Bilal ibn Rabah

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Bilāl ibn Rabāḥ
بِلَال بِن رَبَاح
BornMarch 5, 580
BirthplaceMecca, Hejaz
Known forbeing the first mu'azzin in Islam history [1][2]
OccupationMu'azzin and Secretary of Treasure of The Islamic State of Medina
TitleSayyid al-Muʾaḏḏin
DiedMarch 2, 640(640-03-02) (aged 59)
  • Hind
  • Hala bint Awf[3]

Bilāl ibn Rabāḥ (Arabic: بِلَال بِن رَبَاح) (5 March 580 – 2 March 640), was one of the Sahabah (companions) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He was born in Mecca and is considered to have been the first mu'azzin in history, chosen by Muhammad himself.[1][4][5][6] He was a former Abyssinian slave and was known for his voice with which he called people to their prayers. He died in 640, around the age of 60.

Birth and early life[edit]

Bilal ibn Rabah was born in Mecca in the Hejaz in the year 580.[7] His father Rabah was allegedly a slave for the clan of Banu Jumah while his mother, Hamamah, was allegedly a former princess of Abyssinia[8] who was captured after the event of the Year of the Elephant, and put into slavery. Being born into slavery, Bilal had no other option but to work for his master, Umayyah ibn Khalaf. Through hard work, Bilal became recognised as a good slave and was entrusted with the keys to the Idols of Arabia. However, racism and sociopolitical statutes of Arabia prevented Bilal from achieving a great position in society.[7]

Bilal's appearance[edit]

Bilal (left) with another of Muhammad's companions in Musa va 'Uj, an early 15th century painting

In his book, Bilal ibn Rabah, Muhammad Abdul-Rauf states that Bilal "was of a handsome and impressive stature, dark brown complexion with sparkling eyes, a fine nose and bright skin. He was also gifted with a deep, melodious, resonant voice. He wore a beard which was thin on both cheeks. He was endowed with great wisdom and a sense of dignity and self esteem."[9] Similarly, in his book The Life of Muhammad, William Muir states that Bilal "was tall, dark, and with African feature and bushy hair."[10] Muir also states that noble members of the Quraysh despised Bilal and called him "Ibn Sawda" (son of the black woman).[10]

Conversion to Islam[edit]

When Muhammad announced his prophethood and started to preach the message of Islam, Bilal renounced idol worship, becoming one of the earliest converts to the faith.[11]

Persecution of Bilal[edit]

Bilal ibn Rabah being whipped after he declared his Islamic Faith.

When Bilal's slave master, Umayyah ibn Khalaf, found out, he began to torture Bilal.[7] At the instigation of Abu Jahl, Umayyah bound Bilal and had him dragged around Mecca as children mocked him.[11] Bilal refused to renounce Islam, instead repeating "ahad, ahad" ("one, one"), i.e., one God.[11][12] Incensed at Bilal's refusal, Umayyah ordered that Bilal be whipped and beaten while spread-eagled upon the Arabian sands under the desert sun, his limbs bound to stakes. When Bilal still refused to recant, Umayyah ordered that a hot boulder be placed on Bilal's chest.[7] However, Bilal remained firm in belief and continued to say "ahad, ahad".[7]

Bilal's emancipation[edit]

News of the persecution of Bilal reached some of Muhammad's companions, who informed him. Muhammad sent Abu Bakr to negotiate for the emancipation of Bilal, who manumitted him after either purchasing him or exchanging him for a non-Muslim slave.[7][13][14][15]

Bilal in Madina[edit]

In the newly formed Islamic state of Madina, Bilal had become a prominent contributing member of the Muslim society taking on important roles.


Muhammad chose Bilal as the first mu'azzin (reciter of the Adhan).[16]

Sunni view[edit]

The majority of mosques around the world recite the Athan according to the Sunni tradition. A dream was seen by Abdullah ibn Zaid where an angel in the form of a man wearing a green garment taught the words of the adhan. Muhammad then instructed Abdullah to teach those words to Bilal because he had a louder voice than him. Umar ibn al-Khattab also saw the same dream. The detail of this story is mentioned below.

