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Bill Kristol

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Bill Kristol
Kristol in 2011
Chief of Staff to the Vice President
In office
January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993
Vice PresidentDan Quayle
Preceded byCraig Fuller
Succeeded byRoy Neel
Personal details
William Kristol

(1952-12-23) December 23, 1952 (age 71)
New York City, New York, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic (before 1980; 2020–present)[1]
Other political
Republican (1980–2020)
Susan Scheinberg
(m. 1975)
RelativesMatthew Continetti (son-in-law)
EducationHarvard University (BA, PhD)

William Kristol (/ˈkrɪstəl/; born December 23, 1952) is an American neoconservative writer.[2] A frequent commentator on several networks including CNN, he was the founder and editor-at-large[3] of the political magazine The Weekly Standard. Kristol is now editor-at-large of the center-right publication The Bulwark and has been the host of Conversations with Bill Kristol, an interview web program, since 2014.[4][5]

Kristol played a leading role in the defeat of the Clinton health care plan of 1993,[6] and for advocating the 2003 invasion of Iraq.[7][8] He has been associated with a number of conservative think tanks. He was chairman of the New Citizenship Project from 1997 to 2005. In 1997, he co-founded the Project for the New American Century (PNAC) with Robert Kagan. He is a member of the board of trustees for the free-market Manhattan Institute for Policy Research, a member of the Policy Advisory Board for the Ethics and Public Policy Center, and a director of the Foreign Policy Initiative. He is also one of the three board members of Keep America Safe, a national-security think tank co-founded by Liz Cheney and Debra Burlingame, and serves on the boards of the Emergency Committee for Israel and of the Susan B. Anthony List (as of 2010).[9]

Kristol is a critic of former president Donald Trump,[10] a supporter of the Never Trump movement, and a founder and director of Defending Democracy Together, an advocacy organization responsible for such projects as Republicans for the Rule of Law and the Republican Accountability Project.

Early life and education


William Kristol was born on December 23, 1952, in New York City into a Jewish family, the son of Irving Kristol and Gertrude Himmelfarb. Irving Kristol was an editor and publisher who served as the managing editor of Commentary magazine, founded the magazine The Public Interest, and was described by Jonah Goldberg as the "godfather of neoconservatism."[11] Gertrude Himmelfarb was a prominent conservative historian, especially of intellectual history in the U.S. and Great Britain.

Kristol attended Collegiate School for Boys in Manhattan. He received a bachelor's degree at Harvard University and also a Ph.D. in political science in 1979.[12][13]


Kristol with President Richard Nixon in 1970
Kristol with Vice President Dan Quayle in 1989

In the summer of 1970, Kristol was an intern at the White House.[14] In 1976, Kristol worked for Daniel Patrick Moynihan's United States Senate campaign, serving as deputy issues director during the Democratic primary. In 1988, he was the campaign manager for Alan Keyes's unsuccessful Maryland Senatorial campaign against Paul Sarbanes.

After teaching political philosophy and U.S. politics at the University of Pennsylvania and Harvard's Kennedy School of Government, Kristol went to work in government in 1985, serving as chief of staff to United States secretary of education William Bennett during the Reagan administration, and later, as chief of staff to the vice president under Dan Quayle in the George H. W. Bush administration. The New Republic dubbed Kristol "Dan Quayle's brain" when he was appointed the vice president's chief of staff.

He served as chairman of the Project for the Republican Future from 1993 to 1994, and as the director of the Bradley Project at the Bradley Foundation in Milwaukee in 1993. In 1993, he led conservative opposition to the Clinton health care plan of 1993.

In 2003, Kristol and Lawrence F. Kaplan wrote The War Over Iraq: America's Mission and Saddam's Tyranny, in which the authors analyzed the Bush Doctrine and the history of Iraqi-U.S. relations. In the book, Kristol and Kaplan provided support and justifications for the 2003 invasion of Iraq.[15]

He also served as a foreign policy advisor for Senator John McCain's presidential campaign.[16]

Media commentator


After the Republican sweep of both houses of Congress in 1994, Kristol established, along with John Podhoretz, the conservative news magazine The Weekly Standard. Rupert Murdoch, chairman and managing director of News Corp., financed its creation.

