Voiced bilabial nasal

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Voiced bilabial nasal
m
IPA Number114
Encoding
Entity (decimal)m
Unicode (hex)U+006D
X-SAMPAm
Braille⠍ (braille pattern dots-134)
Audio sample

The voiced bilabial nasal is a type of consonantal sound used in almost all spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨m⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is m. The bilabial nasal occurs in English, and it is the sound represented by "m" in map and rum. Only very few languages (e.g. Wyandot) are known to lack this sound.

Features[edit]

Voiced bilabial nasal.svg

Features of the voiced bilabial nasal:

  • Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Because the consonant is also nasal, the blocked airflow is redirected through the nose.
  • Its place of articulation is bilabial, which means it is articulated with both lips.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is a nasal consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the nose, either exclusively (nasal stops) or in addition to through the mouth.
  • Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the centrallateral dichotomy does not apply.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Varieties[edit]

IPA Description
m plain m
palatalised
velarised
pharyngealized

Occurrence[edit]

Occurrence of /m/ in several languages.
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe мазэ/māză [maːza] 'moon'
Arabic Standard[1] مطابخ/maṭābiḫ [maˈtˤɑːbɪχ] 'kitchens' See Arabic phonology
Armenian Eastern[2] մայր/mayr [mɑjɾ]  'mother'
Assyrian ܡܪܐ/mara [maːra] 'owner'
Basque maitatu [majt̪at̪u] 'to love'
Bengali মা/ma [ma] 'mother' See Bengali phonology
Bulgarian мъгла/măgla [mɐɡla] 'fog'
Catalan[3] meu [ˈmeʊ̯] 'mine' See Catalan phonology
Cherokee /ama [ama˦] 'water'
Chinese Cantonese / māau [maːu̯˥] 'cat' See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin / māo [mɑʊ̯˥] See Mandarin phonology
Chukchi Mанэгран [maneɣɻan] 'tent'
Chuvash манăн/manăn 'my'
Czech m [mʊʃ] 'man' See Czech phonology
Dutch[4] mond [mɔnt] 'mouth' See Dutch phonology
Dhivehi mas [mas̪] 'fish' See Dhivehi phonology
English him [hɪm] 'him' See English phonology
Esperanto tempo [ˈtempo] 'time' See Esperanto phonology
Filipino manok [maˈnok] 'chicken' See Filipino phonology
Finnish minä [ˈminæ] 'I' See Finnish phonology
French[5] manger [mɑ̃ʒe] 'to eat' See French phonology
Georgian[6] სა/sami [ˈsɑmi] 'three'
German Maus [maʊ̯s] 'mouse' See Standard German phonology
Greek[7] μάζα / maza [ˈmaza] 'clump' See Modern Greek phonology
Gujarati મો / mōr [moːɾ] 'male peacock' See Gujarati phonology
Hawaiian[8] maka [maka] 'eye' See Hawaiian phonology
Hindi धु/madhū [məd̪ʱuː] 'honey' See Hindi-Urdu phonology
Hebrew אמא/ima [ˈʔimäʔ] 'mother' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hungarian ma [mɒ] 'today' See Hungarian phonology
Indonesian[9] masuk [ˈmäsʊʔ] 'enter'
Italian[10] mamma [ˈmamma] 'mommy' See Italian phonology
Japanese[11] 乾杯 / kampai [kampai] 'cheers' See Japanese phonology
Kabardian мазэ/mazè [maːza] 'moon'
Kagayanen[12] manang [manaŋ] 'older sister'
Khmer ខ្មែរ / khmêr [kʰmae] 'Khmer' See Khmer phonology
Korean 마을 / maeul [ma̠ɯɭ] 'village' See Korean phonology
Lithuanian mama [ˈmɐmɐ] 'mom'
Macedonian мајка/majka [ˈmajka] 'mother' See Macedonian phonology
Malay malam [mäläm] 'night'
Malayalam[13] കമ്മി/kammi [kəmmi] 'shortage'
Maltese ilma [ilma] 'water'
Marathi /man [mən] 'mind' See Marathi phonology
Mutsun muruṭ [muɾuʈ] 'night'
Nepali मा/āmā [ämä] 'mother' See Nepali phonology
Norwegian mamma [ˈmɑmːɑ] 'mom' See Norwegian phonology
Ojibwe /anaamim [ənaːˈmɪm] 'accuse' See Ojibwe phonology
Odia ମା/ [mä] 'mother'
Persian مادر/mâdar [mɒdær] 'mother' See Persian phonology
Pirahã baíxi [ˈmàí̯ʔì] 'parent' allophone of /b/
Polish[14] masa [ˈmäsä] 'mass' See Polish phonology
Portuguese[15] mato [ˈmatu] 'bush' See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi ਮੈਂ/mēm̐ [mɛ̃ː] 'I'
Russian[16] муж/muzh [muʂ] 'husband' Contrasts with palatalized version. See Russian phonology
Sanskrit अहम् /aham [əhəm] 'I' See Sanskrit phonology
Serbo-Croatian[17] мој / moj [mȏːj] 'my' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak m [mu̞ʂ] 'man'
Slovene m [míʃ] 'mouse'
Spanish[18] grumete [ɡɾuˈme̞te̞] 'cabin boy' See Spanish phonology
Swahili miti [ˈmiti] 'trees'
Swedish mask [mask] 'worm' See Swedish phonology
Telugu బ్బు [mabːu] 'cloud' Occurs as allophone of anuswara when followed by retroflex stops
Thai มม / mommaem [mɔːm.mɛːm] 'shabby' See Thai phonology
Toki Pona mani [mani] 'money'
Tsez мец/mec [mɛ̝t͡s] 'tongue'
Turkish benim [be̞nim] 'mine' See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian[19] молоко/moloko [mɔɫɔˈkɔ] 'milk' See Ukrainian phonology
Urdu مکان/makān [məkaːn] 'house' See Hindi-Urdu phonology
Uyghur مەن/men [mæn] 'I'
Vietnamese[20] muối [mwojˀ˧˥] 'salt' See Vietnamese phonology
Welsh mam [mam] 'mother' See Welsh phonology
West Frisian mar [mar] 'lake' See West Frisian phonology
Yi / ma [ma˧] 'bamboo'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[21] man [maŋ] 'animal'