It is narrated in Sunan Ibn Majah [17] that Abdullah ibn Zaid said the following:

The Messenger of Allah was thinking of a horn, and he commanded that a bell be made and it was done. Then 'Abdullah bin Zaid had a dream. He said: "I saw a man wearing two green garments, carrying a bell. I said to him, 'O slave of Allah, will you sell the bell?' He said; 'What will you do with it?' I said, 'I will call (the people) to prayer.' He said, 'Shall I not tell you of something better than that?' I said, 'What is it?' he said, 'Say:

Allahu Akbar Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar Allahu Akbar; (Allah is The Most Great, Allah is The Most Great)
Ash-hadu an la ilaha illallah, Ash-hadu an la ilaha illallah; (I bear witness that there is no god except Allah, I bear witness that there is no god except Allah.)
Ash-hadu anna Muhammadan Rasulullah, Ash-hadu anna Muhammadan Rasulullah; (I bear witness that Muhammed is the Messenger of Allah, I bear witness that Muhammed is the Messenger of Allah)
Hayya 'alas-salah, Hayya 'alas-salah; (Come to the Prayer, Come to the Prayer)
Hayya 'alal-falah, Hayya 'alal-falah; (Come to the prosperity, Come to the prosperity)
Allahu Akbar Allahu Akbar; (Allah is the Most great, Allah is the Most Great)
La ilaha illallah (There is no god except Allah)."

'Abdullah bin Zaid went out and came to the Messenger of Allah, and told him what he had seen. He said, "O Messenger of Allah, I saw a man wearing two green garments carrying a bell," and he told him the story. The Messenger of Allah said, "Your companion has had a dream. Go out with Bilal to the mosque and teach it to him, for he has a louder voice than you." I ('Abdullah) went out with Bilal to the mosque, and I started teaching him the words and he was calling them out. 'Umar Al-Khattab heard the voice and came out saying, "O Messenger of Allah! By Allah, I saw the same (dream) as him." (Hasan) Abu 'Ubaid said: "Abu Bakr Al-Hakami told me that 'Abdullah bin Zaid Al-Ansari said concerning that: 'I praise Allah, the Possessor of majesty and honor, A great deal of praise for the Adhan. Since the news of it came to me from Allah, So due to it, I was honored by the information. During the three nights. Each of which increased me in honor.'"

Shia view[edit]

Shias, in contrast, do not accept Abdullah ibn Ziyad's story.[18] They state that the Adhan was revealed to Muhammad just as the Qur'an al-Majid was revealed to him.[18] Shias believe that the Adhan could not be left to the dreams or reveries.[18] Furthermore, Sayed Ali Asgher Razwy states, "If the Prophet could teach the Muslims how to perform prostrations, and how, when, and what to say in each prayer, he could also teach them how and when to alert others before the time for each prayer." According to the Shia traditions, the angel who taught Muhammad how to perform ablutions preparatory to prayers and how to perform prayers also taught him the Adhan.[18]


Bilal rose to prominence in the Islamic community of Medina, as Muhammad appointed him minister of the Bayt al-Mal (treasury).[19] In this capacity, Bilal distributed funds to widows, orphans, wayfarers, and others who could not support themselves.[19][18]

Military campaigns during Muhammad's era[edit]

He participated in the Battle of Badr. Muhammad's forces included Ali ibn Abi Talib, Hamza ibn Abd al-Muttalib, Ammar ibn Yasir, Abu Dharr al-Ghifari, Abu Bakr, Umar, Mus`ab ibn `Umair, and Az-Zubair bin Al-'Awwam. The Muslims also brought seventy camels and two horses, meaning that they either had to walk or fit three to four men per camel.[20] However, many early Muslim sources indicate that no serious fighting was expected,[21] and the future Caliph Uthman stayed behind to care for his sick wife Ruqayyah, the daughter of Muhammad.[22] Salman the Persian also could not join the battle, as he was still not a free man.[23][24]

