|42nd President of the United States|
January 20, 1993 – January 20, 2001
|Vice President||Al Gore|
|Preceded by||George H. W. Bush|
|Succeeded by||George W. Bush|
|40th and 42nd Governor of Arkansas|
January 11, 1983 – December 12, 1992
|Preceded by||Frank D. White|
|Succeeded by||Jim Guy Tucker|
January 9, 1979 – January 19, 1981
|Preceded by||Joe Purcell (acting)|
|Succeeded by||Frank D. White|
|50th Attorney General of Arkansas|
January 3, 1977 – January 9, 1979
|Preceded by||Jim Guy Tucker|
|Succeeded by||Steve Clark|
William Jefferson Blythe III
August 19, 1946
Hope, Arkansas, U.S.
|Awards||List of honors and awards|
40th & 42nd Governor of Arkansas
42nd President of the United States
William Jefferson Clinton (né Blythe III; born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd president of the United States from 1993 to 2001. A member of the Democratic Party, he previously served as governor of Arkansas from 1979 to 1981 and again from 1983 to 1992. Clinton, whose policies reflected a centrist "Third Way" political philosophy, became known as a New Democrat.
Clinton was born and raised in Arkansas. He graduated from Georgetown University and later from Yale Law School, where he met his future wife, Hillary Rodham. After graduating from law school, Clinton returned to Arkansas and won election as state attorney general, followed by two non-consecutive tenures as Arkansas governor. As governor, he overhauled the state's education system and served as chairman of the National Governors Association. Clinton was elected president in the 1992 election, defeating incumbent Republican president George H. W. Bush and independent businessman Ross Perot. He became the first president to be born in the Baby Boomer generation.
Clinton presided over the longest period of peacetime economic expansion in American history. He signed into law the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act, but failed to pass his plan for national health care reform. The Republican Party won unified control of Congress for the first time in 40 years in the 1994 elections, but Clinton was still comfortably re-elected president in 1996 against both Republican Bob Dole and Perot—now the Reform Party nominee. Starting in the mid-1990s, he began an ideological evolution as he became much more conservative in his domestic policy, advocating for and signing the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act, the State Children's Health Insurance Program and financial deregulation measures. He appointed Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Stephen Breyer to the U.S. Supreme Court. During the last three years of Clinton's presidency, the Congressional Budget Office reported a budget surplus—the first such surplus since 1969. In foreign policy, Clinton ordered U.S. military intervention in the Bosnian and Kosovo wars, eventually signing the Dayton Peace agreement. He also called for the expansion of NATO in Eastern Europe and many former Warsaw Pact members joined NATO during his presidency. Clinton's foreign policy in the Middle East saw him sign the Iraq Liberation Act which gave aid to groups against Saddam Hussein. He also participated in the Oslo I Accord and Camp David Summit to advance the Israeli–Palestinian peace process, and assisted the Northern Ireland peace process.
Clinton's second term was dominated by the Clinton–Lewinsky scandal, which began in 1995, when he had a sexual relationship with 22-year-old White House intern Monica Lewinsky. In January 1998, news of the affair made tabloid headlines. This scandal escalated throughout the year, culminating in December when Clinton was impeached by the House of Representatives. The two impeachment articles that the House passed were centered around him using the powers of the presidency to obstruct the investigation and lying under oath. In 1999, Clinton's impeachment trial began in the Senate, where he was acquitted on both charges.
Clinton left office in 2001 with the joint-highest approval rating of any U.S. president. His presidency ranks among the middle to upper tier in historical rankings of U.S. presidents. However, his personal conduct and allegations of sexual assault have made him the subject of substantial scrutiny. Since leaving office, Clinton has been involved in public speaking and humanitarian work. He created the Clinton Foundation to address international causes such as the prevention of HIV/AIDS and global warming. In 2009, he was named the United Nations special envoy to Haiti. After the 2010 Haiti earthquake, Clinton founded the Clinton Bush Haiti Fund. He has remained active in Democratic Party politics, campaigning for his wife's 2008 and 2016 presidential campaigns.
Early life and career
Clinton was born William Jefferson Blythe III on August 19, 1946, at Julia Chester Hospital in Hope, Arkansas. He is the son of William Jefferson Blythe Jr., a traveling salesman who died in an automobile accident three months before his birth, and Virginia Dell Cassidy (later Virginia Kelley). His parents had married on September 4, 1943, but this union later proved to be bigamous, as Blythe was still married to his fourth wife. Virginia traveled to New Orleans to study nursing soon after Bill was born, leaving him in Hope with her parents Eldridge and Edith Cassidy, who owned and ran a small grocery store. At a time when the southern United States was racially segregated, Clinton's grandparents sold goods on credit to people of all races. In 1950, Bill's mother returned from nursing school and married Roger Clinton Sr., who co-owned an automobile dealership in Hot Springs, Arkansas, with his brother and Earl T. Ricks. The family moved to Hot Springs in 1950.
Although he immediately assumed use of his stepfather's surname, it was not until Clinton turned 15 that he formally adopted the surname Clinton as a gesture toward him. Clinton has described his stepfather as a gambler and an alcoholic who regularly abused his mother and half-brother, Roger Clinton Jr. The physical abuse only ceased after a then-14-year-old Bill challenged his stepfather to "stand and face" him, though the verbal/emotional abuse continued. Bill would eventually forgive Roger Sr. for his abusive actions near the latter's death.
In Hot Springs, Clinton attended St. John's Catholic Elementary School, Ramble Elementary School, and the segregated Hot Springs High School, where he was an active student leader, avid reader, and musician. Clinton was in the chorus and played the tenor saxophone, winning first chair in the state band's saxophone section. In 1961, Clinton became a member of the Hot Springs Chapter of the Order of DeMolay, a youth group affiliated with Freemasonry, but he never became a Freemason. He briefly considered dedicating his life to music, but as he noted in his autobiography My Life:
Clinton began an interest in law at Hot Springs High, when he took up the challenge to argue the defense of the ancient Roman senator Catiline in a mock trial in his Latin class. After a vigorous defense that made use of his "budding rhetorical and political skills", he told the Latin teacher Elizabeth Buck it "made him realize that someday he would study law".
Clinton has identified two influential moments in his life, both occurring in 1963, that contributed to his decision to become a public figure. One was his visit as a Boys Nation senator to the White House to meet President John F. Kennedy. The other was watching Martin Luther King Jr.'s 1963 "I Have a Dream" speech on TV, which impressed him so much that he later memorized it.
College and law school years
With the aid of scholarships, Clinton attended the School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., receiving a Bachelor of Science in foreign service degree in 1968. Georgetown was the only school where Clinton applied.
In 1964 and 1965, Clinton won elections for class president. From 1964 to 1967, he was an intern and then a clerk in the office of Arkansas Senator J. William Fulbright. While in college, he became a brother of service fraternity Alpha Phi Omega and was elected to Phi Beta Kappa. He is a member of Kappa Kappa Psi honorary band fraternity.
Upon graduating from Georgetown in 1968, Clinton won a Rhodes Scholarship to University College, Oxford, where he initially read for a B.Phil. in philosophy, politics, and economics but transferred to a B.Litt. in politics and, ultimately, a B.Phil. in politics. Clinton did not expect to return for the second year because of the draft and so he switched programs; this type of activity was common among other Rhodes Scholars from his cohort. He had received an offer to study at Yale Law School, and so he left early to return to the United States and did not receive a degree from Oxford.
During his time at Oxford, Clinton befriended fellow American Rhodes Scholar Frank Aller. In 1969, Aller received a draft letter that mandated deployment to the Vietnam War. Aller's 1971 suicide had an influential impact on Clinton. British writer and feminist Sara Maitland said of Clinton, "I remember Bill and Frank Aller taking me to a pub in Walton Street in the summer term of 1969 and talking to me about the Vietnam War. I knew nothing about it, and when Frank began to describe the napalming of civilians I began to cry. Bill said that feeling bad wasn't good enough. That was the first time I encountered the idea that liberal sensitivities weren't enough and you had to do something about such things". Clinton was a member of the Oxford University Basketball Club and also played for Oxford University's rugby union team.
While Clinton was president in 1994, he received an honorary degree and a fellowship from the University of Oxford, specifically for being "a doughty and tireless champion of the cause of world peace", having "a powerful collaborator in his wife", and for winning "general applause for his achievement of resolving the gridlock that prevented an agreed budget".
Vietnam War opposition and draft controversy
During the Vietnam War, Clinton received educational draft deferments while he was in England in 1968 and 1969. While at Oxford, he participated in Vietnam War protests and organized a Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam event in October 1969. He was planning to attend law school in the U.S. and knew he might lose his deferment. Clinton tried unsuccessfully to obtain positions in the National Guard and the Air Force officer candidate school, and he then made arrangements to join the Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) program at the University of Arkansas.
He subsequently decided not to join the ROTC, saying in a letter to the officer in charge of the program that he opposed the war, but did not think it was honorable to use ROTC, National Guard, or Reserve service to avoid serving in Vietnam. He further stated that because he opposed the war, he would not volunteer to serve in uniform, but would subject himself to the draft, and would serve if selected only as a way "to maintain my political viability within the system". Clinton registered for the draft and received a high number (311), meaning that those whose birthdays had been drawn as numbers 1 to 310 would be drafted before him, making it unlikely he would be called up. (In fact, the highest number drafted was 195.)
Colonel Eugene Holmes, the Army officer who had been involved with Clinton's ROTC application, suspected that Clinton attempted to manipulate the situation to avoid the draft and avoid serving in uniform. He issued a notarized statement during the 1992 presidential campaign:
During the 1992 campaign, it was revealed that Clinton's uncle had attempted to secure him a position in the Navy Reserve, which would have prevented him from being deployed to Vietnam. This effort was unsuccessful and Clinton said in 1992 that he had been unaware of it until then. Although legal, Clinton's actions with respect to the draft and deciding whether to serve in the military were criticized during his first presidential campaign by conservatives and some Vietnam veterans, some of whom charged that he had used Fulbright's influence to avoid military service. Clinton's 1992 campaign manager, James Carville, successfully argued that Clinton's letter in which he declined to join the ROTC should be made public, insisting that voters, many of whom had also opposed the Vietnam War, would understand and appreciate his position.
After Oxford, Clinton attended Yale Law School and earned a Juris Doctor (J.D.) degree in 1973. In 1971, he met his future wife, Hillary Rodham, in the Yale Law Library; she was a class year ahead of him. They began dating and were soon inseparable. After only about a month, Clinton postponed his summer plans to be a coordinator for the George McGovern campaign for the 1972 United States presidential election in order to move in with her in California. The couple continued living together in New Haven when they returned to law school.
Clinton eventually moved to Texas with Rodham in 1972 to take a job leading McGovern's effort there. He spent considerable time in Dallas, at the campaign's local headquarters on Lemmon Avenue, where he had an office. Clinton worked with future two-term mayor of Dallas Ron Kirk, future governor of Texas Ann Richards, and then unknown television director and filmmaker Steven Spielberg.
Failed congressional campaign and tenure as Attorney General of Arkansas
After graduating from Yale Law School, Clinton returned to Arkansas and became a law professor at the University of Arkansas. In 1974, he ran for the House of Representatives. Running in the conservative 3rd district against incumbent Republican John Paul Hammerschmidt, Clinton's campaign was bolstered by the anti-Republican and anti-incumbent mood resulting from the Watergate scandal. Hammerschmidt, who had received 77 percent of the vote in 1972, defeated Clinton by only a 52 percent to 48 percent margin. In 1976, Clinton ran for Arkansas attorney general. Defeating the secretary of state and the deputy attorney general in the Democratic primary, Clinton was elected with no opposition at all in the general election, as no Republican had run for the office.
Governor of Arkansas (1979–1981, 1983–1992)
In 1978, Clinton entered the Arkansas gubernatorial primary. At just 31 years old, he was one of the youngest gubernatorial candidates in the state's history. Clinton was elected governor of Arkansas in 1978, having defeated the Republican candidate Lynn Lowe, a farmer from Texarkana. Clinton was only 32 years old when he took office, the youngest governor in the country at the time and the second youngest governor in the history of Arkansas. Due to his youthful appearance, Clinton was often called the "Boy Governor". He worked on educational reform and directed the maintenance of Arkansas's roads, with wife Hillary leading a successful committee on urban health care reform. However, his term included an unpopular motor vehicle tax and citizens' anger over the escape of Cuban refugees (from the Mariel boatlift) detained in Fort Chaffee in 1980. Monroe Schwarzlose, of Kingsland in Cleveland County, polled 31 percent of the vote against Clinton in the Democratic gubernatorial primary of 1980. Some suggested Schwarzlose's unexpected voter turnout foreshadowed Clinton's defeat by Republican challenger Frank D. White in the general election that year. As Clinton once joked, he was the youngest ex-governor in the nation's history.
Clinton joined friend Bruce Lindsey's Little Rock law firm of Wright, Lindsey and Jennings. In 1982, he was elected governor a second time and kept the office for ten years. Effective with the 1986 election, Arkansas had changed its gubernatorial term of office from two to four years. During his term, he helped transform Arkansas's economy and improved the state's educational system. For senior citizens, he removed the sales tax from medications and increased the home property-tax exemption. He became a leading figure among the New Democrats, a group of Democrats who advocated welfare reform, smaller government, and other policies not supported by liberals. Formally organized as the Democratic Leadership Council (DLC), the New Democrats argued that in light of President Ronald Reagan's landslide victory in 1984, the Democratic Party needed to adopt a more centrist political stance in order to succeed at the national level. Clinton delivered the Democratic response to Reagan's 1985 State of the Union Address and served as chair of the National Governors Association from 1986 to 1987, bringing him to an audience beyond Arkansas.
In the early 1980s, Clinton made reform of the Arkansas education system a top priority of his gubernatorial administration. The Arkansas Education Standards Committee was chaired by Clinton's wife Hillary, who was also an attorney as well as the chair of the Legal Services Corporation. The committee transformed Arkansas's education system. Proposed reforms included more spending for schools (supported by a sales-tax increase), better opportunities for gifted children, vocational education, higher teachers' salaries, more course variety, and compulsory teacher competency exams. The reforms passed in September 1983 after Clinton called a special legislative session—the longest in Arkansas history. Many have considered this the greatest achievement of the Clinton governorship. He defeated four Republican candidates for governor: Lowe (1978), White (1982 and 1986), Jonesboro businessmen Woody Freeman (1984), and Sheffield Nelson of Little Rock (1990).
Also in the 1980s, the Clintons' personal and business affairs included transactions that became the basis of the Whitewater controversy investigation, which later dogged his presidential administration. After extensive investigation over several years, no indictments were made against the Clintons related to the years in Arkansas.
According to some sources, Clinton was a death penalty opponent in his early years, but he eventually switched positions. However he might have felt previously, by 1992, Clinton was insisting that Democrats "should no longer feel guilty about protecting the innocent". During Clinton's final term as governor, Arkansas performed its first executions since 1964 (the death penalty had been reinstated in 1976). As Governor, he oversaw the first four executions carried out by the state of Arkansas since the death penalty was reinstated there in 1976: one by electric chair and three by lethal injection. To draw attention to his stance on capital punishment, Clinton flew home to Arkansas mid-campaign in 1992, in order to affirm in person that the controversial execution of Ricky Ray Rector, would go forward as scheduled.
1988 Democratic presidential primaries
In 1987, the media speculated that Clinton would enter the presidential race after incumbent New York governor Mario Cuomo declined to run and Democratic front-runner Gary Hart withdrew owing to revelations of multiple marital infidelities. Clinton decided to remain as Arkansas governor (following consideration for the potential candidacy of Hillary for governor, initially favored—but ultimately vetoed—by the First Lady). For the nomination, Clinton endorsed Massachusetts governor Michael Dukakis. He gave the nationally televised opening night address at the 1988 Democratic National Convention, but his speech, which was 33 minutes long and twice the length it was expected to be, was criticized for being too long and poorly delivered. Clinton presented himself both as a moderate and as a member of the New Democrat wing of the Democratic Party, and he headed the moderate Democratic Leadership Council in 1990 and 1991.
1992 United States presidential election
In the first primary contest, the Iowa Caucus, Clinton finished a distant third to Iowa senator Tom Harkin. During the campaign for the New Hampshire primary, reports surfaced that Clinton had engaged in an extramarital affair with Gennifer Flowers. Clinton fell far behind former Massachusetts senator Paul Tsongas in the New Hampshire polls. Following Super Bowl XXVI, Clinton and his wife Hillary went on 60 Minutes to rebuff the charges. Their television appearance was a calculated risk, but Clinton regained several delegates. He finished second to Tsongas in the New Hampshire primary, but after trailing badly in the polls and coming within single digits of winning, the media viewed it as a victory. News outlets labeled him "The Comeback Kid" for earning a firm second-place finish.
Winning the big prizes of Florida and Texas and many of the Southern primaries on Super Tuesday gave Clinton a sizable delegate lead. However, former California governor Jerry Brown was scoring victories and Clinton had yet to win a significant contest outside his native South. With no major Southern state remaining, Clinton targeted New York, which had many delegates. He scored a resounding victory in New York City, shedding his image as a regional candidate. Having been transformed into the consensus candidate, he secured the Democratic Party nomination, finishing with a victory in Jerry Brown's home state of California.