Beginning in 1996, Kristol was a panelist on the ABC Sunday news program This Week. Following declining ratings, his contract was not renewed three years later.[17]

Kristol was a columnist for Time in 2007.[18] The following year, he joined The New York Times as a columnist. Several days after he did so, Times public editor Clark Hoyt called his hiring "a mistake," due to Kristol's assertion in 2006 that the Times should potentially be prosecuted for having revealed information about the Terrorist Finance Tracking Program.[19] Kristol wrote a weekly opinion column for The New York Times from January 7, 2008,[20] to January 26, 2009.

For ten years, Kristol was a regular panelist on Fox News Sunday and often contributed to the nightly program Special Report with Bret Baier. In 2013, his contract with Fox News expired, and he became a much sought after commentator on several networks.[21] It was announced on This Week with George Stephanopoulos on February 2, 2014, that Kristol would be a contributor for ABC News and to that program.[22]



Since the summer of 2014, Kristol has also hosted an online interview program, Conversations with Bill Kristol, featuring guests from academic and public life.[5]

Conversations with Bill Kristol is an American interview program hosted by political analyst and commentator Bill Kristol. The series features in-depth discussions with leading figures in public life, and spans topics from politics and political philosophy to history, foreign policy, economics, and culture. The show aims to foster substantive and thoughtful discourse on pivotal issues facing the nation.[23][24][25][26]

The series debuted in 2014. It is programming of the Foundation for Constitutional Government, a nonprofit organization devoted to promoting the study of politics and political philosophy. Bill Kristol, the host, has long been recognized as a leading participant in and analyst of American politics. He was a founder of The Weekly Standard and is a founding director of Defending Democracy Together. Kristol has been a significant voice in American politics for decades.[23][27][28][29]

Each episode of Conversations with Bill Kristol features an interview. The program is longform, often more than an hour, which allows guests to share expertise and experiences, and to participate in thoughtful, reflective dialogue.[30]

The series has hosted a diverse roster of guests, from scholars and journalists to political strategists and public intellectuals. Notable regular guests including Garry Kasparov, Anne Applebaum, Harvey Mansfield, and Larry Summers have been featured to provide insights into their respective fields and to share their perspectives on a range issues.[23][30][31]

The program is produced by Bill Kristol and Andy Zwick. Episodes are released biweekly.[23]

Political views


Kristol was key to the defeat of the Clinton health care plan of 1993. In the first of what would become many strategy memos written for Republican policymakers, Kristol said the party should "kill," not amend, President Clinton's health care plan. A later memorandum used the phrase "There is no health care crisis," which Senate Minority Leader Bob Dole used in his response to Clinton's 1994 State of the Union address.

Kristol was a leading proponent of the Iraq War. In 1998, he joined other foreign policy analysts in sending a letter to President Clinton urging a stronger posture against Iraq.[32][33] Kristol argued that Saddam Hussein posed a grave threat to the United States and its allies: "The only acceptable strategy is one that eliminates the possibility that Iraq will be able to use or threaten to use weapons of mass destruction. In the near term, this means a willingness to undertake military action as diplomacy is clearly failing. In the long term, it means removing Saddam Hussein and his regime from power. That now needs to become the aim of American foreign policy."[34] In 1998 he and Robert Kagan wrote a New York Times piece where they said "bombing Iraq isn't enough" and called on Clinton to invade the country.[35]

In the 2000 presidential election, Kristol supported John McCain. Answering a question from a PBS reporter about the Republican primaries, he said, "No. I had nothing against Governor Bush. I was inclined to prefer McCain. The reason I was inclined to prefer McCain was his leadership on foreign policy."[36]

After the Bush administration developed its response to the September 11, 2001 attacks, Kristol said: "We've just been present at a very unusual moment, the creation of a new American foreign policy."[36] Kristol ardently supported the Bush administration's decision to go to war with Iraq. In 2003, he and Lawrence Kaplan wrote The War Over Iraq, in which he described reasons for removing Saddam. Kristol rejected comparisons to Vietnam and predicted a "two-month war, not an eight-year war" during a March 28 C-SPAN appearance.[37]

