Bimal Krishna Matilal
Bimal Krishna Matilal (1935–1991) was an Indian philosopher whose influential writings present the Indian philosophical tradition as being concerned with the same issues as have been the theme in Western philosophy. From 1977 to 1991 he was the Spalding Professor of Eastern Religion and Ethics at University of Oxford.
Fluent in Sanskrit from an early age, Matilal was also drawn towards Mathematics and Logic. He was trained in the traditional Indian philosophical system by leading scholars of the Sanskrit College, where he himself was a teacher from 1957 to 1962. He was taught by scholars like pandit Taranath Tarkatirtha and Kalipada Tarkacharya. He also interacted with pandit Ananta Kumar Nyayatarkatirtha, Madhusudan Nyayacharya and Visvabandhu Tarkatirtha. The upadhi (degree) of Tarkatirtha (master of Logic) was awarded to him in 1962.
While teaching at Sanskrit College (an affiliated college of the University of Calcutta) between 1957 and 1962, Matilal came in contact with Daniel Ingalls, an Indologist at Harvard University, who encouraged him to join the PhD program there. Matilal secured a Fulbright fellowship and completed his PhD under Ingalls on the Navya-Nyāya doctrine of negation, between 1962 and 1965. During this period he also studied with Willard Van Orman Quine. Subsequently, he was professor of Sanskrit at the University of Toronto, and in 1977 he was elected Spalding Professor at Oxford, succeeding Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and Robert Charles Zaehner.
In his work, he presented Indian logic, particularly Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika, Mīmāṃsā and Buddhist philosophy, as being relevant in modern philosophical discourse. This was in contrast with the German approach to Indian studies, often called Indology, which prefers minute grammatical study as opposed to a concern for the development of the ideas as a whole in the general philosophical context. Thus, Matilal presented Indian Philosophical thought more as a synthesis rather than a mere exposition. This helped create a vibrant revival of interest in Indian philosophical tradition as a relevant source of ideas rather than a dead discipline.
He was also the founder editor of the Journal of Indian Philosophy.
Matilal died of cancer on June 8, 1991.
Works by Matilal
- Bimal Krishna Matilal (1971). Epistemology, Logic and Grammar in Indian Philosophical Analysis. De Gruyter. ISBN 9789997821942.
- Bimal Krishna Matilal (1985). Logic, language, and reality: an introduction to Indian philosophical studies. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-0008-3.
- Bimal Krishna Matilal (1985). Perception: An Essay on Classical Indian Theories of Knowledge. Clarendon.
- Logical and Ethical Issues: An essay on the Indian Philosophy of Religion, Calcutta University 1982 (repr. Chronicle Books, Delhi 2004)
- Navya Nyâya Doctrine of Negation, Harvard Oriental Series 46, 1968
- Bimal Krishna Matilal (1990). The word and the world: India's contribution to the study of language. Oxford University Press.
- Bimal Krishna Matilal (1999). The Character of Logic in India. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-564896-6.
- Niti, Yukti o Dharma, (in Bengali), Ananda Publishers Calcutta 1988.
- Indian logic
- Śākaṭāyana (Matilal discusses the claim that all nominals are ultimately derived from verbal roots)
- Nyāya Sūtras
- Berg, Jan (December 1975). "Epistemology, Logic, and Grammar in Indian Philosophical Analysis by Bimal Krishna Matilal". The Journal of Symbolic Logic 40 (4): 578–579. doi:10.2307/2271783. JSTOR 2271783.
- Rocher, Rosane (April–June 1975). "Epistemology, Logic, and Grammar in Indian Philosophical Analysis by Bimal K. Matilal". Journal of the American Oriental Society 95 (2): 331–332. doi:10.2307/600381. JSTOR 600381.
- Sen, Pranab Kumar (January 1989). "Logic, Language and Reality by Bimal Krishna Matilal". Mind. New Series 98 (389): 150–154. JSTOR 2255069.
- Trotignon, Pierre (April–June 1988). "Perception: An Essay on Classical Indian Theories of Knowledge by Bimal Krishna Matilal". Revue Philosophique de la France et de l'Étranger. Apologétique, temporalité, monde sensible 178 (2): 216–217. JSTOR 41095766.
- Jha, V. N. (1995). "The Word and the World (India's Contribution to the Study of Language) by Bimal Krishna Matilal". Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute 76 (1/4): 172–173. JSTOR 41694389.
- Gerow, Edwin (Feb 2000). "The Character of Logic in India by Bimal Krishna Matilal; Jonardon Ganeri; Heeraman Tiwari". The Journal of Asian Studies 59 (1): 203–205. doi:10.2307/2658637. JSTOR 2658637.
- Werner, Karel (1999). "The Character of Logic in India by Bimal Krishna Matilal; Jonardon Ganeri; Heeraman Tiwari". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London 62 (1): 155. doi:10.1017/s0041977x00017924. JSTOR 3107426.
- Barnhart, Michael G. (October 2001). "The Character of Logic in India by Bimal Krishna Matilal; Jonardon Ganeri; Heeraman Tiwari". Philosophy East and West. Nondualism, Liberation, and Language: The Infinity Foundation Lectures at Hawai'i, 1997-2000 51 (4): 556–559. JSTOR 1400170.
- Taber, John A. (October–December 2001). "The Character of Logic in India by Bimal Krishna Matilal; Jonardon Ganeri; Heeraman Tiwari". Journal of the American Oriental Society 121 (4): 681–683. doi:10.2307/606527. JSTOR 606527.
- Heeraman Tiwari, Introduction to the Logical and Ethical Issues: An essay on the Indian Philosophy of Religion, University of Calcutta 1982.
- J.N. Mohanty, Introduction to Relativism, Suffering and Beyond: Essays in Memory of Bimal K. Matilal, Edited by J N Mohanty and Purushottama Bilimoria, Oxford University Press 1997.
- Daniel Ingalls, In Memoriam Bimal Krishna Matilal, Journal of Indian Philosophy 1991