During the campaign, questions of conflict of interest regarding state business and the politically powerful Rose Law Firm, at which Hillary Rodham Clinton was a partner, arose. Clinton argued the questions were moot because all transactions with the state had been deducted before determining Hillary's firm pay. Further concern arose when Bill Clinton announced that, with Hillary, voters would be getting two presidents "for the price of one".
Clinton was still the governor of Arkansas while campaigning for U.S. president, and he returned to his home state to see that Ricky Ray Rector would be executed. After killing a police officer and a civilian, Rector shot himself in the head, leading to what his lawyers said was a state where he could still talk but did not understand the idea of death. According to both Arkansas state law and federal law, a seriously mentally impaired inmate cannot be executed. The courts disagreed with the allegation of grave mental impairment and allowed the execution. Clinton's return to Arkansas for the execution was framed in an article for The New York Times as a possible political move to counter "soft on crime" accusations.
Bush's approval ratings were around 80 percent during the Gulf War, and he was described as unbeatable. When Bush compromised with Democrats to try to lower federal deficits, he reneged on his promise not to raise taxes, which hurt his approval rating. Clinton repeatedly condemned Bush for making a promise he failed to keep. By election time, the economy was souring and Bush saw his approval rating plummet to just slightly over 40 percent. Finally, conservatives were previously united by anti-communism, but with the end of the Cold War, the party lacked a uniting issue. When Pat Buchanan and Pat Robertson addressed Christian themes at the Republican National Convention—with Bush criticizing Democrats for omitting God from their platform—many moderates were alienated. Clinton then pointed to his moderate, "New Democrat" record as governor of Arkansas, though some on the more liberal side of the party remained suspicious. Many Democrats who had supported Ronald Reagan and Bush in previous elections switched their support to Clinton. Clinton and his running mate, Al Gore, toured the country during the final weeks of the campaign, shoring up support and pledging a "new beginning".
On March 26, 1992, during a Democratic fund raiser of the presidential campaign, Robert Rafsky confronted then Gov. Bill Clinton of Arkansas and asked what he was going to do about AIDS, to which Clinton replied, "I feel your pain". The televised exchange led to AIDS becoming an issue in the 1992 presidential election. On April 4, then candidate Clinton met with members of ACT UP and other leading AIDS advocates to discuss his AIDS agenda and agreed to make a major AIDS policy speech, to have people with HIV speak to the Democratic Convention, and to sign onto the AIDS United Action five point plan.
Clinton won the 1992 presidential election (370 electoral votes) against Republican incumbent George H. W. Bush (168 electoral votes) and billionaire populist Ross Perot (zero electoral votes), who ran as an independent on a platform that focused on domestic issues. Bush's steep decline in public approval was a significant part of Clinton's success. Clinton's victory in the election ended twelve years of Republican rule of the White House and twenty of the previous twenty-four years. The election gave Democrats full control of the United States Congress, the first time one party controlled both the executive and legislative branches since Democrats held the 96th United States Congress during the presidency of Jimmy Carter.
According to Seymour Martin Lipset, the 1992 election had several unique characteristics. Voters felt that economic conditions were worse than they actually were, which harmed Bush. A rare event was the presence of a strong third-party candidate. Liberals launched a backlash against 12 years of a conservative White House. The chief factor was Clinton's uniting his party, and winning over a number of heterogeneous groups.
Clinton's "third way" of moderate liberalism built up the nation's fiscal health and put the nation on a firm footing abroad amid globalization and the development of anti-American terrorist organizations.
During his presidency, Clinton advocated for a wide variety of legislation and programs, most of which were enacted into law or implemented by the executive branch. His policies, particularly the North American Free Trade Agreement and welfare reform, have been attributed to a centrist Third Way philosophy of governance. His policy of fiscal conservatism helped to reduce deficits on budgetary matters. Clinton presided over the longest period of peacetime economic expansion in American history.
The Congressional Budget Office reported budget surpluses of $69 billion in 1998, $126 billion in 1999, and $236 billion in 2000, during the last three years of Clinton's presidency. Over the years of the recorded surplus, the gross national debt rose each year. At the end of the fiscal year (September 30) for each of the years a surplus was recorded, The U.S. treasury reported a gross debt of $5.413 trillion in 1997, $5.526 trillion in 1998, $5.656 trillion in 1999, and $5.674 trillion in 2000. Over the same period, the Office of Management and Budget reported an end of year (December 31) gross debt of $5.369 trillion in 1997, $5.478 trillion in 1998, $5.606 in 1999, and $5.629 trillion in 2000. At the end of his presidency, the Clintons moved to 15 Old House Lane in Chappaqua, New York, in order to quell political worries about his wife's residency for election as a U.S. Senator from New York.
First term (1993–1997)
"Our democracy must be not only the envy of the world but the engine of our own renewal. There is nothing wrong with America that cannot be cured by what is right with America."
Inaugural address, January 20, 1993.
After his presidential transition, Clinton was inaugurated as the 42nd president of the United States on January 20, 1993. Clinton was physically exhausted at the time, and had an inexperienced staff. His high levels of public support dropped in the first few weeks, as he made a series of mistakes. His first choice for attorney general had not paid her taxes on babysitters and was forced to withdraw. The second appointee also withdrew for the same reason. Clinton had repeatedly promised to encourage gays in the military service, despite what he knew to be the strong opposition of the military leadership. He tried anyway, and was publicly opposed by the top generals, and forced by Congress to a compromise position of "Don't ask, don't tell" whereby gays could serve if and only if they kept it secret. He devised a $16-billion stimulus package primarily to aid inner-city programs desired by liberals, but it was defeated by a Republican filibuster in the Senate. His popularity at the 100 day mark of his term was the lowest of any president at that point.
Public opinion did support one liberal program, and Clinton signed the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, which required large employers to allow employees to take unpaid leave for pregnancy or a serious medical condition. This action had bipartisan support, and was popular with the public.
Two days after taking office, on January 22, 1993—the 20th anniversary of the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade—Clinton reversed restrictions on domestic and international family planning programs that had been imposed by Reagan and Bush. Clinton said abortion should be kept "safe, legal, and rare"—a slogan that had been suggested by political scientist Samuel L. Popkin and first used by Clinton in December 1991, while campaigning. During the eight years of the Clinton administration, the abortion rate declined by 18 percent.
On February 15, 1993, Clinton made his first address to the nation, announcing his plan to raise taxes to close a budget deficit. Two days later, in a nationally televised address to a joint session of Congress, Clinton unveiled his economic plan. The plan focused on reducing the deficit rather than on cutting taxes for the middle class, which had been high on his campaign agenda. Clinton's advisers pressured him to raise taxes, based on the theory that a smaller federal budget deficit would reduce bond interest rates.
President Clinton's attorney general Janet Reno authorized the FBI's use of armored vehicles to deploy tear gas into the buildings of the Branch Davidian community near Waco, Texas, in hopes of ending a 51 day siege. During the operation on April 19, 1993, the buildings caught fire and 75 of the residents died, including 24 children. The raid had originally been planned by the Bush administration; Clinton had played no role.
In August, Clinton signed the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993, which passed Congress without a Republican vote. It cut taxes for 15 million low-income families, made tax cuts available to 90 percent of small businesses, and raised taxes on the wealthiest 1.2 percent of taxpayers. Additionally, it mandated that the budget be balanced over many years through the implementation of spending restraints.
On September 22, 1993, Clinton made a major speech to Congress regarding a health care reform plan; the program aimed at achieving universal coverage through a national health care plan. This was one of the most prominent items on Clinton's legislative agenda and resulted from a task force headed by Hillary Clinton. The plan was well received in political circles, but it was eventually doomed by well-organized lobby opposition from conservatives, the American Medical Association, and the health insurance industry. However, Clinton biographer John F. Harris said the program failed because of a lack of coordination within the White House. Despite the Democratic majority in Congress, the effort to create a national health care system ultimately died when compromise legislation by George J. Mitchell failed to gain a majority of support in August 1994. The failure of the bill was the first major legislative defeat of the Clinton administration.
On November 30, 1993, Clinton signed into law the Brady Bill, which mandated federal background checks on people who purchase firearms in the United States. The law also imposed a five-day waiting period on purchases, until the NICS system was implemented in 1998. He also expanded the Earned Income Tax Credit, a subsidy for low-income workers.
In December of the same year, allegations by Arkansas state troopers Larry Patterson and Roger Perry were first reported by David Brock in The American Spectator. In the affair later known as "Troopergate", the officers alleged that they had arranged sexual liaisons for Clinton back when he was governor of Arkansas. The story mentioned a woman named Paula, a reference to Paula Jones. Brock later apologized to Clinton, saying the article was politically motivated "bad journalism", and that "the troopers were greedy and had slimy motives".
That month, Clinton implemented a Department of Defense directive known as "Don't Ask, Don't Tell", which allowed gay men and women to serve in the armed services provided they kept their sexual preferences a secret. The Act forbade the military from inquiring about an individual's sexual orientation. The policy was developed as a compromise after Clinton's proposal to allow gays to serve openly in the military met staunch opposition from prominent Congressional Republicans and Democrats, including senators John McCain (R-AZ) and Sam Nunn (D-GA). According to David Mixner, Clinton's support for the compromise led to a heated dispute with Vice President Al Gore, who felt that "the President should lift the ban ... even though [his executive order] was sure to be overridden by the Congress". Some gay-rights advocates criticized Clinton for not going far enough and accused him of making his campaign promise to get votes and contributions. Their position was that Clinton should have integrated the military by executive order, noting that President Harry S. Truman used executive order to racially desegregate the armed forces. Clinton's defenders argued that an executive order might have prompted the Senate to write the exclusion of gays into law, potentially making it harder to integrate the military in the future. Later in his presidency, in 1999, Clinton criticized the way the policy was implemented, saying he did not think any serious person could say it was not "out of whack". The policy remained controversial, and was finally repealed in 2011, removing open sexual orientation as a reason for dismissal from the armed forces.
On January 1, 1994, Clinton signed the North American Free Trade Agreement into law. Throughout his first year in office, Clinton consistently supported ratification of the treaty by the U.S. Senate. Clinton and most of his allies in the Democratic Leadership Committee strongly supported free trade measures; there remained, however, strong disagreement within the party. Opposition came chiefly from anti-trade Republicans, protectionist Democrats and supporters of Ross Perot. The bill passed the house with 234 votes in favor and 200 votes opposed (132 Republicans and 102 Democrats in favor; 156 Democrats, 43 Republicans, and one independent opposed). The treaty was then ratified by the Senate and signed into law by the president.
On July 29, 1994, the Clinton administration launched the first official White House website, whitehouse.gov. The site was followed with three more versions, with the final version being launched on July 21, 2000. The White House website was part of a wider movement of the Clinton administration toward web-based communication. According to Robert Longley, "Clinton and Gore were responsible for pressing almost all federal agencies, the U.S. court system and the U.S. military onto the Internet, thus opening up America's government to more of America's citizens than ever before. On July 17, 1996, Clinton issued Executive Order 13011—Federal Information Technology, ordering the heads of all federal agencies to utilize information technology fully to make the information of the agency easily accessible to the public."
The Omnibus Crime Bill, which Clinton signed into law in September 1994, made many changes to U.S. crime and law enforcement legislation including the expansion of the death penalty to include crimes not resulting in death, such as running a large-scale drug enterprise. During Clinton's re-election campaign he said, "My 1994 crime bill expanded the death penalty for drug kingpins, murderers of federal law enforcement officers, and nearly 60 additional categories of violent felons." It also included a subsection of assault weapons ban for a ten-year period.
A speech delivered by President Bill Clinton at the December 6, 1995 White House Conference on HIV/AIDS projected that a cure for AIDS and a vaccine to prevent further infection would be developed. The President focused on his administration's accomplishments and efforts related to the epidemic, including an accelerated drug-approval process. He also condemned homophobia and discrimination against people with HIV. Clinton announced three new initiatives: creating a special working group to coordinate AIDS research throughout the federal government; convening public health experts to develop an action plan that integrates HIV prevention with substance abuse prevention; and launching a new effort by the Department of Justice to ensure that health care facilities provide equal access to people with HIV and AIDS.
On September 21, 1996, Clinton signed into law the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), which defined marriage for federal purposes as the legal union of one man and one woman; the legislation allowed individual states to refuse to recognize gay marriages that were performed in other states. Paul Yandura, speaking for the White House gay and lesbian liaison office, said Clinton's signing DOMA "was a political decision that they made at the time of a re-election". In defense of his actions, Clinton has said that DOMA was intended to "head off an attempt to send a constitutional amendment banning gay marriage to the states", a possibility he described as highly likely in the context of a "very reactionary Congress". Administration spokesman Richard Socarides said, "the alternatives we knew were going to be far worse, and it was time to move on and get the president re-elected." Clinton himself said DOMA was something "which the Republicans put on the ballot to try to get the base vote for Bush up, I think it's obvious that something had to be done to try to keep the Republican Congress from presenting that"; Others were more critical. The veteran gay rights and gay marriage activist Evan Wolfson has called these claims "historic revisionism". Despite this, it has been noted that other than a brief written response to a Reader's Digest that questioned whether he agreed with it, Clinton had made no documented reference to the issue of gay marriage until May 1996. In a July 2, 2011, editorial The New York Times opined, "The Defense of Marriage Act was enacted in 1996 as an election-year wedge issue, signed by President Bill Clinton in one of his worst policy moments." Ultimately, in United States v. Windsor, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down DOMA in June 2013.
Despite DOMA, Clinton was the first president to select openly gay persons for administrative positions, and he is generally credited as being the first president to publicly champion gay rights. During his presidency, Clinton issued two substantially controversial executive orders on behalf of gay rights, the first lifting the ban on security clearances for LGBT federal employees and the second outlawing discrimination based on sexual orientation in the federal civilian workforce. Under Clinton's leadership, federal funding for HIV/AIDS research, prevention and treatment more than doubled. Clinton also pushed for passing hate crimes laws for gays and for the private sector Employment Non-Discrimination Act, which, buoyed by his lobbying, failed to pass the Senate by a single vote in 1996. Advocacy for these issues, paired with the politically unpopular nature of the gay rights movement at the time, led to enthusiastic support for Clinton's election and reelection by the Human Rights Campaign. Clinton came out for gay marriage in July 2009 and urged the Supreme Court to overturn DOMA in 2013. He was later honored by GLAAD for his prior pro-gay stances and his reversal on DOMA.
"When I took office, only high energy physicists had ever heard of what is called the Worldwide Web ... Now even my cat has its own page."
The 1996 United States campaign finance controversy was an alleged effort by China to influence the domestic policies of the United States, before and during the Clinton administration, and involved the fundraising practices of the administration itself. Despite the evidence, the Chinese government denied all accusations.
As part of a 1996 initiative to curb illegal immigration, Clinton signed the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA) on September 30, 1996. Appointed by Clinton, the U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform recommended reducing legal immigration from about 800,000 people a year to about 550,000.
In November 1996, Clinton narrowly escaped possible assassination in the Philippines, which was a bridge bomb planted by al-Qaeda and was masterminded by Osama bin Laden. During Clinton's presidency, the attempt remained top secret.
1996 presidential campaign
In the 1996 presidential election, Clinton was re-elected, receiving 49.2 percent of the popular vote over Republican Bob Dole (40.7 percent of the popular vote) and Reform candidate Ross Perot (8.4 percent of the popular vote). Clinton received 379 of the Electoral College votes, with Dole receiving 159 electoral votes. With his victory, he became the first Democrat to win two consecutive presidential elections since Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Second term (1997–2001)
In the January 1997, State of the Union address, Clinton proposed a new initiative to provide health coverage to up to five million children. Senators Ted Kennedy—a Democrat—and Orrin Hatch—a Republican—teamed up with Hillary Rodham Clinton and her staff in 1997, and succeeded in passing legislation forming the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), the largest (successful) health care reform in the years of the Clinton Presidency. That year, Hillary Clinton shepherded through Congress the Adoption and Safe Families Act and two years later she succeeded in helping pass the Foster Care Independence Act. Bill Clinton negotiated the passage of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 by the Republican Congress. In October 1997, he announced he was getting hearing aids, due to hearing loss attributed to his age, and his time spent as a musician in his youth. In 1999, he signed into law the Financial Services Modernization Act also known as the Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act, which repealed the part of the Glass–Steagall Act that had prohibited a bank from offering a full range of investment, commercial banking, and insurance services since its enactment in 1933.
In November 1993, David Hale—the source of criminal allegations against Bill Clinton in the Whitewater controversy—alleged that while governor of Arkansas, Clinton pressured Hale to provide an illegal $300,000 loan to Susan McDougal, the Clintons' partner in the Whitewater land deal. A U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission investigation resulted in convictions against the McDougals for their role in the Whitewater project, but the Clintons themselves were never charged, and Clinton maintains his and his wife's innocence in the affair. Investigations Robert B. Fiske and Ken Starr found insufficient to evidence to prosecute the Clintons.
The White House FBI files controversy of June 1996 arose concerning improper access by the White House to FBI security-clearance documents. Craig Livingstone, head of the White House Office of Personnel Security, improperly requested, and received from the FBI, background report files without asking permission of the subject individuals; many of these were employees of former Republican administrations. In March 2000, Independent Counsel Robert Ray determined there was no credible evidence of any crime. Ray's report further stated, "there was no substantial and credible evidence that any senior White House official was involved" in seeking the files.