As the military situation in Iraq began to deteriorate in 2004, Kristol argued for an increase in the number of U.S. troops in Iraq. He also wrote an op-ed strongly criticizing United States secretary of defense Donald Rumsfeld, saying he "breezily dodged responsibility" for planning mistakes made in the Iraq War, including insufficient troop levels.[38] In September 2006, he and fellow commentator Rich Lowry wrote, "There is no mystery as to what can make the crucial difference in the battle of Baghdad: American troops."[39]

This was one of the early calls for what became the Iraq War troop surge of 2007 four months later. In December 2008, Kristol wrote that the surge was "opposed at the time by the huge majority of foreign policy experts, pundits, and pontificators," but that "most of them – and the man most of them are happy won the election, Barack Obama – now acknowledge the surge's success."[40]

U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry with Kristol and former DNC Chairman Howard Dean before appearing on MSNBC's "Morning Joe" on September 22, 2014

Kristol was one of many conservatives to publicly oppose Bush's second U.S. Supreme Court nominee, Harriet Miers. "I'm disappointed, depressed, and demoralized," he said of Miers. "It is very hard to avoid the conclusion that President Bush flinched from a fight on constitutional philosophy. Miers is undoubtedly a decent and competent person. But her selection will unavoidably be judged as reflecting a combination of cronyism and capitulation on the part of the president."

He was a vocal supporter of the 2006 Lebanon War, stating that the war is "our war too," referring to the United States.[41]

Kristol was an ardent promoter of Sarah Palin, advocating for her selection as the running mate of John McCain in the 2008 United States presidential election months before McCain chose her.[42][43] However, he later recanted his support for her, saying: "I'm perfectly willing to say that given what I now know about her, she would not have been a good vice president."[44][45]

In response to Iran's nuclear program, Kristol has supported strong sanctions. In June 2006, at the height of the Lebanon War, he suggested: "We might consider countering this act of Iranian aggression with a military strike against Iranian nuclear facilities. Why wait?"[46]

In 2010, Kristol criticized the Obama administration and Joint Chiefs of Staff chairman Admiral Mike Mullen for an unserious approach to Iran. He wrote: "The real question is what form of instability would be more dangerous – that caused by this Iranian government with nuclear weapons, or that caused by attacking this government's nuclear weapons program. It's time to have a serious debate about the choice between these two kinds of destabilization, instead of just refusing to confront the choice."[47]

In the 2010 affair surrounding the disclosure of U.S. diplomatic cables, Kristol spoke strongly against the organization and suggested using "our various assets to harass, snatch, or neutralize Julian Assange and his collaborators, wherever they are."[48] In March 2011, he wrote an editorial in The Weekly Standard arguing that the United States' military interventions in Muslim countries (including the Gulf War, the Kosovo War, the War in Afghanistan, and the Iraq War) should not be classified as "invasions," but rather as "liberations."[49][50] Kristol backed President Barack Obama's decision to intervene in the Libyan Civil War in 2011 and urged fellow conservatives to support the action.[51][52][53]

Opposition to Donald Trump

Orating, ASU, March 2017

Kristol vehemently opposed the nomination of Donald Trump as the Republican candidate for president in 2016. He has continued to express animosity towards Trump's domestic and foreign policy aims, and dismay at conservative Republicans who have accommodated themselves to the Trump administration.[54]

In January 2019, Kristol criticized President Trump's planned withdrawal of U.S. troops from Syria and from Afghanistan.[55] On December 21, Kristol and a group calling itself Republicans for the Rule of Law released an ad encouraging viewers to call their Senators to demand top Trump officials be forced to testify in his impeachment trial.[56]

In March 2020, Kristol endorsed former U.S. vice president Joe Biden for President of the United States.[57] Kristol is founding director of Republican Voters Against Trump, a project of Defending Democracy Together, launched in May 2020.[58] On October 15, Kristol voted for the Democratic ticket. He stated "Just filled out my early absentee ballot in VA for Joe Biden & Kamala Harris, Mark Warner, and Jennifer Wexton. No regrets at all about this."[59]

Kristol did an interview with Jewish Insider in 2021 where he said that he identifies as more of a former Republican.[60]

Defending Democracy Together spent hundreds of thousands of dollars in January 2024 to support Nikki Haley and run advertisements against Donald Trump in the 2024 Republican presidential primary, the Washington Examiner reported.[61]