His piety[edit]

Bilal was among the sahabah promised Paradise in this world, as mentioned in the story of his footsteps being heard in paradise.[25]

At the time of the Fajr prayer the Prophet (ﷺ) asked Bilal, "Tell me of the best deed you did after embracing Islam, for I heard your footsteps in front of me in Paradise." Bilal replied, "I did not do anything worth mentioning except that whenever I performed ablution during the day or night, I prayed after that ablution as much as was written for me."

After Muhammad[edit]

Shia view[edit]

After Muhammad died in 632 CE, Bilal was one of the people who did not give bay'ah (the oath of allegiance) to Abu Bakr.[2][26][27][28] It is documented that when Bilal did not give bay'ah to Abu Bakr, Umar ibn al-Khattab grabbed Bilal by his clothes and asked, "Is this the reward of Abu Bakr; he emancipated you and you are now refusing to pay allegiance to him?[2]

Bilal replied, "If Abu Bakr had emancipated me for the pleasure of Allah, then let him leave me alone for Allah; and if he had emancipated me for his service, then I am ready to render him the services required. But I am not going to pay allegiance to a person whom the Messenger of God had not appointed as his caliph."[2] Similarly, al-Isti'ab, a Sunni source, states that Bilal told Abu Bakr: "If you have emancipated me for yourself, then make me a captive again; but if you had emancipated me for Allah, then let me go in the way of Allah."

This was said when Bilal wanted to go for Jihad. Abu Bakr then let him go."[2][29]

The following is a poem by Bilal on his refusal to give Abu Bakr bay'ah:

By Allah! I did not turn towards Abu Bakr,
If Allah had not protected me,
hyena would have stood on my limbs.
Allah has bestowed on me good
and honoured me,
Surely there is vast good with Allah.
You will not find me following an innovator,
Because I am not an innovator, as they are.[2]

Being exiled from Medina by Umar and Abu Bakr, Bilal migrated to Syria.[2]

Abu Ja'far al-Tusi, a Shia scholar, has also stated in lkhtiyar al-Rijal that Bilal refused to pay allegiance to Abu Bakr.[2]

Sunni view[edit]

In the Sīrat Abī Bakr Al-Ṣiddīq that compiled many narrations and compiled historical circumstances regarding the rule of Caliph Abu Bakr, Bilal accompanied the Muslim armies, under the commands of Said ibn Aamir al-Jumahi, to Syria.[30]

Sufi view[edit]

Purnam Allahabadi, a Sufi poet from Pakistan, composed a Qawwali in which he mentioned how time had stopped when some companions blocked Bilal from delivering the Adhan (which he had seen in his dream), and appealed that it was incorrect.[31] Because the companion Bilal was of an Abyssinian origin, he could not pronounce the letter "Sh" (Arabic: Shin ش ). A hadith of Muhammad reports that he said, "The 'seen' of Bilal is 'sheen' in the hearing of Allah," meaning God does not look at the external but appreciates the purity of heart.[32]


Grave of Bilal in Bab al-Saghir cemetery, Damascus.

The Sunni scholar al-Suyuti in his Tarikh al-khulafa wrote: "He (Bilal) died in Damascus in 17 or 18 AH, but some say 20 AH, or even 21 AH when he was just over sixty years old. Some said he died in Medina, but that is wrong. That is how it is in al-Isabah and other works such as the Tahdhib of an-Nawawi."[33]

When Bilal's wife realized that death was approaching Bilal, she became sorrowful.[34] It is documented that she cried and said, "What a painful affliction!"[34] However, Bilal objected to his wife's opinion by stating, "On the contrary, what a happy occasion! Tomorrow I will meet my beloved Muhammad and his faction (hizb)!"[34]

He is believed to have been buried in the Bab al-Saghir cemetery, Damascus.[35][36] However, there exists another shrine,[37] believed to be the burial of Bilal, near a small village called al-Rabahiyya, in Amman, Jordan.