On May 19, 1993, Clinton fired seven employees of the White House Travel Office. This caused the White House travel office controversy even though the travel office staff served at the pleasure of the president and could be dismissed without cause. The White House responded to the controversy by claiming that the firings were done in response to financial improprieties that had been revealed by a brief FBI investigation. Critics contended that the firings had been done to allow friends of the Clintons to take over the travel business and the involvement of the FBI was unwarranted. The House Government Reform and Oversight Committee issued a report which accused the Clinton administration of having obstructed their efforts to investigate the affair. Special counsel Robert Fiske said that Hillary Clinton was involved in the firing and gave "factually false" testimony to the GAO, congress, and the independent counsel. However Fiske said there was not enough evidence to prosecute.
Impeachment and acquittal
After a House inquiry, Clinton was impeached on December 19, 1998, by the House of Representatives. The House voted 228–206 to impeach him for perjury to a grand jury and voted 221–212 to impeach him for obstruction of justice. Clinton was only the second U.S. president (the first being Andrew Johnson) to be impeached. Impeachment proceedings were based on allegations that Clinton had illegally lied about and covered up his relationship with 22-year-old White House (and later Department of Defense) employee Monica Lewinsky. After the Starr Report was submitted to the House providing what it termed "substantial and credible information that President Clinton Committed Acts that May Constitute Grounds for an Impeachment", the House began impeachment hearings against Clinton before the mid-term elections. To hold impeachment proceedings, Republican leadership called a lame-duck session in December 1998.
While the House Judiciary Committee hearings ended in a straight party-line vote, there was lively debate on the House floor. The two charges passed in the House (largely with Republican support, but with a handful of Democratic votes as well) were for perjury and obstruction of justice. The perjury charge arose from Clinton's testimony before a grand jury that had been convened to investigate perjury he may have committed in his sworn deposition during Jones v. Clinton, Paula Jones's sexual harassment lawsuit. The obstruction charge was based on his actions to conceal his relationship with Lewinsky before and after that deposition.
The Senate later acquitted Clinton of both charges. The Senate refused to meet to hold an impeachment trial before the end of the old term, so the trial was held over until the next Congress. Clinton was represented by Washington law firm Williams & Connolly. The Senate finished a twenty-one-day trial on February 12, 1999, with the vote of 55 not guilty/45 guilty on the perjury charge and 50 not guilty/50 guilty on the obstruction of justice charge. Both votes fell short of the constitutional two-thirds majority requirement to convict and remove an officeholder. The final vote was generally along party lines, with no Democrats voting guilty, and only a handful of Republicans voting not guilty.
On January 19, 2001, Clinton's law license was suspended for five years after he acknowledged to an Arkansas circuit court he had engaged in conduct prejudicial to the administration of justice in the Jones case.
Pardons and commutations
Clinton issued 141 pardons and 36 commutations on his last day in office on January 20, 2001. Controversy surrounded Marc Rich and allegations that Hillary Clinton's brother, Hugh Rodham, accepted payments in return for influencing the president's decision-making regarding the pardons. Federal prosecutor Mary Jo White was appointed to investigate the pardon of Rich. She was later replaced by then-Republican James Comey. The investigation found no wrongdoing on Clinton's part. Clinton also pardoned 4 defendants in the Whitewater Scandal, Chris Wade, Susan McDougal, Stephen Smith, and Robert W. Palmer, all of whom had ties to Clinton when he was governor of Arkansas. Former Clinton HUD Secretary Henry Cisneros, who pleaded guilty to lying to the FBI, was also among Clinton's pardons.
Campaign finance controversies
In February 1997 it was discovered upon documents being released by the Clinton Administration that 938 people had stayed at the White House and that 821 of them had made donations to the Democratic Party and got the opportunity to stay in the Lincoln bedroom as a result of the donations. Some donors included Steven Spielberg, Tom Hanks, Jane Fonda, and Judy Collins. Top donors also got golf games and morning jogs with Clinton as a result of the contributions. Janet Reno was called on to investigate the matter by Trent Lott, but she refused.
In 1996, it was found that several Chinese foreigners made contributions to Clinton's reelection campaign and the Democratic National Committee with the backing of the People's Republic of China. Some of them also attempted to donate to Clinton's defense fund. This violated United States law forbidding non-American citizens from making campaign contributions. Clinton and Al Gore also allegedly met with the foreign donors. A Republican investigation led by Fred Thompson found that Clinton was targeted by the Chinese government. However, Democratic senators Joe Lieberman and John Glenn said that the evidence showed that China only targeted congressional elections and not presidential elections.
Military and foreign affairs
American troops had first entered Somalia during the Bush administration in response to a humanitarian crisis and civil war. Though initially involved to assist humanitarian efforts, the Clinton administration shifted the objectives set out in the mission and began pursuing a policy of attempting to neutralize Somali warlords. In 1993, during the Battle of Mogadishu, two U.S. helicopters were shot down by rocket-propelled grenade attacks to their tail rotors, trapping soldiers behind enemy lines. This resulted in an urban battle that killed 18 American soldiers, wounded 73 others, and resulted in one being taken prisoner. Television news programs depicted the supporters of warlord Mohammed Aidid desecrating the corpses of troops. The backlash resulting from the incident prompted in a drop in support for American intervention in the country and coincided with a more cautious use of troops throughout the rest of the Clinton administration. Following a subsequent national security policy review, U.S. forces were withdrawn from Somalia and later conflicts were approached with fewer soldiers on the ground.
In April 1994, genocide broke out in Rwanda. Intelligence reports indicate that Clinton was aware a "final solution to eliminate all Tutsis" was underway, long before the administration publicly used the word "genocide". Fearing a reprisal of the events in Somalia the previous year, Clinton chose not to intervene. Clinton has called his failure to intervene one of his main foreign policy failings, saying "I don't think we could have ended the violence, but I think we could have cut it down. And I regret it."
Bosnia and Herzegovina
In 1993 and 1994, Clinton pressured Western European leaders to adopt a strong military policy against Bosnian Serbs during the Bosnian War. This strategy faced staunch opposition from the United Nations, NATO allies, and Congressional Republicans, leading Clinton to adopt a more diplomatic approach. In 1995, U.S. and NATO aircraft bombed Bosnian Serb targets to halt attacks on UN safe zones and pressure them into a peace accord that would end the Bosnian war. Clinton deployed U.S. peacekeepers to Bosnia in late 1995, to uphold the subsequent Dayton Agreement.
Irish peace talks
In 1992, before his presidency, Clinton proposed sending a peace envoy to Northern Ireland, but this was dropped to avoid tensions with the British government. In November 1995, in a ceasefire during the Troubles, Clinton became the first president to visit Northern Ireland, examining both of the two divided communities of Belfast. Despite unionist criticism, Clinton used his visit as a way to negotiate an end to the violent conflict, playing a key role in the peace talks that produced the Good Friday Agreement in 1998.
Clinton sought to continue the Bush administration's policy of limiting Iranian influence in the Middle East, which he laid out in the dual containment strategy. In 1994, Clinton declared that Iran was a "state sponsor of terrorism" and a "rogue state", marking the first time that an American President used that term. Subsequent executive orders heavily sanctioned Iran's oil industry and banned almost all trade between U.S. companies and the Iranian government. In February 1996, the Clinton administration agreed to pay Iran US$131.8 million (equivalent to $245.93 million in 2022) in settlement to discontinue a case brought by Iran in 1989 against the U.S. in the International Court of Justice after the shooting down of Iran Air Flight 655 by the U.S. Navy guided missile cruiser. Following the 1997 election of reformist president Mohammad Khatami, the administration eased sanctions.
Clinton signed the Iraq Liberation Act of 1998 on October 31, 1998, which instituted a policy of "regime change" against Iraq, though it explicitly stated it did not provide for direct intervention on the part of American military forces. The administration then launched a four-day bombing campaign named Operation Desert Fox, lasting from December 16 to 19, 1998. At the end of this operation Clinton announced that "So long as Saddam remains in power, he will remain a threat to his people, his region, and the world. With our allies, we must pursue a strategy to contain him and to constrain his weapons of mass destruction program, while working toward the day Iraq has a government willing to live at peace with its people and with its neighbors." American and British aircraft in the Iraq no-fly zones attacked hostile Iraqi air defenses 166 times in 1999 and 78 times in 2000.
Osama bin Laden
Capturing Osama bin Laden was an objective of the U.S. government during the Clinton presidency (and continued to be until bin Laden's death in 2011). Despite claims by Mansoor Ijaz and Sudanese officials that the Sudanese government had offered to arrest and extradite bin Laden, and that U.S. authorities rejected each offer, the 9/11 Commission Report stated that "we have not found any reliable evidence to support the Sudanese claim".
In response to a 1996 State Department warning about bin Laden and the 1998 bombings of U.S. embassies in East Africa by al-Qaeda (which killed 224 people, including 12 Americans), Clinton ordered several military missions to capture or kill bin Laden, all of which were unsuccessful. In August 1998, Clinton ordered cruise missile strikes on terrorist targets in Afghanistan and Sudan, targeting the Al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory in Sudan, which was suspected of assisting bin Laden in making chemical weapons, and bin Laden's terrorist training camps in Afghanistan. The factory was destroyed by the attack, resulting in the death of one employee and the wounding of 11 other people. After the destruction of the factory, there was a medicine shortage in Sudan due to the plant providing 50 percent of Sudan's medicine, and the destruction of the plant led to a shortage of chloroquine, a drug which is used to treat malaria. U.S. officials later acknowledged that there was no evidence the plant was acknowledging manufacturing or storing nerve gas. The attack provoked criticism of Clinton from journalists and academics including Christopher Hitchens, Seymour Hersh, Max Taylor, and others.
In the midst of a brutal crackdown on ethnic Albanian separatists in the province of Kosovo by the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Clinton authorized the use of U.S. Armed Forces in a NATO bombing campaign against Yugoslavia in 1999, named Operation Allied Force. The stated reasoning behind the intervention was to stop the ethnic cleansing (and what the Clinton administration labeled genocide) of Albanians by Yugoslav anti-guerilla military units. General Wesley Clark was Supreme Allied Commander of NATO and oversaw the mission. With United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, the bombing campaign ended on June 10, 1999. The resolution placed Kosovo under UN administration and authorized a peacekeeping force to be deployed to the region. NATO announced its soldiers all survived combat, though two died in an Apache helicopter crash. Journalists in the popular press criticized genocide statements by the Clinton administration as false and greatly exaggerated. Prior to the bombing campaign on March 24, 1999, estimates showed that the number of civilians killed in the over year long conflict in Kosovo had been approximately 1,800, with critics asserting that little or no evidence existed of genocide. In a post-war inquiry, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe noted "the patterns of the expulsions and the vast increase in lootings, killings, rape, kidnappings and pillage once the NATO air war began on March 24." In 2001, the UN-supervised Supreme Court of Kosovo ruled that genocide (the intent to destroy a people) did not take place, but recognized "a systematic campaign of terror, including murders, rapes, arsons and severe maltreatments" with the intention being the forceful departure of the Albanian population. The term "ethnic cleansing" was used as an alternative to "genocide" to denote not just ethnically motivated murder but also displacement, though critics charge there is little difference. Slobodan Milošević, the president of Yugoslavia at the time of the atrocities, was eventually brought to trial before the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in the Hague on charges including crimes against humanity and war crimes for his role in the war. He died in 2006, before the completion of the trial.
Clinton aimed to increase trade with China, minimizing import tariffs and offering the country most favoured nation status in 1993, his administration minimized tariff levels in Chinese imports. Clinton initially conditioned extension of this status on human rights reforms, but ultimately decided to extend the status despite a lack of reform in the specified areas, including free emigration, treatment of prisoners in terms of international human rights, and observation of human rights specified by UN resolutions, among others.
Relations were damaged briefly by the American bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade in May 1999. Clinton apologized for the bombing, stating it was accidental.
On October 10, 2000, Clinton signed into law the United States–China Relations Act of 2000, which granted permanent normal trade relations (PNTR) trade status to China. The president asserted that free trade would gradually open China to democratic reform.
In encouraging Congress to approve the agreement and China's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO), Clinton stated that more trade with China would advance America's economic interests, saying that "economically, this agreement is the equivalent of a one-way street. It requires China to open its markets—with a fifth of the world's population, potentially the biggest markets in the world—to both our products and services in unprecedented new ways."
Clinton attempted to end the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. Secret negotiations mediated by Clinton between Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Chairman Yasser Arafat led to a historic declaration of peace in September 1993, called the Oslo Accords, which were signed at the White House on September 13. The agreement led to the Israel–Jordan peace treaty in 1994 and the Wye River Memorandum in October 1998, however, this did not end the conflict. He brought Israeli prime minister Ehud Barak and Palestinian Authority chairman Yasser Arafat together at Camp David for the 2000 Camp David Summit, which lasted 14 days in July. Following the failure of the peace talks, Clinton said Arafat had "missed the opportunity" to facilitate a "just and lasting peace". In his autobiography, Clinton blames Arafat for the collapse of the summit. Following another attempt in December 2000 at Bolling Air Force Base, in which the president offered the Clinton Parameters, the situation broke down completely after the end of the Taba Summit and with the start of the Second Intifada.
Clinton appointed two justices to the Supreme Court: Ruth Bader Ginsburg in 1993 and Stephen Breyer in 1994. Both justices went on to serve until the 2020s, leaving a lasting judicial legacy for President Clinton.
Clinton was the first president in history to appoint more women and minority judges than white male judges to the federal courts. In his eight years in office, 11.6% of Clinton's court of appeals nominees and 17.4% of his district court nominees were black; 32.8% of his court of appeals nominees and 28.5% of his district court nominees were women.
Throughout Clinton's first term, his job approval rating fluctuated in the 40s and 50s. In his second term, his rating consistently ranged from the high-50s to the high-60s. After his impeachment proceedings in 1998 and 1999, Clinton's rating reached its highest point. According to a CBS News/New York Times poll, Clinton left office with an approval rating of 68 percent, which matched those of Ronald Reagan and Franklin D. Roosevelt as the highest ratings for departing presidents in the modern era. Clinton's average Gallup poll approval rating for his last quarter in office was 61 percent, the highest final quarter rating any president has received for fifty years. Forty-seven percent of the respondents identified themselves as being Clinton supporters.
As he was leaving office, a CNN/USA Today/Gallup poll revealed that 45 percent of Americans said they would miss him; 55 percent thought he "would have something worthwhile to contribute and should remain active in public life"; 68 percent thought he would be remembered more for his "involvement in personal scandal" than for "his accomplishments"; and 58 percent answered "No" to the question "Do you generally think Bill Clinton is honest and trustworthy?" The same percentage said he would be remembered as either "outstanding" or "above average" as a president, while 22 percent said he would be remembered as "below average" or "poor". ABC News characterized public consensus on Clinton as, "You can't trust him, he's got weak morals and ethics—and he's done a heck of a good job."
In May 2006, a CNN poll comparing Clinton's job performance with that of his successor, George W. Bush, found that a strong majority of respondents said Clinton outperformed Bush in six different areas questioned. Gallup polls in 2007 and 2011 showed that Clinton was regarded by 13 percent of Americans as the greatest president in U.S. history.
In 2014, 18 percent of respondents in a Quinnipiac University Polling Institute poll of American voters regarded Clinton as the best president since World War II, making him the third most popular among postwar presidents, behind John F. Kennedy and Ronald Reagan. The same poll showed that just 3 percent of American voters regarded Clinton as the worst president since World War II.
A 2015 poll by The Washington Post asked 162 scholars of the American Political Science Association to rank all the U.S. presidents in order of greatness. According to their findings, Clinton ranked eighth overall, with a rating of 70 percent.
Clinton was the first baby boomer president. Authors Martin Walker and Bob Woodward stated that Clinton's innovative use of sound bite-ready dialogue, personal charisma, and public perception-oriented campaigning were a major factor in his high public approval ratings. When Clinton played the saxophone on The Arsenio Hall Show, he was described by some religious conservatives as "the MTV president". Opponents sometimes referred to him as "Slick Willie", a nickname which was first applied to him in 1980 by Pine Bluff Commercial journalist Paul Greenberg; Greenberg believed that Clinton was abandoning the progressive policies of previous Arkansas Governors such as Winthrop Rockefeller, Dale Bumpers and David Pryor. The claim "Slick Willie" would last throughout his presidency. His folksy manner led him to be nicknamed Bubba, especially in the South, starting from the 1992 presidential election. Since 2000, he has frequently been referred to as "The Big Dog" or "Big Dog". His prominent role in campaigning for President Obama during the 2012 presidential election and his widely publicized speech at the 2012 Democratic National Convention, where he officially nominated Obama and criticized Republican nominee Mitt Romney and Republican policies in detail, earned him the nickname "Explainer-in-Chief".
Clinton drew strong support from the African American community and insisted that the improvement of race relations would be a major theme of his presidency. In 1998, Nobel laureate Toni Morrison called Clinton "the first black president", saying, "Clinton displays almost every trope of blackness: single-parent household, born poor, working-class, saxophone-playing, McDonald's-and-junk-food-loving boy from Arkansas". Morrison noted that Clinton's sex life was scrutinized more than his career accomplishments, and she compared this to the stereotyping and double standards that, she said, blacks typically endure. Many viewed this comparison as unfair and disparaging both to Clinton and to the African-American community.