Personal life


Since 1975, Kristol has been married to Susan Scheinberg, whom he met while they were both students at Harvard. Scheinberg holds a Ph.D. in classics. The couple has three children.[62] Their daughter, Anne, is married to writer Matthew Continetti, editor-in-chief of The Washington Free Beacon website. Their son, Joseph, served in the U.S. Marine Corps in Afghanistan and worked for the management consulting company McKinsey & Company before taking a job as legislative director for Senator Tom Cotton in 2018.[63][64] Kristol lives in McLean, Virginia.[65]

Published works

  • The Weekly Standard: A Reader: 1995–2005 (Harper Perennial, 2006). ISBN 0-06-088285-9
  • War Over Iraq: Saddam's Tyranny And America's Mission (Co-author Lawrence F. Kaplan) (Encounter Books, 2003). ISBN 1-893554-69-4
  • Bush v. Gore: The Court Cases and the Commentary (Co-editor E. J. Dionne) (Brookings Institution Press, 2001). ISBN 0-8157-0107-1
  • Homosexuality and American Public Life (Introduction by Kristol, Editor Christopher Wolfe) (Spence Publishing Company, 1999). ISBN 978-1-890626-23-5


  1. ^ @BillKristol (January 14, 2024). "I'm an ex-Republican. But if I were an Iowan, I'd be crossing back over to vote for Haley Monday" (Tweet) – via Twitter. [better source needed]
  2. ^ *Bai, Matt (March 1, 2018). "In exile with Bill Kristol, the Republican resister-in-chief". Yahoo News. Archived from the original on August 27, 2021. Retrieved March 3, 2018.
  3. ^ "A Note From Bill Kristol". Weekly Standard. December 12, 2016. Archived from the original on June 29, 2018. Retrieved December 13, 2016.
  4. ^ "The Bulwark Masthead". The Bulwark. Archived from the original on November 7, 2021. Retrieved July 27, 2020.
  5. ^ a b "Join the Conversation". conversationswithbillkristol.org. The Foundation for Constitutional Government Inc. 2016. Archived from the original on November 8, 2016. Retrieved November 8, 2016.
  6. ^ Edsall, Thomas B. (January 18, 2007). "Happy Hours". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 23, 2009. Retrieved April 30, 2010.
  7. ^ Kristol, Bill; Kagan, Robert (January 21, 2002). "What to Do About Iraq". Archived from the original on May 7, 2019. Retrieved May 7, 2019.
  8. ^ Kristol, Bill (May 20, 2015). "William Kristol: We were right to fight in Iraq". USA Today. Archived from the original on May 7, 2019. Retrieved May 6, 2019. We were right to invade Iraq in 2003 to remove Saddam Hussein...
  9. ^ "True North" (PDF). Susan B. Anthony List. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 16, 2013. Retrieved March 19, 2013.
  10. ^ "Political commentator William Kristol talks Donald Trump on American Forum". Archived from the original on November 10, 2021. Retrieved April 9, 2017.
  11. ^ Goldberg, Jonah (May 20, 2003). "The Neoconservative Invention". National Review. Archived from the original on December 19, 2020. Retrieved July 7, 2009.
  12. ^ "William Kristol CV" (PDF). November 20, 2022. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 20, 2022. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  13. ^ "Lectures at the Jefferson Educational Society". Archived from the original on November 19, 2022. Retrieved November 19, 2022.
  14. ^ "Gang of Five". Archived from the original on November 10, 2021. Retrieved October 11, 2021.
  15. ^ Kaplan, Lawrence F.; Kristol, William (2003). The War Over Iraq: America's Mission and Saddam's Tyranny. Encounter Books. ISBN 978-1893554696.
  16. ^ Strobel, William (February 8, 2008). "What would President McCain's foreign policy be?". mcclatchydc.com. McClatchy Washington Bureau. Archived from the original on February 10, 2008. Retrieved February 10, 2008.
  17. ^ Kurtz, Howard (December 23, 1999). "Bill Kristol Dumped in 'This Week' Makeover". The Washington Post. p. C01. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved November 8, 2016.
  18. ^ Koblin, John (December 18, 2007). "Kristol, Krauthammer Are Out of Time". The New York Observer. Archived from the original on July 15, 2021. Retrieved January 16, 2008.
