This article is about the various sociolinguistic dialects of Bikol. For the standardized dialect of Bikol based on the
Geographic distribution of major Bikol languages and dialects across
; classification based on Lobel (2013)
Bikol languages are a group of Central Philippine languages spoken mostly on the Bicol Peninsula of the island of Luzon and also parts of Catanduanes and Burias Islands and Masbate province. There is a dialect continuum between the Visayan languages and the Bikol languages; the two together are called the Bisakol languages.
Internal classification [ edit ]
Ethnologue [ edit ]
The languages of Bikol grouped according to
McFarland (1974) [ edit ]
Curtis McFarland gives the following classification for the Bikol languages.
Lobel (2000) [ edit ]
While McFarland (1974) splits Bikol into 11 dialects, Lobel (2000) splits Bikol into 12 different dialects (including Partido Bikol, which McFarland does not differentiate) and 4 main branches.
Central Standard – Spoken primarily in Naga City. Also recognized (and sometimes understood) in Daet, Camarines Norte and many other areas of Camarines Sur; San Pascual, Masbate on Burias Island; Legazpi City and other cities along the eastern coast of Albay and northeastern Sorsogon.
Daet area variant
Naga City area variant Eastern Standard Bikol – Spoken in and around
Legazpi City and North Sorsogon
Partido – Spoken in the Camarines Sur municipalities of Ocampo, Goa, Tigaon, Lagonoy, Sagñay, and San Jose. This dialect has a mellow intonation and is heavily influenced by Riŋkonāda.
South Catanduanes – Spoken in the southern half of Catanduanes.
Virac area variant San Miguel variant (transitional to North Catanduanes)
– Spoken primarily in Riŋkonāda Iriga City, Baao; Bula; Balatan; Baao; and Nabua, Camarines Sur. Also in Ocampo, Buhi and Pili in Camarines Sur and in parts of Polangui, Albay.
Lowland Riŋkonāda dialect (lacks /
ə/ vowel) Highland Riŋkonāda dialect (with /
Buhinon – Spoken in Buhi, Camarines Sur. Contains features from both Bikol of Polangui and Bikol of Iriga.
Libon – Spoken in Libon, Albay.
West Miraya – Spoken in Ligao City, Polangui, Oas, and Pio Duran, Albay.
East Miraya – Spoken in Guinobatan; Camalig; Daraga; Jovellar, Albay; Donsol and Pilar, Sorsogon.
Guinobatan) Far East (
Camalig, Daraga) Southeast (
Jovellar, Albay, Donsol, Pilar)
Central Sorsogon – Spoken in Sorsogon City; Castilla; Casiguran; and Juban, Sorsogon.
Castilla Sorsogon (mixed with Legazpi Bikol)
Casiguran- Juban variant
Southern Sorsogon also known as Gubat language – Spoken in Gubat; Barcelona; Bulusan; Santa Magdalena; Matnog; Irosin; and Bulan, Sorsogon.
– Spoken in Masbatenyo Masbate City; Mobo; Uson; Dimasalang; Palanas; Masbate; Aroroy on the island of Masbate, all of Ticao Island, and Claveria on the southern half of Burias Island.
Ticao Island variant
Some dialects of Southern Bikol have the
close central unrounded vowel /ɨ/ as a reflex of Proto-Austronesian *e. However, Proto-Austronesian *e is realized as /o/ in Libon. Two Bikol dialects have unique additional consonants, namely Southern Catanduanes, which has an interdental lateral consonant /l̟/ (also transcribed as l̪͆ ), [4 ] and Buhi-non, which has the [5 ] voiced velar fricative /ɣ/. [6 ]
References [ edit ]
^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Bikol". . Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. Glottolog
^ McFarland, Curtis D. The Dialects of the Bikol Area. Ph.D. dissertation. New Haven: Dept. of Linguistics, Yale University, 1974.
^ Lobel, Jason William, Tria, Wilmer Joseph S., and Carpio, Jose Maria Z. 2000. An satuyang tataramon / A Study of the Bikol Language. Naga City, Philippines: Lobel & Tria Partnership, Co.: Holy Rosary Minor Seminary.
^ Lobel, Jason. 2009. "Bikol". In , 158-161. Oxford: Elsevier. Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World
General references [ edit ]
Lobel, Jason William; Tria, Wilmer Joseph S. and Carpio, Jose Maria Z. 2000.
An satuyang tataramon / A Study of the Bikol Language. Naga City, Philippines: Lobel & Tria Partnership, Co.: Holy Rosary Minor Seminary.
External links [ edit ]