Sexual assault and misconduct allegations
Several women have publicly accused Bill Clinton of sexual misconduct, including rape, harassment, and sexual assault. Additionally, some commentators have characterized Clinton's sexual relationship with former White House intern Monica Lewinsky as predatory or non-consensual, despite the fact that Lewinsky called the relationship consensual at the time. These allegations have been revisited and lent more credence in 2018, in light of the #MeToo movement, with many commentators and Democratic leaders now saying Clinton should have been compelled to resign after the Lewinsky affair.
In 1994, Paula Jones initiated a sexual harassment lawsuit against Clinton, claiming he had made unwanted advances towards her in 1991; Clinton denied the allegations. In April 1998, the case was initially dismissed by Judge Susan Webber Wright on the grounds that it lacked legal merit. Jones appealed Webber Wright's ruling, and her suit gained traction following Clinton's admission to having an affair with Monica Lewinsky in August 1998. In 1998, lawyers for Paula Jones released court documents that alleged a pattern of sexual harassment by Clinton when he was Governor of Arkansas. Robert S. Bennett, Clinton's main lawyer for the case, called the filing "a pack of lies" and "an organized campaign to smear the President of the United States" funded by Clinton's political enemies. Clinton later agreed to an out-of-court settlement and paid Jones $850,000. Bennett said the president made the settlement only so he could end the lawsuit for good and move on with his life. During the deposition for the Jones lawsuit, which was held at the White House, Clinton denied having sexual relations with Monica Lewinsky—a denial that became the basis for an impeachment charge of perjury.
In 1998, Kathleen Willey alleged that Clinton had groped her in a hallway in 1993. An independent counsel determined Willey gave "false information" to the FBI, inconsistent with sworn testimony related to the Jones allegation. On March 19, 1998, Julie Hiatt Steele, a friend of Willey, released an affidavit, accusing the former White House aide of asking her to lie to corroborate Ms. Willey's account of being sexually groped by Clinton in the Oval Office. An attempt by Kenneth Starr to prosecute Steele for making false statements and obstructing justice ended in a mistrial and Starr declined to seek a retrial after Steele sought an investigation against the former independent counsel for prosecutorial misconduct. Linda Tripp's grand jury testimony also differed from Willey's claims regarding inappropriate sexual advances.
Also in 1998, Juanita Broaddrick alleged that Clinton had raped her in the spring of 1978, although she said she did not remember the exact date. To support her charge, Broaddrick notes that she told multiple witnesses in 1978 she had been raped by Clinton, something these witnesses also state in interviews to the press. Broaddrick had earlier filed an affidavit denying any "unwelcome sexual advances" and later repeated the denial in a sworn deposition. In a 1998 NBC interview wherein she detailed the alleged rape, Broaddrick said she had denied (under oath) being raped only to avoid testifying about the ordeal publicly.
The Lewinsky scandal has had an enduring impact on Clinton's legacy, beyond his impeachment in 1998. In the wake of the #MeToo movement (which shed light on the widespread prevalence of sexual assault and harassment, especially in the workplace), various commentators and Democratic political leaders, as well as Lewinsky herself, have revisited their view that the Lewinsky affair was consensual, and instead characterized it as an abuse of power or harassment, in light of the power differential between a president and a 22-year old intern. In 2018, Clinton was asked in several interviews about whether he should have resigned, and he said he had made the right decision in not resigning. During the 2018 Congressional elections, The New York Times alleged that having no Democratic candidate for office asking Clinton to campaign with them was a change that attributed to the revised understanding of the Lewinsky scandal. However, former DNC interim chair Donna Brazile previously urged Clinton in November 2017 to campaign during the 2018 midterm elections, in spite of New York U.S. senator Kirsten Gillibrand's recent criticism of the Lewinsky scandal.
Clinton admitted to having extramarital affairs with singer Gennifer Flowers and Monica Lewinsky. Actress Elizabeth Gracen, Miss Arkansas winner Sally Perdue, and Dolly Kyle Browning all claimed that they had affairs with Clinton during his time as governor of Arkansas. Browning later sued Clinton, Bruce Lindsey, Robert S. Bennett, and Jane Mayer, alleging they engaged in a conspiracy to attempt to block her from publishing a book loosely based on her relationship with Clinton and tried to defame him. However, Browning's lawsuit was dismissed.
Bill Clinton has continued to be active in public life since leaving office in 2001, giving speeches, fundraising, and founding charitable organizations, and has spoken in prime time at every Democratic National Convention.
Activities until 2008 campaign
In 2002, Clinton warned that pre-emptive military action against Iraq would have unwelcome consequences, and later claimed to have opposed the Iraq War from the start (though some dispute this). In 2005, Clinton criticized the Bush administration for its handling of emissions control, while speaking at the United Nations Climate Change conference in Montreal.
The William J. Clinton Presidential Center and Park in Little Rock, Arkansas, was dedicated in 2004. Clinton released a best-selling autobiography, My Life, in 2004. In 2007, he released Giving: How Each of Us Can Change the World, which also became a New York Times Best Seller and garnered positive reviews.
In the aftermath of the 2004 Asian tsunami, U.N. secretary-general Kofi Annan appointed Clinton to head a relief effort. After Hurricane Katrina, Clinton joined with fellow former president George H. W. Bush to establish the Bush-Clinton Tsunami Fund in January 2005, and the Bush-Clinton Katrina Fund in October of that year. As part of the tsunami effort, these two ex-presidents appeared in a Super Bowl XXXIX pre-game show, and traveled to the affected areas. They also spoke together at the funeral of Boris Yeltsin in April 2007.
Based on his philanthropic worldview, Clinton created the William J. Clinton Foundation to address issues of global importance. This foundation includes the Clinton Foundation HIV and AIDS Initiative (CHAI), which strives to combat that disease, and has worked with the Australian government toward that end. The Clinton Global Initiative (CGI), begun by the Clinton Foundation in 2005, attempts to address world problems such as global public health, poverty alleviation and religious and ethnic conflict. In 2005, Clinton announced through his foundation an agreement with manufacturers to stop selling sugary drinks in schools. Clinton's foundation joined with the Large Cities Climate Leadership Group in 2006 to improve cooperation among those cities, and he met with foreign leaders to promote this initiative. The foundation has received donations from many governments all over the world, including Asia and the Middle East. In 2008, Foundation director Inder Singh announced deals to reduce the price of anti-malaria drugs by 30 percent in developing nations. Clinton also spoke in favor of California Proposition 87 on alternative energy, which was voted down.
2008 presidential election
During the 2008 Democratic presidential primary campaign, Clinton vigorously advocated on behalf of his wife, Hillary. Through speaking engagements and fundraisers, he was able to raise $10 million toward her campaign. Some worried that as an ex-president, he was too active on the trail, too negative to Clinton rival Barack Obama, and alienating his supporters at home and abroad. Many were especially critical of him following his remarks in the South Carolina primary, which Obama won. Later in the 2008 primaries, there was some infighting between Bill and Hillary's staffs, especially in Pennsylvania. Considering Bill's remarks, many thought he could not rally Hillary supporters behind Obama after Obama won the primary. Such remarks led to apprehension that the party would be split to the detriment of Obama's election. Fears were allayed August 27, 2008, when Clinton enthusiastically endorsed Obama at the 2008 Democratic National Convention, saying all his experience as president assures him that Obama is "ready to lead". After Hillary Clinton's presidential campaign was over, Bill Clinton continued to raise funds to help pay off her campaign debt.
After the 2008 election
In 2009, Clinton travelled to North Korea on behalf of two American journalists imprisoned there. Euna Lee and Laura Ling had been imprisoned for illegally entering the country from China. Jimmy Carter had made a similar visit in 1994. After Clinton met with North Korean leader Kim Jong-il, Kim issued a pardon.
Since then, Clinton has been assigned many other diplomatic missions. He was named United Nations Special Envoy to Haiti in 2009 following a series of hurricanes which caused $1 billion in damages. Clinton organized a conference with the Inter-American Development Bank, where a new industrial park was discussed in an effort to "build back better". In response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake, U.S. president Barack Obama announced that Clinton and George W. Bush would coordinate efforts to raise funds for Haiti's recovery. Funds began pouring into Haiti, which led to funding becoming available for Caracol Industrial Park in a part of the country unaffected by the earthquake. While Hillary Clinton was in South Korea, she and Cheryl Mills worked to convince SAE-A, a large apparel subcontractor, to invest in Haiti despite the company's deep concerns about plans to raise the minimum wage. In the summer of 2010, the South Korean company signed a contract at the U.S. State Department, ensuring that the new industrial park would have a key tenant. In 2010, Clinton announced support of, and delivered the keynote address for, the inauguration of NTR, Ireland's first environmental foundation. At the 2012 Democratic National Convention, Clinton gave a widely praised speech nominating Barack Obama.
2016 presidential election and after
During the 2016 presidential election, Clinton again encouraged voters to support Hillary, and made appearances speaking on the campaign trail. In a series of tweets, then-President-elect Donald Trump criticized his ability to get people out to vote. Clinton served as a member of the electoral college for the state of New York. He voted for the Democratic ticket consisting of his wife Hillary and her running-mate Tim Kaine.
On September 7, 2017, Clinton partnered with former presidents Jimmy Carter, George H. W. Bush, George W. Bush, and Barack Obama to work with One America Appeal to help the victims of Hurricane Harvey and Hurricane Irma in the Gulf Coast and Texas communities.
Post-presidential health concerns
In September 2004, Clinton underwent quadruple bypass surgery. In March 2005, he again underwent surgery, this time for a partially collapsed lung. On February 11, 2010, he was rushed to New York-Presbyterian/Columbia Hospital in Manhattan after complaining of chest pains, and he had two coronary stents implanted in his heart. After this procedure, Clinton adopted a plant-based whole foods (vegan) diet, which had been recommended by doctors Dean Ornish and Caldwell Esselstyn. However, he has since incorporated fish and lean proteins at the suggestion of Mark Hyman, a proponent of the pseudoscientific ethos of functional medicine. As a result, he is no longer a strict vegan.
The Clintons incurred several million dollars in legal bills during his presidency, which were paid off four years after he left office. Bill and Hillary Clinton have each earned millions of dollars from book publishing. In 2016, Forbes reported Bill and Hillary Clinton made about $240 million in the 15 years from January 2001, to December 2015, (mostly from paid speeches, business consulting and book-writing). Also in 2016, CNN reported the Clintons combined to receive more than $153 million in paid speeches from 2001 until spring 2015. In May 2015, The Hill reported that Bill and Hillary Clinton have made more than $25 million in speaking fees since the start of 2014, and that Hillary Clinton also made $5 million or more from her book, Hard Choices, during the same time period. In July 2014, The Wall Street Journal reported that at the end of 2012, the Clintons were worth between $5 million and $25.5 million, and that in 2012 (the last year they were required to disclose the information) the Clintons made between $16 and $17 million, mostly from speaking fees earned by the former president. Clinton earned more than $104 million from paid speeches between 2001 and 2012. In June 2014, ABC News and The Washington Post reported that Bill Clinton has made more than $100 million giving paid speeches since leaving public office, and in 2008, The New York Times reported that the Clintons' income tax returns show they made $109 million in the eight years from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2007, including almost $92 million from his speaking and book-writing.
Bill Clinton has given dozens of paid speeches each year since leaving office in 2001, mostly to corporations and philanthropic groups in North America and Europe; he often earned $100,000 to $300,000 per speech. Russian investment bank with ties to the Kremlin paid Clinton $500,000 for a speech in Moscow. Hillary Clinton said she and Bill came out of the White House financially "broke" and in debt, especially due to large legal fees incurred during their years in the White House. "We had no money when we got there, and we struggled to, you know, piece together the resources for mortgages, for houses, for Chelsea's education". She added, "Bill has worked really hard ... we had to pay off all our debts ... he had to make double the money because of, obviously, taxes; and then pay off the debts, and get us houses, and take care of family members".
Relationship with Jeffrey Epstein
In the early 2000s, Clinton took flights on Jeffrey Epstein's private jet in connection with Clinton Foundation work. According to Epstein's attorney Gerald B. Lefcourt, Epstein was "part of the original group that conceived of the Clinton Global Initiative". In 2002, a spokesperson for Clinton praised Epstein as "a committed philanthropist" with "insights and generosity". While Clinton was president Epstein visited the White House at least 17 times. Years later, Epstein was convicted on sex trafficking charges. Clinton's office released a statement in 2019 saying, "President Clinton knows nothing about the terrible crimes Jeffrey Epstein pleaded guilty to in Florida some years ago, or those with which he has been recently charged in New York. In 2002 and 2003, President Clinton took four trips on Jeffrey Epstein's airplane: one to Europe, one to Asia, and two to Africa, which included stops in connection with the work of the Clinton Foundation. Staff, supporters of the Foundation, and his Secret Service detail traveled on every leg of every trip. [...] He's not spoken to Epstein in well over a decade."
However, later reports showed that Clinton had flown on Epstein's plane 26 times. In another statement Clinton said "one meeting with Epstein in his Harlem office in 2002, and around the same time made one brief visit to Epstein's New York apartment with a staff member and his security detail". In July 2019 it was reported that Clinton attended a dinner with Epstein in 1995, a meeting with Epstein that Clinton had not previously disclosed.
Clinton reportedly used Epstein's private jet to visit Little St. James Island, where Epstein resided. on multiple occasions between 2002 and 2005. Virginia Roberts, later known as Virginia Giuffre, says in a lawsuit that while working at Donald Trump's Mar-a-Lago resort she was lured into a sex-trafficking ring run by Epstein and while traveling with Epstein she saw Clinton on the island. In a 2011 conversation with her lawyers, Roberts stated that Clinton traveled to Epstein's retreat on Little St. James in 2002. A Freedom of Information Act request for United States Secret Service records of visits Clinton may have made to Little St. James produced no such evidence. According to Epstein's flight logs, Clinton never flew near the U.S. Virgin Islands. In July 2019, a Clinton spokesperson issued a statement saying Clinton never visited the island.
At the age of 10, he was baptized at Park Place Baptist Church in Hot Springs, Arkansas. His faith grew cold during his university studies. In 1980, after participating in a pilgrimage to Israel led by Pastor W. O. Vaught, he became a member of his church, Immanuel Baptist Church Little Rock.  When he became president in 1993, he became a member of Foundry United Methodist Church in Washington, D.C. with his wife, a Methodist.
On October 11, 1975, in Fayetteville, Arkansas, he married Hillary Rodham, whom he met while studying at Yale University. They had Chelsea Clinton, their only child, on February 27, 1980. He is the maternal grandfather to Chelsea's three children.
Honors and recognition
Various colleges and universities have awarded Clinton honorary degrees, including Doctorate of Law degrees and Doctor of Humane Letters degrees. He received an honorary degree from Georgetown University, his alma mater, and was the commencement speaker in 1980. He is an honorary fellow of University College, Oxford, which he attended as a Rhodes Scholar, although he did not complete his studies there. Schools have been named for Clinton, and statues have been built to pay him homage. U.S. states where he has been honored include Missouri, Arkansas, Kentucky, and New York. He was presented with the Medal for Distinguished Public Service by Secretary of Defense William Cohen in 2001. The Clinton Presidential Center was opened in Little Rock, Arkansas, in his honor on December 5, 2001.
He has been honored in various other ways, in countries that include the Czech Republic, Papua New Guinea, Germany, and Kosovo. The Republic of Kosovo, in gratitude for his help during the Kosovo War, renamed a major street in the capital city of Pristina as Bill Clinton Boulevard and added a monumental Clinton statue.
Clinton was selected as Time's "Man of the Year" in 1992, and again in 1998, along with Ken Starr. From a poll conducted of the American people in December 1999, Clinton was among eighteen included in Gallup's List of Most Widely Admired People of the 20th Century. In 2001, Clinton received the NAACP's President's Award. He has also been honored with a Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for Children, a J. William Fulbright Prize for International Understanding, a TED Prize (named for the confluence of technology, entertainment and design), and was named as an Honorary GLAAD Media Award recipient for his work as an advocate for the LGBT community.
In 2011, President Michel Martelly of Haiti awarded Clinton with the National Order of Honour and Merit to the rank of Grand Cross "for his various initiatives in Haiti and especially his high contribution to the reconstruction of the country after the earthquake of January 12, 2010". Clinton declared at the ceremony that "in the United States of America, I really don't believe former American presidents need awards anymore, but I am very honored by this one, I love Haiti, and I believe in its promise".
- Putting People First: How We Can All Change America. New York: Three Rivers Press. September 12, 1992. ISBN 978-0-8129-2193-9.
- Between Hope and History. New York: Times Books. 1996. ISBN 978-0-8129-2913-3.
- My Life (1st ed.). New York: Vintage Books. 2004. ISBN 978-1-4000-3003-3.
- Giving: How Each of Us Can Change the World (1st ed.). New York: Knopf. 2007. ISBN 978-0-307-26674-3.
- Back to Work (book) (1st ed.). New York: Knopf. 2011. ISBN 978-0-307-95975-1.
- The President Is Missing (1st ed.). Knopf. 2018. ISBN 978-0-316-41269-8.
- The President's Daughter (1st ed.). Knopf. 2021. ISBN 978-0-316-54071-1.
Bill Clinton is one of the narrators on Wolf Tracks and Peter and the Wolf, a 2003 recording of Sergei Prokofiev's Peter and the Wolf performed by the Russian National Orchestra, on Pentatone, together with Mikhail Gorbachev and Sophia Loren. This garnered Clinton the 2003 Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for Children.