Palatalized[edit]

Occurrence of /mʲ/ in several languages.
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Bulgarian[22] мя́сто/mjásto [mʲa̟sto] 'place' Contrasts with /m/. See Bulgarian phonology.
Irish [mʲeː] 'I' Contrasts with /mˠ/. See Irish phonology.
Kildin Saami[23] ме̄рр/mʹērr [mʲerː] 'sea' Kildin Saami contrasts varieties of bilabial nasals in voicedness, length and palatalization.[23]
Latgalian[24] miļti [mʲilʲtʲi][25] 'flour' Contrasts with /m/.[26] See Latgalian phonology.
Lithuanian[27] miglà [mʲɪɡˈɫa] 'mist' Contrasts with /m/. See Lithuanian phonology
Marshallese[28] emān [ɛmʲænʲ] 'four' Contrasts with /mˠ/.[28]
Nenets Tundra Nenets[29] мяˮ/ḿaq [mʲɑ][30] 'tent' Contrasts with /m/.[29]
Forest Nenets[29]
Russian медь/medʹ [mʲetʲ] 'copper' Contrasts with /m/. See Russian phonology.
Veps[31] nem' [nemʲ] 'peninsula' Contrasts with /m/.[31]

Velarized[edit]

Occurrence of /mˠ/ in several languages.
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Gilbertese mwe[32] [mˠe] 'sleep' Contrasts with /m/ and /mː/.
Irish [mˠɑː] 'if' Contrasts with /mʲ/. See Irish phonology.
Marshallese[28] m̧winam̧ōn [mˠinʲɑmˠʌnʲ] 'caterpillar' Contrasts with /mʲ/.[28]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Thelwall (1990:37)
  2. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:19)
  3. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992:53)
  4. ^ Gussenhoven (1992:45)
  5. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993:73)
  6. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006:255)
  7. ^ Newton (1972:10)
  8. ^ Ladefoged (2005:139)
  9. ^ Soderberg & Olson (2008:210)
  10. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:117)
  11. ^ Okada (1999:117)
  12. ^ Olson et al. (2010:206–207)
  13. ^ Ladefoged (2005:165)
  14. ^ Jassem (2003:103)
  15. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91)
  16. ^ Padgett (2003:42)
  17. ^ Landau et al. (1999), p. 67.
  18. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:255)
  19. ^ Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  20. ^ Thompson (1959:458–461)
  21. ^ Merrill (2008:108)
  22. ^ Klagstad (1958:48)
  23. ^ a b Rießler (2022:222)
  24. ^ Nau (2011:12)
  25. ^ Nau (2011:14)
  26. ^ Nau (2011:12)
  27. ^ Pakerys (1995:?)
  28. ^ a b c d Choi (1992:14)
  29. ^ a b c Burkova (2022:680)
  30. ^ Burkova (2022:681)
  31. ^ a b Grünthal (2022:294)
  32. ^ Stephen & Groves (1978)

References[edit]

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  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (1–2): 53–56, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618, S2CID 249411809
  • Choi, John (1992). "Phonetic Underspecification and Target Interpolation: An Acoustic Study of Marshallese Vowel Allophony". Working Papers in Phonetics. Los Angeles: UCLA. 82. Retrieved April 23, 2022.
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223, S2CID 249414876
  • Danyenko, Andrii; Vakulenko, Serhii (1995), Ukrainian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 978-3-929075-08-3
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L (1993), "Illustrations of the IPA:French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 23 (2): 73–76, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874, S2CID 249404451
  • Riho, Grünthal (2022). "Veps". The Oxford Guide to the Uralic Languages. Oxford Guides to the World's Languages (1st ed.). Oxford University Press.
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X, S2CID 243772965
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  • Klagstad, Harold (1958). "The Phonemic System of Colloquial Standard Bulgarian". Slavic and East European Journal. American Association of Teachers of Slavic and East European Languages. 2 (1): 42–54. doi:10.2307/304696. JSTOR 304696.
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  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344
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  • Pakerys, Antanas (1995). Lietuvių bendrinės kalbos fonetika (in Lithuanian). Vilnius: Žara. OCLC 911717523.
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External links[edit]