  19. ^ Hoyt, Clark (January 13, 2008). "He May Be Unwelcome, but We'll Survive". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 10, 2021. Retrieved November 8, 2016.
  20. ^ Kristol, William (December 28, 2007). "The Times Adds an Op-Ed Columnist". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 6, 2021. Retrieved December 31, 2007.
  21. ^ Byers, Dylan (November 1, 2013). "Why Bill Kristol left Fox News". Politico.com. Archived from the original on November 10, 2013.
  22. ^ "'This Week' Welcome: Kristol and Navarro". ABC News. February 2, 2014. Archived from the original on November 10, 2021. Retrieved February 3, 2014.
  23. ^ a b c d "About Conversations with Bill Kristol". Conversations with Bill Kristol. Retrieved October 3, 2023.
  24. ^ "Conversations with Bill Kristol". Hertog Foundation. Retrieved October 12, 2023.
  25. ^ "Bill Kristol - Jack Miller Center". Jack Miller Center -. March 7, 2019. Retrieved October 12, 2023.
  26. ^ "Discussing China, Russia, and geopolitics: Friedberg on 'Conversations with Bill Kristol'". American Enterprise Institute - AEI. Retrieved October 12, 2023.
  27. ^ "The Foundation For Constitutional Government". Retrieved October 3, 2023.
  28. ^ Schwartz, Jason (December 14, 2018). "The Weekly Standard, conservative outlet that criticized Trump, to shut down". POLITICO. Retrieved October 3, 2023.
  29. ^ Bulwark, The. "About - The Bulwark". plus.thebulwark.com. Retrieved October 3, 2023.
  30. ^ a b "Summaries". Conversations with Bill Kristol. Retrieved October 3, 2023.
  31. ^ "About the Program on Constitutional Government". pcg.gov.harvard.edu. Retrieved October 3, 2023.
  32. ^ "Overthrow Hussein, U.S. group advises". CNN.com. February 20, 1998. Archived from the original on November 10, 2021. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
  33. ^ Hoff, Joan (2007). A Faustian Foreign Policy from Woodrow Wilson to George W. Bush. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1139468596. Archived from the original on January 19, 2023. Retrieved September 18, 2017.
  34. ^ "Open Letter to the President". Center for Security Policy. February 24, 1998. Archived from the original on April 7, 2014. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
  35. ^ Kristol, William; Kagan, Robert (January 30, 1998). "Opinion | Bombing Iraq Isn't Enough". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 7, 2017. Retrieved January 2, 2023.
  36. ^ a b "frontline: the war behind closed doors: interviews: william kristol". PBS. Archived from the original on April 13, 2003. Retrieved September 13, 2010.
  37. ^ "The Rachel Maddow Show' for Monday, January 7th, 2013". The Rachel Maddow Show. NBC News. January 7, 2013. Archived from the original on February 2, 2014. Retrieved January 30, 2014.
  38. ^ The Defense Secretary We Have Archived September 15, 2021, at the Wayback Machine, William Kristol, December 15, 2004
  39. ^ Kristol, William; Lowry, Rich (September 12, 2006). "Reinforce Baghdad". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on March 30, 2021. Retrieved September 18, 2017.
  40. ^ Popularity Isn't Everything Archived April 14, 2021, at the Wayback Machine, William Kristol, The New York Times, December 22, 2008
  41. ^ Kristol, William (July 16, 2006). "Why Bush should go to Tel Aviv – and confront Iran". Financial Times. Retrieved April 6, 2023.
  42. ^ Mayer, Jane (October 27, 2008). "The Insiders: How John McCain came to pick Sarah Palin". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on December 24, 2008. Retrieved June 21, 2009.
  43. ^ Horton, Scott (October 15, 2008). "Salon Radio: Scott Horton" (Transcript and link to Audio). Interviewed by Glenn Greenwald. Archived from the original on January 13, 2009. Retrieved June 21, 2009.
  44. ^ Reed, Elspeth (Aug 20, 2013). Bill Kristol Doesn't Want Any More Credit for Sarah Palin's Career Archived April 13, 2021, at the Wayback Machine. The Atlantic Monthly.
