Bodybuilding Championships, 2012. Early women's bodybuilding was about bikini contests. After protests in the 1970s Gloria Miller Fudge started real bodybuilding. Bikini competition was created within Fitness and figure competitions as a category on November 7, 2010 by IFBB to attract more female participants. The first Bikini Olympia was introduced in 2010.|
In the United States, beauty pageants of women in bathing costumes became popular from the 1880s. However, such events were not regarded as respectable. Beauty contests became more respectable with the first modern "Miss America" contest held in 1921, though less respectable beauty contests continued to be held.
Subject to relevant decency laws which generally require nipples and labia to be covered, organisers of each competition may determine the standards of "dress" and nudity of the competition, which may permit or require contestants to wear any variety of swimsuit, including a bikini or microkini. The organisers may also specify the contestants' age range. One or two principal announcers will present the competition to the audience, and may have a panel of at least three judges. Winning over the crowd is of principal importance for most competitions, as results can be heavily influenced by audience input, while in some cases formal judges are absent entirely and the winner may be decided by popular vote.
Bikini contests may be organised or sponsored by related companies for marketing purposes or to try to find and attract new talent to promote their products. Miss Hawaiian Tropic is organized by Playtex to promote "Hawaiian Tropic", it's suntan lotion. NOPI runs the annual "Hot Import Nights" bikini contest, which is held in conjunction with the import car-show in Atlanta, Georgia, and the annual Hooter's bikini competition.
Despite their popularity and women's voluntary participation, swimsuit competitions, especially bikini contests, may be controversial. Critics argue that beauty contests reinforce the idea that girls and women are primarily valued for their physical appearance, and that this puts pressure on women to conform to conventional beauty standards by spending time and money on fashion, cosmetics, hair styling and even cosmetic surgery. It depletes their bodies of nutrients, energy and even water at the end and expresses a totally unrealistic and unsustainable lifestyle, centered purely around how little fat and how much spray tan they have on. This pursuit of physical beauty even encourages some women to diet to the point of harming themselves.
Miss World contest
The first Miss World contest was organized by Eric Morley in 1951 as a promotion for swimwear at the Festival of Britain. The press welcomed the spectacle and referred to it as Miss World. When the winner Kiki Håkansson from Sweden was crowned in a bikini, countries with religious traditions threatened to withdraw delegates. The bikinis were outlawed and evening gowns introduced instead. Håkansson remains the only Miss World crowned in a bikini, a crowning that was condemned by the Pope. The bikini was banned from Miss World beauty pageants after the controversy.
Bikinis reappeared in later contests amid additional controversy. In the 1970s and 1980s the contest was regularly picketed by feminist protesters. The pageant disappeared for a while and in 1996, when the Miss World contest was held in Bangalore, India, dozens of Indian groups opposed to the event claimed that the contest degraded women by featuring them in bikinis. Social activist Subhashini Ali commented, "It's not an IQ test. Neither is it a charity show. It's a beauty contest in which these things have been added on as sops." The protests were so intense that the organizers were finally compelled to shift the venue of the "Swimsuit Round" to Seychelles. Countering these claims, the contest organizer says that the organization has raised ₤300 million for charity in many of the countries where it operates since 2000.
In 2013, the Miss World event was hosted by Indonesia, the world's largest Muslim-majority country. The country's top Muslim clerical body, the Indonesian Ulema Council, suggested that the event should be cancelled because it promotes "hedonism, materialism, and consumerism," and is nothing but "an excuse to show women's body parts that should remain covered." The organizers later announced that the bikini would be replaced by one-piece swimsuits and sarongs, traditional beachwear on the resort island of Bali. Pageant Chairwoman Julia Morley explained, "I do not want to upset or get anyone in a situation where we are being disrespectful."
Dr. Brooke Magnanti argued that the decision to yield to religious fundamentalists was not a victory for feminism:
While no great fan of pageants there's something about this that rubs the wrong way. For some time it's been clear that the interests and tactics of certain types of feminism and certain types of religious fundamentalism not only converge, but seem to complement each other.
Donald Trump, who owns the Miss Universe Beauty Pageant, a competitor to the Miss World contest, was delighted to learn of the rival organization's decision. He told Fox TV, "Well, I own Miss Universe, so I'm actually very happy about it—because if [Miss World] doesn't have bikinis their ratings go right down the tubes."
Miss Earth contest
Vida Samadzai was the 2003 Afghani contestant for the Miss Earth title. She was severely condemned by the both Afghan authorities and community for seeking the title. Samadzai was born in Afghanistan but raised in the United States. She was living in India at the time of the contest. The Afghan Supreme Court banned swimsuit contests and said that appearing naked in beauty contests is completely un-Islamic, and is against Afghan tradition, human honour and dignity. Habiba Sarabi, the Afghan women affairs minister, said Samadzai's semi-naked appearance "is not women's freedom butdon my opinion is to entertain men". Afghanistan's embassy in Washington DC declared that claims by Afghan American Samadzai to represent Afghanistan is baseless. Samadzai, the second woman to be crowned Miss Afghanistan after Zohra Daoud's crowning in 1972, received a number of death threats and had to be under the protection of FBI for three months. She said she was a bit uncomfortable wearing the "70s style red bikini" and was aware of the risks involved.