- 1996 United States campaign finance controversy
- Clinton family
- Clinton School of Public Service
- Efforts to impeach Bill Clinton
- Electoral history of Bill Clinton
- Gun control policy of the Clinton Administration
- List of presidents of the United States
- "Twenty years ago, the Drudge Report broke the Clinton-Lewinsky scandal". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved April 6, 2022.
- "Directory of Irish Genealogy: American Presidents with Irish Ancestors". Homepage.eircom.net. March 23, 2004. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- "Biography of William J. Clinton". whitehouse.gov. Retrieved August 30, 2011 – via National Archives.
- Andrews, Edmund L. (June 21, 1993). "Clinton Reported to Have A Brother He Never Met". The New York Times.
- Clinton, Bill (2004). My Life. Random House. ISBN 978-1-4000-3003-3.
- Chafe, William H. (2012). Bill and Hillary: The Politics of the Personal. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-8090-9465-3.
- Landres, J. Shawn, ed. (1992). Bill Clinton: The Inside Story. New York: S.P.I. Books. pp. 5–6. ISBN 978-1-5617-1177-2.
- Takiff, Michael (2010). A Complicated Man: The Life of Bill Clinton as Told by Those who Know Him. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-3001-2130-8.
- Flanagan, Sylvia P., ed. (September 8, 1997). "First Black Food Stamp Chief has Ties to President Clinton". Jet. Chicago: John N. Johnson. p. 10.
- Gormley, Ken (2010). The Death of American Virtue: Clinton vs. Starr. New York: Crown Publishers. pp. 16–17. ISBN 978-0-307-40944-7.
- "Oprah Talks to Bill Clinton". O, The Oprah Magazine. August 2004. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
- Maraniss, David (1996). First in His Class: A Biography of Bill Clinton. Touchstone. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-684-81890-0.
- Holmes, David (2012). The Faiths of the Postwar Presidents. From Truman to Obama. University of Georgia Press. p. 148. ISBN 9780820338620.
- Levin, Robert (1992). Bill Clinton. The Inside Story. University of Georgia Press. p. 52. ISBN 9781561711772.
- "Bill Clinton's Hometown Homepage". www.hotspringsar.com. Hot Springs, Arkansas. Retrieved October 19, 2022.
- Soni, Jimmy (June 25, 2013). "10 Things You Definitely Didn't Know About Bill Clinton". The Huffington Post.
- Maraniss, David (1996). First in His Class: A Biography of Bill Clinton. Touchstone. p. 43.
- "It All Began in a Place Called Hope (Archived whitehouse.gov Article)". The White House. Archived from the original on July 19, 2011. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- Kiefer, Francine (May 29, 1998). "Clinton: The Early Years". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved April 9, 2021.
- Robert E. Levin (1992). Bill Clinton: The Inside Story. SP Books. pp. xxiv–xxv. ISBN 978-1-56171-177-2.
- "About Leadership". APO.org. Archived from the original on January 1, 2013. Retrieved April 7, 2013.
- "Prominent Members". Kappa Kappa Psi. Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- Hoffman, Matthew (October 11, 1992). "The Bill Clinton we knew at Oxford: Apart from smoking dope (and not inhaling), what else did he learn over here? College friends share their memories with Matthew Hoffman". The Independent. Archived from the original on June 23, 2018. Retrieved August 24, 2017.
- Dowd, Maureen (June 9, 1994). "Oxford Journal; Whereas, He Is an Old Boy, If a Young Chief, Honor Him". The New York Times. Retrieved July 17, 2009.
- Hitchens, Christopher (December 4, 2010). "Chris or Christopher?". Hitch-22: A Memoir. London: Atlantic books. pp. 106–107. ISBN 978-1-84354-922-2.
- Stanley, Alessandra (November 22, 1992). "Most Likely to Succeed". The New York Times.
- Cain, Nick & Growden, Greg (2006). "21: Ten Peculiar Facts about Rugby". Rugby Union for Dummies (2 ed.). Chichester, England: John Wiley and Sons. p. 297. ISBN 978-0-470-03537-5.
- Eyal, Jonathan (June 8, 1994). "Doctor without a thesis: Bill Clinton gets an Oxford degree today, but Jonathan Eyal's verdict on his term's work is: a disaster". The Independent. Archived from the original on June 23, 2018. Retrieved August 24, 2017.
- Neil A. Hamilton (2005). Presidents: A Biographical Dictionary. Infobase Publishing. p. 366. ISBN 978-1-4381-0816-2.
- Steven M. Gillon (2008). The Pact: Bill Clinton, Newt Gingrich, and the Rivalry that Defined a Generation. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-19-532278-1.
- Mikkelson, David (January 6, 2003). "Was Bill Clinton a 'Felonious Draft Dodger'?". Snopes. Retrieved January 31, 2021.
- Clinton, Bill (February 13, 1992). "The 1992 Campaign; A Letter By Clinton On His Draft Deferment: 'A War I Opposed And Despised'". The New York Times. The Associated Press. Retrieved July 30, 2019.
- Lauter, David (February 13, 1992). "Clinton Releases '69 Letter on ROTC and Draft Status". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles.
- Morris, Roger (April 25, 1999). Partners in Power: The Clintons and Their America. Regnery Publishing. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-89526-302-5.
- "Clinton's Draft Deferrment". CNN. 1997. Retrieved June 19, 2014.
- "Bill Clinton's Draft Letter". Frontline. PBS. November 23, 1991. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- Frammolino, Ralph (April 6, 1992). "ROTC Officer Unaware of Draft Notice: Clinton: The man whose action kept the future governor in school says he was not told of 1969 induction letter. Draft board insists none was sent". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
- Public Broadcasting System, Frontline: Interview with James Carville, 2000.
- "Hillary Rodham Clinton". whitehouse.gov. Retrieved August 26, 2011 – via National Archives.
- Gerstein, Josh (November 26, 2007). "The Clintons' Berkeley Summer of Love". The New York Sun. Retrieved May 9, 2009.
- Gerstein, Josh (November 26, 2007). "Hillary Clinton's Radical Summer". The New York Sun.
- Medley, Jasmine (July 20, 2013). "William Jefferson Clinton Presidential Center and the Clinton School of Public Service". National Association of State Judicial Educators. Retrieved November 22, 2016.
- Slater, Wayne (December 16, 2007). "Texas stumping in '72 helped shape Clinton's campaign". Dallas Morning News. Retrieved November 22, 2016.
- Felsenthal, Carol (May 7, 2008). "George McGovern and Bill Clinton: the State of the Friendship". The Huffington Post. Retrieved November 22, 2016.
- "Bill Clinton Political Career". CNN. 1997. Archived from the original on September 20, 2002. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- "Bill Clinton (1946–)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas. Retrieved September 15, 2018.
- Cohen, Adam (December 12, 2007). "Bill and Hillary Clinton's Pitch in Iowa: 'I Love the '90s'". The New York Times. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- R. Emmett Tyrrell Jr. (1996). Boy Clinton: The Political Biography. Eagle Publishing. p. 236. ISBN 978-0-89526-439-8.
- Kelly, Michael (November 27, 1992). "Little Rock Hopes Clinton Presidency Will Put Its Dogpatch Image to Rest". The New York Times. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- Jonathan W. Nicholsen. "Bill Clinton Timeline". Timeline Help. Archived from the original on October 13, 2011. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- Pendleton, Scott (July 21, 1992). "Governor Gets High Marks for Public Education Reforms". The Christian Science Monitor.
- Klein, Joe (2002). The Natural: The Misunderstood Presidency of Bill Clinton. Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-7679-1412-3.
- "Bill Clinton, New Democrat". DLC. July 25, 2004. Archived from the original on March 9, 2012. Retrieved August 30, 2010.
- Blumenthal, Sidney (2003). The Clinton Wars (1st ed.). Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 978-0-374-12502-8.
- Harris, John F. (2006). The Survivor: Bill Clinton in the White House (1st ed.). Random House Trade Paperbacks. ISBN 978-0-375-76084-6.
- George Stephanopoulos, All Too Human: A Political Education, 1999, ISBN 978-0-316-92919-6
- Nguyen, Alexander (July 14, 2000). "Bill Clinton's Death Penalty Waffle—and Why It's Good News for Execution's Foes". The American Prospect. Archived from the original on December 5, 2010. Retrieved August 30, 2010.
In his early days, Clinton opposed the death penalty. And while he and his wife Hillary Rodham Clinton were both teaching at the University of Arkansas Law School, she wrote an appellate brief that helped save a mentally retarded man from execution. "Clinton was against the death penalty," says Arkansas attorney Jeff Rosenzweig, who, like Clinton, grew up in Hot Springs, Arkansas. "He told me so."
- Hartman, Andrew (2015). A War for the Soul of America: A History of the Culture Wars. The University of Chicago Press. p. 121. ISBN 978-0-226-25464-7.
- "Reinstatement of the Death Penalty". Findlaw. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
- "Execution Database | Death Penalty Information Center". Death Penalty Information Center. Retrieved January 25, 2020.
- Applebome, Peter (January 25, 1992). "The 1992 Campaign: Death Penalty; Arkansas Execution Raises Questions on Governor's Politics". The New York Times. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
- Soss, Joe; Langbein, Laura; Metelko, Alan R. (September 27, 2001). "Why Do White Americans Support the Death Penalty?". The Journal of Politics. 65 (2): 399. doi:10.1111/1468-2508.t01-2-00006. S2CID 38112237.
- "How Gary Hart's Sex Scandal Betrayed His Character". November 7, 2018.
- David Maraniss, First in His Class: A Biography of Bill Clinton (New York: Random House, 1996; ISBN 978-0-684-81890-0).
- Church, George J. (January 27, 1992). "Cover: Is Bill Clinton For Real?". Time. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
- Kornacki, Steve (July 30, 2012). "When Bill Clinton died onstage". Salon.com. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
- Woodward, Bob (2005). The Choice: How Bill Clinton Won. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-8514-8.
- "The women of 'Impeachment' explained: Hillary Clinton and Bill's infidelity". Los Angeles Times. October 27, 2021. Retrieved October 30, 2021.
- Herstek, Amy (January 11, 2001). "Clinton thanks New Hampshire for making him the 'Comeback Kid'". CNN. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
- Ifill, Gwen (March 17, 1992). "Hillary Clinton Defends Her Conduct in Law Firm". The New York Times. Retrieved March 28, 2008.
- MacGillis, Alec; Kornblut, Anne E. (December 21, 2007). "Hillary Clinton Embraces Her Husband's Legacy". The Washington Post. p. A1. Retrieved March 28, 2008.
- Applebome, Peter (January 25, 1992). "Arkansas Execution Raises Questions on Governor's Politics". The New York Times. Retrieved March 28, 2008.
- "How the Presidents Stack Up: A look at U.S. presidents' job-approval ratings". The Wall Street Journal. 2006. Archived from the original on October 25, 2008. Retrieved October 30, 2008.
- Le Beau, Bryan (December 10, 1998). "The Political Mobilization of the New Christian Right". Creighton University. Archived from the original on December 6, 2006. Retrieved December 1, 2006.
- Walker, Martin (January 6, 1992). "Tough love child of Kennedy". The Guardian. London. Retrieved October 12, 2007.
- "On this day (November 4) in 1992: Clinton beats Bush to the White House". BBC News. November 4, 1992. Archived from the original on December 18, 2008. Retrieved October 31, 2008.
- Rosenberg, Alyssa (November 1, 2012). "The Future of Gay Parents On Television". ThinkProgress.
- "The ACT UP Historical Archive: Bob Rafsky Confronts Candidate Bill Clinton, 1992". actupny.org.
- "Party Division in the Senate, 1789–present". United States Senate. Archived from the original on July 18, 2011. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- "House History". United States House of Representatives. Archived from the original on October 26, 2011. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- Lipset, Seymour Martin (1993). "The Significance of the 1992 Election". PS: Political Science and Politics. 26 (1): 7–16. doi:10.2307/419496. JSTOR 419496. S2CID 227288247.
- David Palmer, "'What Might Have Been'--Bill Clinton and American Political Power." Australasian Journal of American Studies (2005): 38-58.
- Safire, William (December 6, 1993). "Essay; Looking Beyond Peace". The New York Times. Retrieved October 29, 2008.
- Duffy, Michael; Barrett, Laurence I.; Blackman, Ann; Carney, James (November 29, 1993). "Secrets Of Success". Time. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
- Woodward, Bob (September 15, 2007). "Greenspan Is Critical Of Bush in Memoir". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 9, 2014.
- Steve Schifferes (January 15, 2001). "Bill Clinton's economic legacy". BBC News. Retrieved January 9, 2014.
- Baker, Peter (February 3, 2008). "Bill Clinton's Legacy". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 13, 2010.
- "Bill Clinton". History.com. June 7, 2019. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
- Stevenson, Richard (February 8, 2000). "The Battle of the Decades; Reaganomics vs. Clintonomics Is a Central Issue in 2000". The New York Times. Retrieved March 15, 2011.
- "Revenues, Outlays, Deficits, Surpluses, and Debt Held by the Public, 1968 to 2007, in Billions of Dollars". Congressional Budget Office. September 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 8, 2013. Retrieved July 13, 2010.
- "The Budget and Deficit Under Clinton". FactCheck.org. February 3, 2008. Archived from the original on July 28, 2011. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
- "Historical Debt Outstanding—Annual 1950–1999". TreasuryDirect. Archived from the original on April 28, 2019. Retrieved April 3, 2015.
- "Historical Debt Outstanding—Annual 2000–2015". TreasuryDirect. Archived from the original on May 8, 2019. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
- "Fiscal Year 2013 Historical Tables" (PDF). United States Government Publishing Office. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022.
- Nagourney, Adam (September 3, 1999). "With Some Help, Clintons Purchase a White House". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 25, 2023.
- Clinton, Bill (January 20, 1993). "First Inaugural Address of William J. Clinton; January 20, 1993". Yale Law School. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
- Elizabeth Drew, On the Edge: The Clinton Presidency (1994), pp. 36–56.
- Drew, pp 114–122.
- Stanley A. Renshon, ed., The Clinton Presidency: Campaigning, Governing, and the Psychology of Leadership (1995), p. 138.
- "U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 103rd Congress—1st Session". United States Senate. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- "New Nationwide Poll Shows Strong Support for Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA)" (PDF). Protect Family Leave. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 27, 2011. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- Sharon L. Camp. "The Politics of U.S. Population Assistance". In Laurie Ann Mazur (ed.). Beyond the Numbers: A Reader on Population, Consumption and the Environment. p. 130.
- Amy Sullivan, The Party Faithful: How and Why Democrats Are Closing the God Gap (Simon & Schuster: 2008), pp. 91–92.
- Sullivan, The Party Faithful, pp. 236–237.
- Richard L. Burke (February 15, 1993). "White House Hones All-Out Campaign to Sell Sacrifice". The New York Times. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- "The Clinton Years: Chronology". Frontline. Archived from the original on May 2, 2010. Retrieved June 13, 2010.
- Woodward, Bob (2000). Maestro. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 116.
- Mollie Dickenson, "A Bipartisan Disaster" New York Times August 3, 1995, p. A25
- Andrew Crome (April 19, 2018). "Waco: the siege 25 years on". The Conversation.
- Clinton, Bill (August 3, 1993). "Presidential Press Conference in Nevada". Archived from the original on September 27, 2007.
- Clinton, Bill (January 25, 1994). "William J. Clinton: Address Before a Joint Session of the Congress on the State of the Union". Presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
- Karl, Jonathan (March 10, 1998). "Reporter Apologizes For Clinton Sex Article". CNN. Archived from the original on June 14, 2008.
- Feder, Jody (2010). "Don't Ask, Don't Tell": A Legal Analysis. DIANE Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4379-2208-0.
- Mixner, David (November 25, 2009). Stranger Among Friends. Random House Publishing Group. pp. 495–497. ISBN 978-0-307-42958-2.
- Cloud, John (November 1996). "Stranger Among Friends—book reviews". Washington Monthly. Archived from the original on August 26, 2011. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- "President seeks better implementation of 'don't ask, don't tell'". CNN. December 11, 1999. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- "Obama certifies end of military's gay ban". NBC News. Reuters. July 22, 2011. Retrieved September 7, 2011.
- Livingston, C. Don; Wink, Kenneth A. (1997). "The Passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement in the U.S. House of Representatives: Presidential Leadership or Presidential Luck?". Presidential Studies Quarterly. 27 (1): 52–70. JSTOR 27551700. Gale A19354304 ProQuest 215685340.
- "The Clinton White House Web Site". About.com. Archived from the original on July 22, 2011. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- Longley, Robert. "The Clinton White House Web Site: Part 1: Perhaps the most important Web site in American history". About.com. Archived from the original on January 18, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
- "HR 3355—Omnibus Crime Bill". votesmart.org. Retrieved September 12, 2015.
- "Bill Clinton". 4to40.com. February 25, 2015. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
- Jeffrey A. Roth and Christopher S. Koper, "Impacts of the 1994 Assault Weapons Ban: 1994–96". U.S. Department of Justice/National Institute of Justice, Research in Brief (Mar. 1999); available at https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/173405.pdf
- Hulsey, Byron (November 27, 1997). "The Altered Terrain of American Politics (Review of Do Elections Matter?)". Retrieved October 29, 2008.
- "Activists at gathering plead with Clinton to take the lead". AIDS Policy & Law. 10 (22): 1, 10. December 29, 1995. PMID 11362952.