Descendants and legacy[edit]

The descendants of Bilal ibn Rabah al-Habashi are said to have migrated to the land of Ethiopia in East Africa.[38] The Imperial family of Mali in West Africa also claims descent from him.

Another alleged tomb of Bilal in Amman, Jordan

Though there are some disagreements concerning the hard facts of Bilal's life and death, his importance on a number of levels is incontestable. Mu'azzins, especially those in Turkey and Africa, have traditionally venerated the original practitioner of their profession. The story of Bilal is the most frequently cited demonstration of Islam's views of measure people not by their nationality nor social status nor race, but measuring people by their Taqwah (piety).[additional citation(s) needed]

In 1874, Edward Wilmot Blyden, a former slave of African descent, wrote: "The eloquent Adzan or Call to Prayer, which to this day summons at the same hours millions of the human race to their devotions, was first uttered by a Negro, Bilal by name, whom Mohammed, in obedience to a dream, appointed the first Mu'azzin. And it has been remarked that even Alexander the Great is in Asia an unknown personage by the side of this honoured Negro."[39]

See also[edit]



  1. ^ a b "Slavery in Islam." BBC News. BBC, 2009. Web. 2013.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Riz̤vī, Sayyid Sa'eed Ak̲h̲tar. Slavery: From Islamic & Christian Perspectives. Richmond, British Columbia: Vancouver Islamic Educational Foundation, 1988. Print. ISBN 0-920675-07-7 Pg. 35-36
  3. ^ "الإصابة في تمييز الصحابة، لابن حجر العسقلاني، ترجمة هالة بنت عوف الزهرية، موقع صحابة رسولنا". Archived from the original on 2018-07-15. Retrieved 2021-05-30.
  4. ^ Ludwig W. Adamec (2009), Historical Dictionary of Islam, p.68. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0810861615.
  5. ^ Robinson, David. Muslim Societies in African History. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Print.
  6. ^ Levtzion, Nehemia, and Randall Lee Pouwels. The History of Islam in Africa. South Africa: Ohio UP, 2000. Print.
  7. ^ a b c d e f Janeh, Sabarr. Learning from the Life of Prophet Muhammad (SAW): Peace and Blessing of God Be upon Him. Milton Keynes: AuthorHouse, 2010. Print. ISBN 1467899666 Pgs. 235-238
  8. ^ Stadler, Nurit (2020). Voices of the Ritual. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-750130-6.
  9. ^ Abdul-Rauf, Muhammad. Bilāl Ibn Rabāh: A Leading Companion of The Prophet Muhammad (SAW). Indianapolis, Indiana: American Trust Publications, 1977. Print. ISBN 0892590084 Pg.5
  10. ^ a b Muir, Sir William. The Life of Mohammad From Original Sources. Edinburgh: J. Grant, 1923. Print. ISBN 0404563066 Pg. 59
  11. ^ a b c Sodiq, Yushau. Insider's Guide to Islam. Bloomington, Indiana: Trafford, 2011. Print. ISBN 1466924160 Pg. 23
  12. ^ "Sunan Ibn Majah, Vol. 1, Book 1, Hadith 150".
  13. ^ 'Arafat, W. (1960). "Bilal b. Rabah". In Gibb, H. A. R.; Kramers, J. H.; Lévi-Provençal, E.; Schacht, J.; Lewis, B. & Pellat, Ch. (eds.). The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Volume I: A–B. Leiden: E. J. Brill. p. 1215. OCLC 495469456.
  14. ^ Ibn Hisham, Sirah, V. 1, p. 339-340
  15. ^ Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat, V. 3, p. 232
