Bilhah (בִּלְהָה "faltering; bashful", Standard Hebrew Bilha, Tiberian Hebrew Bilhâ) is a person mentioned in the Book of Genesis. Genesis 29:29 describes her as Laban's handmaid, who was given to Rachel to be her handmaid on Rachel's marriage to Jacob. When Rachel failed to have children, Rachel gave Bilhah to Jacob "to wife" to bear him children. (Genesis 30:3-5) Bilhah gave birth to two sons, who Rachel claimed as her own and named Dan and Naphtali. (Genesis 30:6-8, 35:25) (the use in the Torah of the prefix "to", as in "took to wife", may indicate that the wife is a concubine or inferior wife). Genesis 35:22 expressly calls Bilhah Jacob's concubine, a pilegesh.)
The Testament of Naftali, part of the Dead Sea Scrolls, says that Bilhah and Zilpah's father was named Ahotay. He was taken into captivity but redeemed by Laban, Rachel and Leah's father, who gave Ahotay a wife named Hannah, who was their mother. Rabbinic sources (Midrash Raba, and elsewhere), on the other hand, state that Bilhah and Zilpah were also Laban's daughters, through his concubines, making them half-sisters to Rachel and Leah. (See also, Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer, xxxvi.)
Reuben's adultery with Bilhah
Reuben was Jacob's (Israel) eldest son with Leah. Genesis 35:22 says "And it was during the stay of Israel in that land, and Reuben went and lay with Bilhah, his father's concubine, and Israel heard..." As a result of this adultery, he lost the respect of his father, as Genesis 49:4 says: "Turbulent as the waters, you will no longer excel, for you went up onto your father’s bed, onto my couch and defiled it." Some rabbinical commentators interpreted the story differently, saying that Reuben's disruption of Bilhah's and/or Jacob's beds was not through sex with Bilhah. As long as Rachel was alive, say these commentators, Jacob kept his bed in her tent and visited the other wives in theirs. When Rachel died, Jacob moved his bed into the tent of Bilhah, who had been mentored by Rachel, to retain a closeness to his favourite wife. However, Reuben, Leah's eldest, felt that this move slighted his mother, who was also a primary wife, and so he moved Jacob's bed into his mother's tent and removed or overturned Bilhah's. This invasion of Jacob's privacy was viewed so gravely that the Bible equates it with adultery, and lost Reuben his first-born right to a double inheritance.
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In popular culture
- Women, similar to wives from vadimcherny.org
- Ginzberg, Louis (1909) The Legends of the Jews, Volume I, Chapter VI: Jacob, at sacred-texts.com
- 1 Chronicles 4:27-29
- Genesis 35:22, this is from Wikisource translation, but King James and all other translations are essentially identical.
- Drazin, Israel, and Stanley M. Wagner: Onkelos on the Torah: Be-reshit, p. 239
- Fraade, Steven: Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, p. 423
- Geness 20:12: Sarah was the half–sister of Abraham
- Genesis 22:21-22: Uz, Buz, Kemuel, Chesed, Hazo, Pildash, and Jidlaph