- "Public Law 104 - 199 - Defense of Marriage Act". United States Government Printing Office.
- Rich, Frank (February 26, 2012). "Bill Clinton's shifting justifications for signing the Defense of Marriage Act". New York.
- Geidner, Chris (September 29, 2011). "Becoming Law". Metro Weekly.
- "Bill Clinton's Justifications for Signing DOMA—New York Magazine". New York. February 24, 2012. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
- Issenberg, Sasha (September 18, 2021). "Bill Clinton Tried to Avoid the DOMA Trap Republicans Set. Instead, He Trapped Himself". Politico. Retrieved November 29, 2022.
- "Unfinished Business: The Defense of Marriage Act". Editorial. The New York Times. July 2, 2011. Archived from the original on January 1, 2022.
- Socarides, Richard (June 26, 2013). "How The Court Ruled on DOMA and Prop. 8". The New Yorker. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
- "ClintonGore Accomplishments: Gay and Lesbian Americans". Clinton2.nara.gov. Archived from the original on March 19, 2013. Retrieved September 12, 2013.
- Socarides, Richard (March 8, 2013). "Why Bill Clinton Signed the Defense of Marriage Act". The New Yorker. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
- Volsky, Igor. (August 5, 1995) Clinton Issued Order Letting Gays Get Security Clearances 16 Years Ago Today Archived March 26, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
- "Clinton Grants Gay Workers Job Protection". The New York Times. May 29, 1998. Retrieved September 12, 2013.
- "2000.12.01: (Fact Sheet) Clinton Administration Record on HIV/AIDS". Archive.hhs.gov. Archived from the original on September 30, 2013. Retrieved September 12, 2013.
- "S. 2056 (104th): Employment Nondiscrimination Act of 1996 (On Passage of the Bill)". Govtrack.us. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
- Tracey, Michael (July 14, 2009). "Bill Clinton Backs Same-Sex Marriage". The Nation. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
- Clinton, Bill (March 7, 2013). "It's time to overturn DOMA". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 12, 2013.
- "GLAAD honours Bill Clinton". 3 News NZ. April 22, 2013.
- Gromov, Gregory. "History of the Internet and World Wide Web". Archived from the original on July 20, 2011. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- "China Was Bill Clinton's Russia". The Wall Street Journal. March 3, 2017.
- "Not All Foreign-Influence Scandals Are Created Equal". National Review. July 16, 2017.
- Woodward, Bob (February 10, 1998). "Findings Link Clinton Allies to Chinese Intelligence". The Washington Post.
- Woodward, Bob; Duffy, Brian (February 13, 1997). "Chinese Embassy Role In Contributions Probed". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- Louis Freedberg (June 2, 1995). "New Limits In Works on Immigration / Powerful commission focusing on families of legal entrants". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
- Jones, Plummer Alston Jr. (2004). Still Struggling for Equality: American public library services with minorities. Libraries Unlimited. p. 154. ISBN 978-1-59158-243-4.
- Pear, Robert (June 8, 1995). "Clinton Embraces a Proposal To Cut Immigration by a Third". The New York Times. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- Discovery TV. Clinton Assassination Attempt—Secret Service Secrets. Archived from the original on February 20, 2015. Retrieved March 29, 2015 – via YouTube.
- Gormley, Ken (February 1, 2011). The Death of American Virtue: Clinton vs. Starr. Crown Publishing Group. p. 800. ISBN 978-0-307-40945-4.
- "Clinton Rides Landslide First Democrat To Be Re-Elected Since Roosevelt". The Spokesman-Review. November 6, 1996. Retrieved August 14, 2021.
- Jones, Charles O. (2005). The Presidency in a Separated System. The Brookings Institution. p. 318.
- Shogren, Elizabeth (October 4, 1997). "Clinton to Get Hearing Aids for Both Ears". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
- "Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999". Federal Reserve History. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
- Broder, Jonathan; Waas, Murray (March 17, 1998). "The Road To Hale". Salon. Archived from the original on June 16, 2006. Retrieved August 25, 2007.
- "Washingtonpost.com: Caught in the Whitewater Quagmire". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 23, 2022.
- "'Insufficient Evidence' Ends Whitewater Case". Los Angeles Times. March 21, 2002. Retrieved October 23, 2022.
- "Washingtonpost.com: Whitewater Special Report". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 23, 2022.
- Ray, Robert (March 16, 2000). "Final Report of the Independent Counsel ... of the Investigation In Re: Anthony Marceca" (PDF). United States Government Printing Office. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. Retrieved August 30, 2011.[permanent dead link]
- "Independent counsel: No evidence to warrant prosecution against first lady in 'filegate'". CNN. July 28, 2000. Archived from the original on May 29, 2010. Retrieved April 26, 2010.
- Clinton, Hillary (2003). Living History. Simon & Schuster. p. 172. ISBN 978-0-7432-2224-2.
- Gormley, Ken (2010). The Death of American Virtue: Clinton vs. Starr. New York: Crown Publishers. pp. 70–71. ISBN 978-0-307-40944-7.
- "AllPolitics - Travelgate Report OK'd - Sept. 18, 1996". CNN. Retrieved October 23, 2022.
- "III. Findings" (PDF). June 28, 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 28, 2007. Retrieved October 23, 2022.
- "AllPolitics - Travelgate Report OK'd - Sept. 18, 1996". CNN. Retrieved October 23, 2022.
- Miller, Lorraine C. (December 19, 1998). "Final vote results for roll call 543". Office of the Clerk. Archived from the original on January 6, 2010. Retrieved April 20, 2010.
- Miller, Lorraine C. (December 19, 1998). "Final vote results for roll call 545". Office of the Clerk. Archived from the original on March 2, 2010. Retrieved April 20, 2010.
- "President Clinton impeached". This Day in History | December 19. HISTORY. Retrieved December 12, 2019.
- "What have presidents been impeached for? These were the articles of impeachment for Andrew Johnson, Richard Nixon and Bill Clinton". CBS News. Retrieved December 12, 2019.
- "Time Line". The Washington Post. September 13, 1998. p. A32. Retrieved January 20, 2007.
- The Starr Report: The Findings of Independent Counsel Kenneth Starr on President Clinton and the Lewinsky Affair. 1998. ISBN 978-1-891620-24-9.
- Froomkin, Dan (August 26, 1999). "Case Closed". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- Senate LIS (February 12, 1999). "U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 106th Congress—1st Session: vote number 17—Guilty or Not Guilty (Art I, Articles of Impeachment v. President W. J. Clinton)". United States Senate. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
- "Clinton impeached". BBC News. December 19, 1998. Archived from the original on December 11, 2008. Retrieved October 29, 2008.
- "The Senate Acquits President Clinton". The Washington Post. February 13, 1999. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
- Neal v. Clinton, Civ. No. 2000-5677, Agreed Order of Discipline (Ark. Cir. Ct. 2001) ("Mr. Clinton admits and acknowledges ... that his discovery responses interfered with the conduct of the Jones case by causing the court and counsel for the parties to expend unnecessary time, effort, and resources").
- "Bill cops a plea". The Wall Street Journal. January 22, 2001.
- "Clinton Pardon's List". The Washington Post. Associated Press. January 20, 2001. Archived from the original on January 15, 2012. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- "Clinton pardons: Cast of characters". BBC News. February 22, 2001. Retrieved September 11, 2011.
- "Comey 'enthusiastic' about Bill Clinton probe in 2001, FBI memo says". Politico.
- "Clinton Pardons McDougal, Hearst, Others". ABC News. Retrieved August 11, 2021.
- Stout, David (January 20, 2001). "Clinton Pardons McDougal, Cisneros". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 11, 2021.
- "AllPolitics - White House Sleepovers - Feb. 25, 1997". CNN. Retrieved August 9, 2021.
- Baker, Peter; Schmidt, Susan (February 26, 1997). "President Had Big Role in Setting Donor Perks". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 9, 2021.
- "AllPolitics - Reno Resisting Pressure - Feb. 27, 1997". CNN. Retrieved August 9, 2021.
- "washingtonpost.com: Campaign Finance Key Player – Yah Lin "Charlie" Trie". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 9, 2021.
- "AllPolitics - Fund-Raising Flap - Cast of Characters". CNN. Retrieved August 9, 2021.
- "Chinese Aerospace Official Denies Giving To Democrats - May 21, 1998". CNN. May 24, 2008. Archived from the original on May 24, 2008. Retrieved August 9, 2021.
- "Fund-raiser Charlie Trie pleads guilty under plea agreement - May 21, 1999". CNN. August 5, 2006. Archived from the original on August 5, 2006. Retrieved August 9, 2021.
- "AllPolitics - A Chinese Spy? - May 12, 1997". CNN. April 23, 2009. Archived from the original on April 23, 2009. Retrieved August 9, 2021.
- "Washingtonpost.com: Campaign Finance Special Report". Washington Post. Retrieved August 9, 2021.
- "What A Downed Black Hawk In Somalia Taught America". NPR. October 5, 2013. Retrieved March 3, 2022.
- "The people killed them. Chopped them up. I consider myself lucky". The Guardian. October 9, 1993.
- Dauber, Cori Elizabeth (December 1, 2001). "The Shot Seen 'Round the World: The Impact of the Images of Mogadishu on American Military Operations". Rhetoric & Public Affairs. 4 (4): 653–687. doi:10.1353/rap.2001.0066. JSTOR 41940265. S2CID 153565083. Project MUSE 29928.
- Carrol, Rory (April 1, 2004). "US chose to ignore Rwandan genocide". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on December 28, 2017. Retrieved February 13, 2018.
- Bureau of Intelligence and Research (April 26, 1994). "Secretary [of State Warren Christopher]'s Morning Summary" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022.
- Central Intelligence Agency (April 23, 1994). "National Intelligence Daily" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022.
- "Ambush in Mogadishu: Transcript". PBS. Archived from the original on May 6, 2009. Retrieved October 27, 2009.
- Chozick, Amy (September 4, 2012). "In Africa, Bill Clinton Toils for a Charitable Legacy". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 22, 2012. Retrieved October 18, 2012.
- Hodge, Carole (2006). Britain and the Balkans: 1991 Until the Present. Routledge. pp. 55–56. ISBN 9781134425570.
- Halberstam, 2001, pp 349–60.
- "1995: Clinton kindles hope in Northern Ireland". November 30, 1995. Retrieved December 12, 2019.
- MacGinty, Roger (1997). "American Influences on the Northern Ireland Peace Process". Journal of Conflict Studies. 17 (2): 31–50.
- The German Law Journal
- Kaplan, Fred (July 23, 2014). "America's Flight 17". Slate.
- Clinton, Bill (January 27, 1998). "Text of President Clinton's 1998 State of the Union Address". The Washington Post (Press release). Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- "Iraq Liberation Act of 1998, H.R.4655, One Hundred Fifth Congress of United States of America at Second Session". Library of Congress. Archived from the original on February 18, 2007. Retrieved February 18, 2007.
- "H.R.4655—Iraq Liberation Act of 1998". October 31, 1998.
- "Address to the Nation on Completion of Military Strikes in Iraq". Presidency.ucsb.edu. December 19, 1998. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
- "Colin Powell, former soldier and still an all-American hero". tripod.com. Retrieved February 3, 2023.
- "Bill Clinton: I got closer to killing bin Laden". CNN. September 24, 2006. Retrieved September 11, 2011.
- Ijaz, Mansoor (December 5, 2001). "Clinton Let Bin Laden Slip Away and Metastisize". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
- "Staff Statement No. 5" (PDF). 9/11 Commission. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
- Lichtblau, Eric (August 17, 2005). "State Dept. Says It Warned About bin Laden in 1996". The New York Times. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
- "CNN - U.S. missiles pound targets in Afghanistan, Sudan - August 21, 1998". CNN. Retrieved September 24, 2022.
- "United States Terrorism in the Sudan (by Nafeez Mosaddeq Ahmed) - Media Monitors Network". June 14, 2007. Archived from the original on June 14, 2007. Retrieved September 24, 2022.
- Cloud, David S. (April 23, 2006). "Colleagues Say C.I.A. Analyst Played by the Rules". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 24, 2022.
- Hitchens, Christopher (September 23, 1998). "They bomb pharmacies, don't they?". Salon.com. Retrieved September 24, 2022.
- "The Missiles of August". The New Yorker. October 5, 1998. Retrieved September 24, 2022.
- Taylor, Max; Elbushra, Mohamed E. (September 1, 2006). "Research Note: Hassan al-Turabi, Osama bin Laden, and Al Qaeda in Sudan". Terrorism and Political Violence. 18 (3): 449–464. doi:10.1080/09546550600752022. S2CID 144769891.
- Noah, Timothy (April 1, 2004). "More on Clinton's Sudan bombing". Slate. Retrieved September 24, 2022.
- Clines, Francis X. (March 25, 1999). "NATO Opens Broad Barrage Against Serbs as Clinton Denounces 'Brutal Repression'". The New York Times.
- Cohen, William (April 7, 1999). "Secretary Cohen's Press Conference at NATO Headquarters". Archived from the original on June 4, 2020. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
- Clinton, Bill (August 30, 2011). "Press Conference by the President". Archived from the original on October 6, 2006.
- "Resolution 1244 (1999)". NATO. June 10, 1999. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
- Roberts, Adam (April 10, 2003). "The Impact of the Laws of War in Contemporary Conflicts (PDF)" (PDF). Princeton University. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 23, 2020. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
- "Two die in Apache crash". BBC News. May 5, 1999. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
- Pilger, John (September 4, 2000). "US and British officials told us that at least 100,000 were murdered in Kosovo. A year later, fewer than 3,000 bodies have been found". New Statesman. Archived from the original on May 4, 2019. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
- Pearl, Daniel; Block, Robert (December 31, 1999). "Despite Tales, the War in Kosovo Was Savage, but Wasn't Genocide". The Wall Street Journal. p. A1.
- Layne, Christopher; Schwarz, Benjamin (March 26, 2000). "Was It A Mistake?". The Washington Post.
- Cockburn, Alexander (October 29, 1999). "Where's the Evidence of Genocide of Kosovar Albanians?". Los Angeles Times.
- Erlanger, Steven (February 22, 2020) [December 5, 1999]. "Monitors' Reports Provide Chronicle of Kosovo Terror". The New York Times.
- "Kosovo assault 'was not genocide'". BBC News. September 7, 2001. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
- George J. Andreopoulos. "Ethnic Cleansing". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
- "The charges against Milosevic". BBC News. March 11, 2006. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
- "Milosevic's war crimes trial a 4-year marathon". CNN. March 11, 2006. Retrieved July 30, 2019.
- Song, ed., Encyclopedia of Chinese-American Relations p 74.
- "Chinese Embassy Bombing In Belgrade: Compensation Issues". Congressional Research Service.
- Smith, Matt (October 10, 2000). "Clinton signs China trade bill". CNN. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved July 3, 2014.
- Peter B. Levy (2002). Encyclopedia of the Clinton Presidency. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-313-31294-6.
- "Was Letting China Into the WTO a Mistake?". Foreign Affairs. April 2, 2018.
- "Text of Clinton's Speech on China Trade Bill", Federal News Service, March 9, 2000
- Shyovitz, David. "Camp David 2000". Jewish Virtual Library. Archived from the original on July 19, 2011. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- "Biographies of Current Justices of the Supreme Court". Supreme Court. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- "Appointment and swearing in of Justice Breyer, 1994". Law.onecle.com. September 30, 1994. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
- "Clinton Legacy: Moderate Judge Appointments". archive.nytimes.com. Retrieved January 31, 2022.
- Nancy Scherer (2005). Scoring Points: Politicians, Activists, and the Lower Federal Court Appointment Process. Stanford University Press. p. 85.
- "Bill Clinton: Job Ratings". Pollingreport.com. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
- "Clinton's approval rating up in wake of impeachment". CNN. December 20, 1998. Retrieved October 5, 2021.
- Cosgrove-Mather, Bootie (June 7, 2004). "A Look Back at the Polls". CBS News. Retrieved October 5, 2021.
- Moore, David W. (January 12, 2001). "Clinton Leaves Office With Mixed Public Reaction, Gallup Organization". Gallup.com.
- Langer, Gary (January 17, 2001). "Poll: Clinton Legacy Mixed". ABC News. ABC News. Retrieved January 19, 2013.
- "Poll: Clinton outperformed Bush". CNN. May 15, 2006. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- Lydia Saad, Lincoln Resumes Position as Americans' Top-Rated President: Reagan and Clinton lead among members of their respective parties, Gallup (February 19, 2007).
- Frank Newport, [Americans Say Reagan Is the Greatest U.S. President: Lincoln and Clinton next on the list; Washington fifth], Gallup (February 18, 2011).
- Obama Is First As Worst President Since WWII, Quinnipiac University National Poll Finds; More Voters Say Romney Would Have Been Better, Quinnipiac University (July 2, 2014).
- Rottinghaus, Brandon; Vaughn, Justin (February 16, 2015). "New ranking of U.S. presidents puts Lincoln at No. 1, Obama at 18; Kennedy judged most overrated". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 24, 2015.
- Sandalow, Marc (January 14, 2001). "Clinton Era Marked by Scandal, Prosperity: 1st Baby Boomer in White House Changed Notions of Presidency". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on June 11, 2008. Retrieved October 29, 2008.