  45. ^ Chotiner, Isaac (December 22, 2017). Was Palin the Harbinger of Trump? Archived October 22, 2018, at the Wayback Machine Slate.
  46. ^ Kristol, William (July 24, 2006). "It's Our War, Bush should go to Jerusalem--and the U.S. should confront Iran". The Weekly Standard. Archived from the original on April 14, 2021. Retrieved December 14, 2006.
  47. ^ "Mullen's Myth of Geostrategic Equivalence". The Weekly Standard. April 19, 2010. Archived from the original on September 17, 2015. Retrieved September 13, 2010.
  48. ^ "Whack WikiLeaks". The Weekly Standard. November 30, 2010. Archived from the original on October 15, 2015. Retrieved December 8, 2010.
  49. ^ Kristol, William (March 28, 2011). "The Party of Freedom". The Weekly Standard. Archived from the original on September 8, 2015. Retrieved March 29, 2011.
  50. ^ Chait, Jonathan (March 21, 2011). "Bill Kristol And Neocon Newspeak". New Republic. Archived from the original on March 24, 2011. Retrieved March 29, 2011.
  51. ^ Kristol, William (April 4, 2011). "Give War a Chance". The Weekly Standard. Archived from the original on September 10, 2015. Retrieved March 31, 2011.
  52. ^ Kristol, William (March 30, 2011). "Barack H. Reagan". The Weekly Standard. Archived from the original on September 6, 2015. Retrieved March 31, 2011.
  53. ^ Kristol, William (April 11, 2011). "The Arabs' Spring – and Ours". The Weekly Standard. Archived from the original on September 18, 2015. Retrieved April 3, 2011.
  54. ^ Wallace-Wells, Benjamin (February 2, 2018). "Bill Kristol Wanders the Wilderness of Trump World". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on May 7, 2021. Retrieved May 4, 2018.
  55. ^ "Are Democrats Hypocrites for Criticizing Trump's Troop Withdrawals?". Slate. December 21, 2018. Archived from the original on November 1, 2019. Retrieved January 14, 2019.
  56. ^ Mary Papenfuss (December 21, 2019), "Witnesses 'Must Testify' At Impeachment Trial, Declares GOP Group. 'Call Your Senators.'", HuffPost, archived from the original on November 28, 2020, retrieved March 1, 2020
  57. ^ Krawczyk, Kathryn (March 2, 2020). "Bill Kristol Declares Joe Biden 'The Simple Answer' for Beating Trump". The Week. Archived from the original on October 4, 2020. Retrieved August 23, 2020.
  58. ^ "About Us". Archived from the original on February 2, 2021. Retrieved August 29, 2020.
  59. ^ ""Just filled out my early absentee ballot in VA for Joe Biden & Kamala Harris, Mark Warner, and Jennifer Wexton. No regrets at all about this."". Twitter. October 15, 2020. Archived from the original on September 24, 2021. Retrieved April 6, 2021.
  60. ^ Gabby Deutch (September 13, 2021), "Bill Kristol's evolution", JewishInsider, archived from the original on October 29, 2021, retrieved October 19, 2021
  61. ^ Kaminsky, Gabe (January 22, 2024). "Nikki Haley receives New Hampshire boost from Bill Kristol's liberal dark money-funded group". Washington Examiner. Retrieved January 27, 2024.
  62. ^ "Gang of Five". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 10, 2021. Retrieved January 30, 2014.
  63. ^ Clifton, Eli (January 25, 2018). "Tom Cotton Appointed "Never Trump" Bill Kristol's Son Legislative Director". lobelog.com. Archived from the original on September 11, 2021. Retrieved July 14, 2018.
  64. ^ Delia Pais and Joseph Kristol Archived September 11, 2021, at the Wayback Machine February 16, 2014, New York Times
  65. ^ "Mike Murphy on the Trump Administration, the Midterms, and 2020". Conversations with Bill Kristol. The Foundation for Constitutional Government, Inc. February 2018. Archived from the original on February 12, 2018. Retrieved February 11, 2018.


  • Johnson, Haynes and Broder, David. The System: the American way of politics at the breaking point. Boston: Little, Brown & Company, 1996.
  • Current Biography Yearbook, 1997.
  • Nina Easton, Gang of Five, Simon & Schuster, 2002.
Political offices
Preceded by Chief of Staff to the Vice President
Succeeded by