  16. ^ Ludwig W. Adamec (2009), Historical Dictionary of Islam, p.68. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0810861615. Quote: "Bilal, ..., was the first mu'azzin."
  17. ^ "Sunan Ibn Majah - The Book of the Adhan, Hadith #1".
  18. ^ a b c d e Razwy, Ali A. A Restatement of the History of Islam & Muslims 570 to 661 CE. Stanmore, Middlesex, U.K.: World Federation of K S I Muslim Communities Islamic Centre, 1997. Print. Pg. 553
  19. ^ a b Charbonneau, Joshua (Mateen). The Suffering of the Ahl-ul-bayt and Their Followers (Shi'a) throughout History. Washington, D.C.: J. M. Charbonneau, 2012. Print.
  20. ^ Lings, pp. 138–139
  21. ^ "Sahih al-Bukhari: Volume 5, Book 59, Number 287". Archived from the original on 16 August 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2010.
  22. ^ "Sahih al-Bukhari: Volume 4, Book 53, Number 359". Archived from the original on July 20, 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2010.
  23. ^ "". 16 September 2002. Archived from the original on 5 February 2010. Retrieved 19 March 2010.
  24. ^ "Sahih al-Bukhari: Volume 5, Book 59, Number 286". Archived from the original on 16 August 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2010.
  25. ^ "Sahih Bukhari Vol. 2, Book 21, Hadith 250".
  26. ^ Shustari, Nurullah, Majalisu'1-Mu'minin (Tehran, 1268 AH) p. 54; and also see Ibn Sa'd, op. cit., vol. III:1, pg. 169.
  27. ^ Ahmed, A.K. The Hidden Truth About Karbala. Ed. Abdullah Al-shahin. Qum, Iran: Ansariyan Publications, n.d. Print. ISBN 978-964-438-921-4 Pg. 307
  28. ^ Meri, Josef W., and Jere L. Bacharach. Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. New York: Routledge, 2006. Print. ISBN 0415966914 Pg. 109
  29. ^ Abdullah, Ysuf. al-Isti'ab. Print. Pg.150
  30. ^ Dr. Ali Muhammad As-Sallaabee The Biography of Abu Bakr As-Sideeq. Riyadh: Maktaba Dar-us-Salaam, 2007. Print. ISBN 9960-9849-1-5
  31. ^ "Lyrics, Translation, and Explanation of "Bhar do Jholi"". 25 December 2014.
  32. ^ Akram, Muhammad (February 24, 2012). "BILAL - E - HABSHI (RadiAllahTalaAnhu): Bilal Ibn Rabah Al-Habashi".
  33. ^ Rijal: Narrators of the Muwatta of Imam Muhammad." Bogvaerker. N.p., 08 Jan. 2005. Web. 2013.
  34. ^ a b c Qušairī, Abd-al-Karīm Ibn-H̲awāzin Al-, and Abu'l-Qasim al-Qushayri. al-Qushayri's Epistle on Sufism: al-Risala al-Qushayriyya Fi 'ilm al-Tasawwuf. Trans. Alexander D. Knysh. Lebanon: Garnet & Ithaca Press, 2007. Print. ISBN 1859641865 Pg.313
  35. ^ "Bab al-Saghir Cemetery (Goristan Ghariban)". Madain Project. Archived from the original on 2 June 2020. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  36. ^ "Tomb of Bilal ibn Rabah (Bilal, the Ethiopian)". Madain Project. Archived from the original on 2 June 2020. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  37. ^ "Shrine of Bilal ibn Rabah". Madain Project. Archived from the original on 2 June 2020. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  38. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. The Heart of Islam: Enduring Values for Humanity. New York, New York: HarperCollins, 2009. Print. ISBN 0061746606 Pg. 92
  39. ^ "Mohammedanism and The Negro Race." Fraser's Magazine, July Dec. 1875: 598-615. Print.

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