- Martin Walker, Clinton: the President they deserve, Fourth Estate 1999
- Bob Woodward, The choice: how Clinton won, Touchstone 1996, ISBN 978-0-684-81308-0
- Vargas, Jose Antonio (January 21, 2001). "Bill Clinton -- The MTV President". SFGATE.
- Bresler, Robert J. (January 1, 2001). "The Muddled Meaning of the 2000 Election". USA Today. Vol. 129, no. 2668. p. 13. Gale A6969839.
- American Frontline:Stories of Bill. Retrieved May 4, 2015
- Mérida, Kevin (December 20, 1998). "It's Come To This: A Nickname That's Proven Hard to Slip". The Washington Post.
- Hurt, Charles; Campanile, Carl (June 27, 2007). "Rudy Bops Bubba". New York Post. Retrieved August 23, 2012.
- Davis, Kenneth C. (2003). Don't Know Much About History: Everything You Need to Know About American History but Never Learned (1st ed.). New York: HarperCollins. p. 541. ISBN 978-0-06-008381-6.
- Dowd, Maureen (October 22, 2000). "Liberties; Dare Speak His Name". The New York Times. Retrieved August 23, 2012.
They're going to have to let the big dog run.
- Rutenberg, Jim; Zernike, Kate (September 20, 2010). "Bill Clinton Stumps for Obama". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 1, 2022. Retrieved August 23, 2012.
The Big Dog, as he is known among those in the tight world of Clinton associates ...
- McDuffee, Allen (September 6, 2012). "Bill Clinton's DNC speech as 'explainer in chief,' 'it takes some brass,' and more [AM Briefing]". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 25, 2013.
- Poniewozik, James (September 6, 2012). "The Morning After: Obama Turns to Bill Clinton, Explainer-in-Chief". Time. Retrieved January 25, 2013.
- "A Conversation With President Bill Clinton on Race in America Today". Center for American Progress. July 16, 2004. Archived from the original on November 8, 2011. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- Morrison, Toni (October 1998). "Clinton as the first black president". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on October 21, 2006. Retrieved December 1, 2006.
- Coates, Ta-Nehisi (August 27, 2015). "It Was No Compliment to Call Bill Clinton 'The First Black President'". The Atlantic. Retrieved October 21, 2016.
- Tumulty, Karen; Mettler, Katie (November 17, 2017). "Abuse allegations have revived scrutiny of Bill Clinton—and divided Democrats". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 19, 2017. Retrieved November 19, 2017.
- Flanagan, Caitlin (November 13, 2017). "Bill Clinton: A Reckoning". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on November 18, 2017. Retrieved November 19, 2017.
- Wolf, Z. Byron (November 17, 2017). "Should Democrats turn their backs on Bill Clinton?". CNN. Archived from the original on November 19, 2017. Retrieved November 19, 2017.
- "Clinton Welcomes Jones Decision; Appeal Likely". CNN. April 2, 1998. Retrieved October 5, 2021.
- "Text of Jones's Appeal". The Washington Post. July 31, 1998. Retrieved August 25, 2010.
- Clines, Francis X. (March 14, 1998). "Testing of a President: The Accuser; Jones Lawyers Issue Files Alleging Clinton Pattern of Harassment of Women". The New York Times. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- "Appeals court ponders Paula Jones settlement". CNN. November 18, 1998. Retrieved October 5, 2021.
- Baker, Peter (November 14, 1998). "Clinton Settles Paula Jones Lawsuit for $850,000". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 27, 2011.
- "Deposition of William Jefferson Clinton, January 17, 1998". CNN. March 13, 1998. Retrieved September 11, 2011.
- "Lewinsky scandal". The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press. 2008. Archived from the original on June 18, 2009. Retrieved February 9, 2010.
- "The Lives Of Kathleen Willey". CNN. March 30, 1998. Retrieved September 11, 2011.
- John M. Broder (March 19, 1998). "Friend Accuses Willey for Plea to her to Lie". The New York Times. Retrieved February 15, 2014.
- Levy, Peter (November 30, 2001). Encyclopedia of the Clinton Presidency. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 328–329. ISBN 978-0-313-31294-6.
- "Stalking the president". Salon. January 1999. Archived from the original on January 29, 2011. Retrieved February 15, 2014.
- "Full Transcript of NBC Dateline report on Juanita Broaddrick". February 1999. Archived from the original on February 16, 2006.
- Matthews, Dylan (January 6, 2016). "The rape allegation against Bill Clinton, explained". Vox.
- Lerer, Lisa (November 2, 2018). "No One Wants to Campaign With Bill Clinton Anymore". The New York Times.
- Edelman, Adam (June 4, 2018). "Bill Clinton: I wouldn't have done anything differently with Lewinsky affair". NBC News. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
- Ballasy, Nicholas (November 27, 2017). "Donna Brazile: Bill Clinton Should Hit The Campaign Trail For Democrats In 2018". The Intercept. Retrieved December 25, 2020.
- Kessler, Glenn (October 9, 2016). "Here's a guide to the sex allegations that Donald Trump may raise in the presidential debate". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved January 8, 2022.
- "Actress Admits Affair With Clinton". CBS News. March 31, 1998. Retrieved January 8, 2022.
- Plotz, David (January 29, 1998). "All the President's Women". Slate. Retrieved January 8, 2022.
- Bradner, Eric (January 8, 2016). "Bill Clinton's alleged sexual misconduct: Who you need to know". CNN. Retrieved January 8, 2022.
- Gerstein, Josh (February 22, 2001). "Clinton Sex Allegation Lawsuit Dropped". ABC News. Retrieved January 8, 2022.
- Gerstein, Josh (January 17, 2006). "Clinton Eligible, Once Again, To Practice Law". The New York Sun. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- Corasaniti, Nick; Williams, Josh (September 5, 2012). "Bill Clinton's Democratic Convention Speeches". The New York Times. Retrieved July 30, 2019.
- "House Passes Resolution Authorizing Use of Force in Iraq; New Jerssy Supreme Court Hears Argument For, Against New Democrat on Ballot". CNN. October 2, 2002. Retrieved August 30, 2010.
- Grice, Andrew (October 3, 2002). "Clinton urges caution over Iraq as Bush is granted war powers". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on August 21, 2011. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
A pre-emptive action today, however well justified, may come back with unwelcome consequences in the future."
As someone who had ordered military action before, he said: "I don't care how precise your bombs and your weapons are, when you set them off, innocent people will die.
- "Bill Clinton Says He Opposed Iraq War from Start (UPDATED)". Outside The Beltway. November 28, 2007. Retrieved September 12, 2013.
- "Last-minute climate deals reached". BBC News. December 10, 2005. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- "Clinton Library open for business". BBC News. November 18, 2004. Retrieved September 11, 2011.
- Glaister, Dan (May 22, 2006). "Oprah Winfrey book deal tops Clinton's $12 m". The Guardian. London. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- "Best Sellers". The New York Times. September 23, 2007. Archived from the original on May 10, 2013. Retrieved September 18, 2007.
- "Clinton to be U.N.'s envoy on tsunami relief". NBC News. Associated Press. February 1, 2005. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- "2006 Philadelphia Liberty Medal Award". Constitutioncenter.org. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
- Maske, Mark (January 27, 2005). "Senior Bush, Clinton to Appear at Super Bowl". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 26, 2010.
- "Bush, Clinton end tsunami visit". BBC News. February 21, 2005. Retrieved September 11, 2011.
- "Former Presidents Bush, Clinton Represent U.S. at Boris Yeltsin's Funeral". Fox News. April 24, 2007. Archived from the original on December 8, 2007. Retrieved May 10, 2007.
- Meacham, Jon (December 20, 2009). "Planetary Problem Solver". Newsweek. Archived from the original on August 16, 2011. Retrieved September 11, 2011.
- "Clinton Global Initiative". Clinton Global Initiative. June 19, 2011. Archived from the original on August 7, 2011. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
- "William J. Clinton Foundation announces agreement to reduce junk food in schools". Comcast.net. Archived from the original on May 1, 2008. Retrieved August 25, 2010.
- "Clinton Foundation and Climate Partnership, Press Release". August 1, 2006. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007.
- Baker, Peter; Davies, Anne (November 18, 2008). "Obama team turns scrutiny on Bill Clinton". The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved August 31, 2011.
- Smith, Pohla (August 20, 2008). "Young man combines expertise in economics and social issues at Clinton Foundation". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Archived from the original on January 31, 2010. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- Indravudh, Peach (October 15, 2006). "Clinton backs Prop. 87". Daily Bruin. UCLA. Archived from the original on November 8, 2011. Retrieved August 31, 2011.
- Yoon, Robert (July 30, 2008). "Bill Clinton 2007 speech haul tops $10 million". CNN. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- Vaughn Ververs (January 26, 2008). "Analysis: Bill Clinton's Lost Legacy". CBS News. Retrieved October 5, 2021.
- Peter Baker; Jim Rutenberg (June 8, 2008). "The Long Road to a Clinton Exit". The New York Times. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- Alter, Jonathan (August 6, 2008). "A Catharsis in Denver?". Newsweek. Archived from the original on November 10, 2011. Retrieved September 11, 2011.
- Sweet, Lynn (August 28, 2008). "Bill Clinton vouches for Obama: now 'ready to lead'". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on October 17, 2011. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- "Clinton Turns to Husband's Charity to Retire Campaign Debt". Fox News. December 24, 2008. Archived from the original on February 16, 2012. Retrieved August 31, 2011.
- Condon, Stephanie (May 13, 2010). "Bill Clinton Raffles Himself to Pay Hillary's Campaign Debt". CBS News. Retrieved October 5, 2021.
- "Bill Clinton meets N Korea leader". BBC News. August 4, 2009. Retrieved August 31, 2011.
- "North Korea pardons US reporters". BBC News. August 4, 2009. Retrieved August 31, 2011.
- Landler, Mark; Baker, Peter (August 5, 2009). "Bill Clinton and Journalists in Emotional Return to U.S." The New York Times. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- "Bill Clinton to be UN Haiti envoy". BBC News. May 19, 2009. Retrieved September 11, 2011.
- Deborah Sontag (July 5, 2012). "Earthquake Relief Where Haiti Wasn't Broken". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 1, 2022. Retrieved August 24, 2019.
- "Presidents Clinton, Bush lead effort to raise funds for Haiti". CNN. January 16, 2010. Retrieved August 31, 2011.
- Oliver, Emmet (March 5, 2010). "Clinton backs NTR's environment foundation". Irish Independent. Retrieved August 31, 2011.
- "President Bill Clinton Delivers Keynote Address" (PDF). NTR Foundation. March 4, 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. Retrieved October 5, 2021.
- "Bill Clinton brings it for Obama". CNN. September 6, 2012.
- "Bill Clinton Rallies for Hillary in Wilmington". WWAY News. October 26, 2016. Retrieved February 2, 2017.
- Shabad, Rebecca (December 20, 2016). "Trump goes after Bill Clinton over post-election comments". CBS News. Retrieved February 2, 2017.
- Mahoney, Bill. "Electoral delegate Bill Clinton: 'Never cast a vote I was prouder of'". Politico. Retrieved November 10, 2020.
- Shelbourne, Mallory (September 10, 2017). "Former presidents fundraise for Irma disaster relief". The Hill. Retrieved September 11, 2017.
- "Electoral College members from New York, 2020". Ballotpedia. Retrieved January 2, 2021.
- Campbell, Jon (December 14, 2020). "Clintons cast first ballots as New York Electoral College votes for Joe Biden". Democrat and Chronicle. Retrieved January 2, 2021.
- "Bill Clinton 'in good spirits' after heart procedure". BBC News. February 12, 2010. Retrieved August 31, 2011.
- "Clinton surgery called successful". NBC News. Associated Press. March 10, 2005. Retrieved August 31, 2011.
- Egan, Mark (February 11, 2010). "Bill Clinton in good spirits after heart procedure". Reuters. Archived from the original on July 26, 2012. Retrieved September 11, 2011.
- Martin, David S. (August 18, 2011). "From omnivore to vegan: The dietary education of Bill Clinton". CNN. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
- Heasman, Chris (April 16, 2018). "This Is What Hillary Clinton Eats". Mashed.com. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
- Brodwin, Erin. "What the author of 'Eat Fat, Get Thin' eats — and avoids — every day". Business Insider. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
- Choi, Joseph (October 14, 2021). "Bill Clinton hospitalized with sepsis". The Hill. Retrieved October 14, 2021.
- Daley, Haven (October 17, 2021). "Bill Clinton back home after hospitalization from infection". Associated Press. Retrieved October 19, 2021.
- "Former U.S. President Clinton tests positive for COVID". Reuters. November 30, 2022. Retrieved December 1, 2022.
- "Clintons Pay Off Legal Bills". CBS News. June 14, 2005. Retrieved March 28, 2015.
- McIntire, Mike (April 5, 2008). "Clintons made $109 Million in Last 8 Years". The New York Times.
- Alexander, Dan (November 8, 2016). "How Bill And Hillary Clinton Made $240 Million In The Last 15 Years". Forbes. Retrieved July 30, 2019.
- Yoon, Robert (February 6, 2016). "$153 million in Bill and Hillary Clinton speaking fees, documented". CNN. Retrieved February 7, 2016.
- Ben Kamisar, Clintons earned more than $25 million for speeches since 2014 (May 15, 2015), The Hill
- Mullins, Brody; Nicholas, Peter; Ballhaus, Rebecca (July 1, 2014). "The Bill and Hillary Clinton Money Machine Taps Corporate Cash". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 30, 2019.
- Epstein, Jennifer (May 22, 2015). "Clinton Family Speeches Netted as Much as $26 Million for Foundation". Bloomberg.com. Bloomberg News. Retrieved May 23, 2015.
- (linked in the NYT article)
- Rucker, Philip; Hamburger, Tom; Becker, Alexander (June 26, 2014). "How the Clintons went from 'dead broke' to rich, with $104.9 million for ex-president's speaking fees". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 30, 2019.
- "Hillary Clinton Defends High-Dollar Speaking Fees". ABC News and Good Morning America. June 9, 2014. Retrieved October 5, 2021.
- Nematt, Salameh (November 17, 2008). "Bill's $500,000 Kuwait Lecture". The Daily Beast.
- Gerstein, Josh (January 17, 2006). "Clinton Eligible, Once Again, To Practice Law". The New York Sun.
- Healy, Patrick (May 10, 2007). "Bill Clinton Ponders a Role as First Gentleman". The New York Times. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
- Bentley, Daniel (February 24, 2007). "Forty Million Dollar Bill, Independent, 2007". The Independent. Archived from the original on October 15, 2007. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
- Becker, Jo; McIntire, Mike (April 23, 2015). "Cash Flowed to Clinton Foundation Amid Russian Uranium Deal". The New York Times.
- Campbell, Colin; Engel, Pamela (April 23, 2015). "The Clinton Foundation received millions from investors as Putin took over 20% of US uranium deposits". Yahoo! Finance.
- McDonald, Scott (July 8, 2019). "Bill Clinton says he didn't know about Jeffrey Epstein's alleged sex trafficking crimes". Newsweek. Retrieved September 16, 2019.
- Gold, Michael (July 9, 2019). "Bill Clinton and Jeffrey Epstein: How Are They Connected?". The New York Times. Retrieved September 16, 2019.
- Hill, James; Mosk, Matthew (February 11, 2016). "Victims: Feds Hid 'Sweetheart' Deal for Sex Offender With Deep Political Ties". ABC. Archived from the original on July 20, 2019. Retrieved July 20, 2019.
- "Clinton and Trump Plead Ignorance as Epstein's Old Friends Begin to Sweat". Vanity Fair. July 9, 2019. Retrieved October 20, 2022.
- "Jeffrey Epstein Visited Bill Clinton's White House at Least 17 Times From 1993 to 1995, Visitor Logs Show". National Review. December 3, 2021. Retrieved October 20, 2022.
- Ruhalter, Kana (December 2, 2021). "White House Visitor Logs Show Just How Friendly Epstein and President Clinton Were". The Daily Beast. Retrieved October 20, 2022.
- Moye, David (July 8, 2019). "Bill Clinton Denies Knowing Anything About Jeffrey Epstein's 'Terrible Crimes'". HuffPost. Retrieved September 16, 2019.
- Arciga, Julia (July 9, 2019). "Bill Clinton: I Flew With Jeffrey Epstein but Knew 'Nothing' About 'Terrible Crimes'". The Daily Beast.
- "Report: Bill Clinton Flew on Disgraced Donor's Jet 26 Times". Roll Call. May 14, 2016. Retrieved October 20, 2022.
- Zimmerman, Malia (May 13, 2016). "Flight logs show Bill Clinton flew on sex offender's jet much more than previously known". Fox News. Retrieved October 20, 2022.
- Melendez, Pilar (July 11, 2019). "Bill Clinton Failed to Mention His Intimate 1995 Dinner With Epstein". The Daily Beast. Retrieved October 22, 2022.
- "Prince Andrew sex allegations: Billionaire Jeffrey Epstein 'had 21". The Independent. January 6, 2015.
- "Jeffrey Epstein – the billionaire paedophile at the centre of the Prince Andrew sex claim". The Independent. January 2, 2015.
- Brown, Julie K.; Blaskey, Sarah (August 9, 2019). "Huge cache of records details how Jeffrey Epstein and madam lured girls into depraved world". Miami Herald. Retrieved July 28, 2020.