Miss Tanguita means Miss of Child in Bikini is held in Barbosa, Santader, Colombia as annual part of del Rio Suarez Festival. The major denies that the competition is camouflage of child prostution, but rather a demonstration in how important it is to keep healthy and to take care the body. Some activists say that the competition abuses the human rights of women.
- "Inside Line: Homemade bikini contest marks 12th year". Advertising Age (Crain Communications Inc.). May 29, 2000.
- Roger Chapman, Culture Wars: An Encyclopedia of Issues, Viewpoints, and Voices, pages 38–39, M.E. Sharpe, 2010, ISBN 9780765622501
- "Teen To Appear on Nationally Televised Pageant". Fayetteville Observer (Charles Broadwell). August 7, 1993.
- Anne Bolin, Jane Granskog, Athletic Intruders: Ethnographic Research on Women, Culture, and Exercise, page 114, SUNY Press, 2003, ISBN 9780791455838
- Kotel, Amanda (October 1, 2012). "What's the Deal with Bikini Contests?". Muscle & Body. Retrieved August 23, 2013.
- "Beauty and body image in the media". Media Awareness Network. Archived from the original on 18 January 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-17.
- "Reigning Miss Universe Suspected of Having Cosmetic Surgery". Archived from the original on 26 August 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-23.
- "Plastic Surgery: Bollywood, Miss Universe, and the Indian Girl Next Door" (PDF). Gujarati Magazine (Sandesh). Retrieved 2010-08-23.
- Stein, Elissa; Meriwether, Lee (2006). Beauty Queen. Chronicle Books. p. 45. ISBN 0-8118-4864-7.
- Dewey, Susan (2008). Making Miss India Miss World. Syracuse University Press. p. 46. ISBN 0-8156-3176-6.
- Lovegrove, Keith (2002). Pageant: The Beauty Contest. teNeues. p. 1967. ISBN 3-8238-5569-7.
- Shin, Han (2004). Beauty with a Purpose. iUniverse. p. 193. ISBN 0-595-30926-7.
- "Selvedge: The Fabric of Your Life". Selvedge Ltd. 2005. p. 39.
- Marcus, Ben; Divine, Jeff (2005). Surfing USA!: An Illustrated History of the Coolest Sport of All Time. MVP Books. p. 60. ISBN 978-0-89658-690-1.
- Magnanti, Brooke (7 June 2013). "Miss World bikini ban: why it's no victory for feminists". Telegraph. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "Miss Greece now Miss World, despite pageant protests". CNN. 23 November 1996. Archived from the original on 17 December 2003.
- Pratap, Anita (22 November 1996). "Indian police prepare for worst in beauty pageant clash". CNN. Archived from the original on 4 April 2003.
- Pratap, Anita (17 November 1996). "Beauty pageant in India becomes a contest of wills". CNN.
- Sinclair, Emma (20 May 2013). "Miss World owner: How a mother and housewife gave the beauty pageant a positive legacy". Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- "Miss World Beauty Pageant Bans Bikinis". The Huffington Post. June 10, 2013. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
The bikini segment is one of the cornerstones of the Miss World Beauty Pageant but the 2013 event will not be featuring them. Out of respect to this year's Muslim host nation Indonesia, the 137 contestants at the event in Jakarta will be wearing the traditional long sarongs of Bali instead.
- Lewis, Leo. "Miss World contest cuts bikini round to appease Muslim world". Times Newspapers Limited. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
- Maass, Harold (7 June 2013). "The controversial bikini ban at the Miss World beauty pageant". Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- Magnanti, Brooke (June 7, 2013). "Miss World bikini ban: why it's no victory for feminists". The Telegraph. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
- Harrison, Lily (June 10, 2013). "Donald Trump Defends Bikini Contests on Miss World Competition". E!Online. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
Bikini contests aren't going anywhere if Donald Trump has his way.
- Gersh Kuntzman, "Beauty is a Beast", Newsweek, 2003-11-03
- Ayesha Matthan, "Fida over Vida", The Hindu, 2007-12-18
- News desk, "Afghan Supreme Court bans beauty pageants", Independent Online, 2003-09-30
- Farhad J. Dadyburjor, "I was under FBI's watch for 3 months: Miss Afghanistan", Daily News and Analysis, 2006-06-29
- News Desk, "Miss Afghanistan says she was uncomfortable wearing bikini, goal is to help women and children back home", Financial Times, 2003-11-07
- Kimi Yoshino, "Causing a stir, all because of a bikini", Times New Service , 2003-11-28
- Raya Desmawanto Nainggolan (January 14, 2015). "Wah, Kontes Ratu Bikini Anak-anak Digelar di Negara Ini".
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bikini.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bikini contests.|
- Bikinicontest.com – a gathering spot for bikini models and contest participants
- Bikinicontestsguide.com – a guide on how to organize bikini contests