Virginia Roberts, now Giuffre, says she was 16 and working as a locker room attendant at Donald Trump's Mar-a-Lago resort when she was approached by Ghislaine Maxwell, Jeffrey Epstein's associate, about becoming a masseuse for Epstein.
- Gerstein, Josh (May 4, 2017). "The one weird court case linking Trump, Clinton, and a billionaire pedophile". POLITICO.
- "Plenty Of Innuendo, But No Hard Evidence Of New Clinton Sex Scandal". BuzzFeed News. January 28, 2015.
- Coto, Dánica (July 11, 2019). "Whispers, suspicion about Epstein on Caribbean island". Associated Press. Archived from the original on August 13, 2019. Retrieved August 13, 2019.
- Sullivan, Kate (July 8, 2019). "Bill Clinton 'knows nothing' about Epstein's 'terrible crimes,' spokesman says". CNN.
- Yancey, Philip (April 25, 1994). "The Riddle of Bill Clinton's Faith". Christianity Today.
- Gary Scott Smith,Bill Clinton's surprising faith, salon.com, USA, April 11, 2015
- Paul Galloway, The President's Pastor, chicagotribune.com, USA, Feb 10, 1999
- Encyclopædia Britannica, Bill Clinton, britannica.com, USA, retrieved April 30, 2021
- "Happy Anniversary, Hillary and Bill Clinton! Looking Back at Their 1975 Wedding in Photos". Brides. Retrieved September 22, 2021.
- "Honorary Degrees". UNC-Chapel Hill Office of Faculty Governance. 1993. Archived from the original on February 9, 2012. Retrieved August 31, 2011.
- "President Bill Clinton with an honorary doctorate of law". Tulane University. May 19, 2006. Archived from the original on August 8, 2011. Retrieved August 31, 2011.
- "Clinton to address graduates, Honorary doctorate will be bestowed". RIT News, Rochester Institute of Technology. May 18, 2007. Retrieved August 31, 2011.
- Hughes, Tracey (May 24, 1980). "GU Honors Statesmen, Scientists, Educators" (PDF). The Hoya. Retrieved September 22, 2021.
- Hoffman, Matthew. "The Bill Clinton we knew at Oxford: Apart from smoking dope (and not inhaling), what else did he learn over here? College friends share their memories with Matthew Hoffman". The Independent. Archived from the original on June 23, 2018. Retrieved October 27, 2016.
- "www.univ.ox.ac.uk". University of Oxford. Archived from the original on March 13, 2016.
- "Clinton Elementary". Compton Unified School District. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved August 31, 2010.
- "William Jefferson Clinton Middle School". Los Angeles Unified School District. Archived from the original on July 19, 2011. Retrieved August 31, 2011.
- "Clinton School of Public service". University of Arkansas. Archived from the original on July 20, 2011. Retrieved August 31, 2011.
- "Kosovo unveils Clinton's statue". BBC News. November 1, 2009. Archived from the original on November 2, 2009. Retrieved November 2, 2009.
- "Kosovo to honor Bill Clinton with statue". Reuters. May 23, 2007. Archived from the original on August 5, 2011. Retrieved September 11, 2011.
- "DeMolay Hall of Fame". DeMolay International. Archived from the original on September 5, 2010. Retrieved August 25, 2010.
- Purdum, Todd S. (October 17, 2002). "Campaign Season; Another First for Clinton". The New York Times. Retrieved August 6, 2009.
- "Colonels website". Honorable Order of Kentucky Colonels. Archived from the original on June 25, 2009. Retrieved December 21, 2009.
- Dunlap, David (November 23, 2004). "Pataki Offers Peek at 9/11 Memorial Progress". The New York Times. Retrieved August 31, 2011.
- "Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen presents the Department of Defense Medal for Distinguished Public Service to President Bill Clinton in a ceremonial farewell at Fort Myer, Va., on Jan. 5, 2001". U.S. Department of Defense. Retrieved September 1, 2011.
- Van Natta, Don Jr. (June 28, 1999). "Dinner for a Presidential Library, Contributions Welcome". The New York Times. Retrieved December 17, 2009.
- "List of Individuals Awarded the Order of the White Lion". Old.hrad.cz. October 13, 2005. Retrieved August 6, 2009.
- "It's now 'Chief' Bill Clinton". United Press International. December 3, 2006. Retrieved August 31, 2011.
- "International Prize of the city of Aachen (German)". Archived from the original on February 6, 2008.
- Nizza, Mike (May 23, 2007). "Statue Watch: Bill Clinton Edition". The New York Times. Retrieved October 8, 2012.
- Bilefsky, Dan (December 17, 2007). "Kosovo Struggles to Forge an Identity". The New York Times. Retrieved October 8, 2012.
- Bilefsky, Dan (December 9, 2007). "Kosovo: Forging an identity on eve of new era". The New York Times. Retrieved October 8, 2012.
- Elizabeth P. Valk (January 4, 1993). "Bill Clinton, Man of the Year". Time. Archived from the original on May 30, 2007. Retrieved August 31, 2011.
- Gibbs, Nancy (December 28, 1998). "Kenneth Starr & Bill Clinton, Men of the Year". Time. Archived from the original on January 14, 2007. Retrieved August 31, 2011.
- The Gallup Poll 1999. Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources Inc. 1999. pp. 248–249.
- Braxton, Greg (March 4, 2001). "NAACP Honors, Cheers Clinton". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 28, 2022.
- AmericaLive (October 22, 2010). "President Bill Clinton Biography". CNN. Archived from the original on October 4, 2015.
- "2007 TED Prize winner Bill Clinton on TEDTalks". TED Blog. April 4, 2007. Archived from the original on July 28, 2011. Retrieved August 31, 2011.
- "24th Annual GLAAD Media Awards—Los Angeles". GLAAD. Retrieved April 7, 2013.
- Press, ed. (July 22, 2011). "Haiti—Social: Bill Clinton receives the National Order of Honor and Merit to the rank Grand Cross gold plated". Haiti Libre. Retrieved March 14, 2016.
- Jackson, David (November 20, 2013). "Obama awards Medal of Freedom to Clinton, Oprah, others". USA Today. Retrieved November 20, 2013.
- "Wolf Tracks". Russian National Orchestra. Retrieved August 1, 2020.
- "Bill Clinton". Grammy Awards. November 19, 2019. Retrieved August 1, 2020.
- "Grammy Award Winners". The New York Times. Retrieved August 1, 2020.
- "2005 AUDIE AWARDS®". Audio Publishers Association. Retrieved January 13, 2023.
- Clinton, Bill. (with Al Gore). Science in the National Interest. Washington, D.C.: The White House, August 1994.
- --- (with Al Gore). The Climate Change Action Plan. Washington, D.C.: The White House, October 1993.
- Taylor Branch The Clinton Tapes: Wrestling History with the President. (2009) Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4165-4333-6
- Official Congressional Record Impeachment Set: ... Containing the Procedures for Implementing the Articles of Impeachment and the Proceedings of the Impeachment Trial of President William Jefferson Clinton. Washington, D.C.: U.S. G.P.O., 1999.
- Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States, William J. Clinton. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Administration: For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O., 1994–2002.
- S. Daniel Abraham Peace Is Possible, foreword by Bill Clinton
- Peter Baker The Breach: Inside the Impeachment and Trial of William Jefferson Clinton (2000) ISBN 978-0-684-86813-4
- James Bovard Feeling Your Pain: The Explosion and Abuse of Government Power in the Clinton-Gore Years (2000) ISBN 978-0-312-23082-1
- Joe Conason and Gene Lyons The Hunting of the President: The Ten-Year Campaign to Destroy Bill and Hillary Clinton (2003) ISBN 978-0-312-27319-4
- Elizabeth Drew On the Edge: The Clinton Presidency (1994) ISBN 978-0-671-87147-5
- David Gergen Eyewitness to Power: The Essence of Leadership. (2000) ISBN 978-0-684-82663-9
- Nigel Hamilton Bill Clinton: An American Journey (2003) ISBN 978-0-375-50610-9
- Christopher Hitchens No One Left to Lie to: The Triangulations of William Jefferson Clinton (1999) ISBN 978-1-85984-736-7
- Michael Isikoff Uncovering Clinton: A Reporter's Story (1999) ISBN 978-0-609-60393-2
- Mark Katz Clinton and Me: A Real-Life Political Comedy (2004) ISBN 978-0-7868-6949-7
- David Maraniss The Clinton Enigma: A Four and a Half Minute Speech Reveals This President's Entire Life (1998) ISBN 978-0-684-86296-5
- Dick Morris with Eileen McGann Because He Could (2004) ISBN 978-0-06-078415-7
- Richard A. Posner An Affair of State: The Investigation, Impeachment, and Trial of President Clinton (1999) ISBN 978-0-674-00080-3
- Mark J. Rozell The Clinton Scandal and the Future of American Government (2000) ISBN 978-0-87840-777-4
- Timperlake, Edward, and William C. Triplett II Year of the Rat: How Bill Clinton Compromised U.S. Security for Chinese Cash. Washington, D.C.: Regnery Publishing, 1998. ISBN 978-0-89526-333-9
- Michael Waldman POTUS Speaks: Finding the Words That Defined the Clinton Presidency (2000) ISBN 978-0-7432-0020-2
- Ivory Tower Publishing Company. Achievements of the Clinton Administration: the Complete Legislative and Executive. (1995) ISBN 978-0-88032-748-0
- Campbell, Colin, and Bert A. Rockman, eds. The Clinton Legacy (Chatham House Pub, 2000)
- Cohen, Jeffrey E. (December 2001). "The Polls: Change and Stability in Public Assessments of Personal Traits, Bill Clinton, 1993-99". Presidential Studies Quarterly. 31 (4): 733–741. doi:10.1111/j.0000-0000.2001.00197.x.
- Cronin, Thomas E.; Genovese, Michael A. (1998). "President Clinton and Character Questions". Presidential Studies Quarterly. 28 (4): 892–897. JSTOR 27551947. Gale A53409280 ProQuest 215686695.
- Davis, John (September 22, 2003). "The evolution of American grand strategy and the war on terrorism: Clinton and Bush perspectives". White House Studies. 3 (4): 459–477. Gale A118274932.
- Dumbrell, J. (June 2002). "Was There a Clinton Doctrine? President Clinton's Foreign Policy Reconsidered". Diplomacy & Statecraft. 13 (2): 43–56. doi:10.1080/714000309. S2CID 153835555.
- Edwards, George C. (1998). "Bill Clinton and His Crisis of Governance". Presidential Studies Quarterly. 28 (4): 754–760. JSTOR 27551927. Gale A53409260 ProQuest 215682224.
- Fisher, Patrick (September 22, 2001). "Clinton's greatest legislative achievement? The success of the 1993 Budget Reconciliation Bill". White House Studies. 1 (4): 479–496. Gale A86058403.
- Glad, Betty (1998). "Evaluating Presidential Character". Presidential Studies Quarterly. 28 (4): 861–872. JSTOR 27551943. Gale A53409276 ProQuest 215694887.
- Halberstam, David. War in a time of peace: Bush, Clinton, and the generals (Simon and Schuster, 2001). online
- Harris, John F. The Survivor: Bill Clinton in the White House (2006). online
- Head, Simon. The Clinton System (January 30, 2016), The New York Review of Books
- Hyland, William G. Clinton's World: Remaking American Foreign Policy (1999) ISBN 978-0-275-96396-5
- Jewett, Aubrey W.; Turetzky, Marc D. (1998). "Stability and Change in President Clinton's Foreign Policy Beliefs, 1993-96". Presidential Studies Quarterly. 28 (3): 638–665. JSTOR 27551906. Gale A53390302 ProQuest 215688436.
- Kim, Claire Jean (2002). "Managing the Racial Breach: Clinton, Black-White Polarization, and the Race Initiative". Political Science Quarterly. 117 (1): 55–79. doi:10.2307/798094. JSTOR 798094.
- Laham, Nicholas, A Lost Cause: Bill Clinton's Campaign for National Health Insurance (1996)
- Lanoue, David J.; Emmert, Craig F. (1999). "Voting in the Glare of the Spotlight: Representatives' Votes on the Impeachment of President Clinton". Polity. 32 (2): 253–269. doi:10.2307/3235285. JSTOR 3235285. S2CID 155511442.
- Levy, Peter B. Encyclopedia of the Clinton presidency (Greenwood, 2002) online
- Maurer, Paul J. (March 1999). "Media Feeding Frenzies: Press Behavior During Two Clinton Scandals". Presidential Studies Quarterly. 29 (1): 65–79. doi:10.1111/1741-5705.00019. JSTOR 27551959. Gale A54099170 ProQuest 215686228.
- Nesmith, Bruce F.; Quirk, Paul J. (2017). "Triangulation: Position and Leadership in Clinton's Domestic Policy". 42: Inside the Presidency of Bill Clinton. pp. 46–76. doi:10.7591/9781501706202-006. ISBN 978-1-5017-0620-2.
- Nie, Martin A. (1997). "'It's the Environment, Stupid!' Clinton and the Environment". Presidential Studies Quarterly. 27 (1): 39–51. JSTOR 27551699.
- O’Connor, Brendon (September 2002). "Policies, Principles, and Polls: Bill Clinton's Third Way Welfare Politics 1992–1996". Australian Journal of Politics & History. 48 (3): 396–411. doi:10.1111/1467-8497.00267.
- Palmer, David (2005). "'What might have been': Bill Clinton and american political power". Australasian Journal of American Studies. 24 (1): 38–58. JSTOR 41416024.
- Renshon; Stanley A. The Clinton Presidency: Campaigning, Governing, and the Psychology of Leadership Westview Press, 1995
- Renshon, Stanley A. (June 2002). "The Polls: The Public's Response to the Clinton Scandals, Part 2: Diverse Explanations, Clearer Consequences". Presidential Studies Quarterly. 32 (2): 412–427. doi:10.1111/j.0360-4918.2002.00228.x. JSTOR 27552394. Gale A87354430 ProQuest 215686253.
- Romano, Flavio. Clinton and Blair: the political economy of the third way (Routledge, 2007)
- Rushefsky, Mark E. and Kant Patel. Politics, Power & Policy Making: The Case of Health Care Reform in the 1990s (1998) ISBN 978-1-56324-956-3
- Schantz, Harvey L. Politics in an Era of Divided Government: Elections and Governance in the Second Clinton Administration (2001) ISBN 978-0-8153-3583-2
- Troy, Gill. The Age of Clinton: America in the 1990s (2015)
- Walt, Stephen M. (2000). "Two Cheers for Clinton's Foreign Policy". Foreign Affairs. 79 (2): 63–79. doi:10.2307/20049641. JSTOR 20049641.
- Warshaw, Shirley Anne. The Clinton Years (Infobase Publishing, 2009)
- White, Mark, ed. The Presidency of Bill Clinton: The Legacy of a New Domestic and Foreign Policy (I.B.Tauris, 2012)
- Allen, Charles and Jonathan Portis. The Life and Career of Bill Clinton: The Comeback Kid (1992).
- Blair, Diane D. "The Big Three of Late Twentieth-Century Arkansas Politics: Dale Bumpers, Bill Clinton, and David Pryor." Arkansas Historical Quarterly 54.1 (1995): 53–79. online
- Blair, Diane D. "William Jefferson Clinton" in The Governors of Arkansas: Essays in Political Biography ed. by Willard B. Gatewood Jr., et al. (1995)
- Brummett, John. Highwire: From the Backroads to the Beltway: The Education of Bill Clinton (Hyperion, 1994).
- Clinton, Bill. My Life: The Early Years (Random House, 2004)
- Dumas, Ernest, ed. The Clintons of Arkansas: An Introduction by Those Who Knew Them Best (University of Arkansas Press, 1993) online.
- Encyclopedia of Arkansas (2023) online
- Johnston, Phyllis F. Bill Clinton's Public Policy for Arkansas: 1979-80 (Little Rock: August House, 1982).
- Maraniss, David. First in His Class: A Biography of Bill Clinton (Simon & Schuster, 1995).
- Marcus, Alan. "Bill Clinton in Arkansas: generational politics, the technology of political communication and the permanent campaign." The Historian 72.2 (2010): 354–385. online
- Oakley, Meredith L. On the make: The rise of Bill Clinton (Regnery Publishing, 1994), attack from the right.
- Osborne, David. "Turning around Arkansas' Schools: Bill Clinton and Education Reform." American Educator: The Professional Journal of the American Federation of Teachers 16.3 (1992): 6–17. online
- Smith, Stephen A., ed. Preface to the Presidency: Selected Speeches of Bill Clinton, 1974–1992 (University of Arkansas Press, 1996).
Interviews, speeches, and statements
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Bill Clinton at TED
- Full audio of a number of Clinton speeches Miller Center of Public Affairs
- Oral History Interview with Bill Clinton from Oral Histories of the American South, June 1974
- "The Wanderer", a profile from The New Yorker, September 2006
- Bill Clinton collected news and commentary at The Guardian
- Bill Clinton collected news and commentary at The New York Times
- Bill Clinton at Curlie
- Extensive essays on Bill Clinton and shorter essays on each member of his cabinet and First Lady from the Miller Center of Public Affairs
- "Life Portrait of Bill Clinton", from C-SPAN's American Presidents: Life Portraits, December 20, 1999
- Clinton Archived March 13, 2017, at the Wayback Machine an American Experience documentary
- Bill Clinton at IMDb
- Works by Bill Clinton at Project Gutenberg
- 1992 election episode in CNN's Race for the White House