Bioassay

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ELISA plate image with various cortisol level

A bioassay is an analytical method to determine concentration or potency of a substance by its effect on living cells or tissues.[1] Bioassays were used to estimate the potency of agents by observing their effects on living animals (in vivo) or tissues (in vitro).[2]

A bioassay experiment can either be qualitative or quantitative, direct or indirect.[3] If the measured response is binary, the assay is qualititative, if not, it is quantitative.[3]

Bioassay is used to detect biological hazards or give a quality assessment of a mixture.[4] Bioassay is often used to monitor water quality and also sewage discharge and its impact on surrounding.[2] It is also used to assess the environmental impact and safety of new technologies and facilities.[2]

Principle[edit]

Bioassay is a biochemical test to estimate the relative potency of a sample compound to a standard compound.[3][1] Typical bioassay involves a stimulus (ex. drugs) applied to a subject (ex. animals, tissues, plants) and a response (ex. death) of the subject is triggered and measured.[5] The intensity of stimulus is varied by doses and depending on this intensity of stimulus, a change/response will be followed by a subject.[5]

History[edit]

The first uses of bioassay dates back to as early as early as late 19th century, when the foundation of bioassays was laid down by a German physician, Paul Ehrlich.[6] He introduced the concept of standardization by the reactions of living matter.[6][5] His bioassay on diphtheria antitoxin was the first bioassay to receive recognition.[7] His use of bioassay was able to disocover that administration of gradually increasing dose of diphteria in animals stimulated production of antiserum.[8]

Many of the early bioassays consisted of using animals to test carcinogenicity of chemicals.[9] One well known example is a "canary in the coal min" experiment.[10] To test for methane, miners would take methane-sensitive canary to coal mines to ensure safe air. In 1915, Yamaigiwa Katsusaburo and Koichi Ichikawa tested the carcinogenicity of coal tar using inner surface of rabbit's ears.[9]

Through 1940s and 1960s, animal bioassay was primarily used to test for toxicity and safety of drugs, food additives and pesticides.[9]

In late 1960s and 1970s, reliance on bioassay increased as the public concern for occupational and environmental hazards increased.[9] While before this health risks of certain chemicals such as pesticide was tested in animal bioassay, it was still rare and testing was not seen often.[9]

Classifications[edit]

Direct assay[edit]

- The stimulus/standard sufficiently produces measurable and specific response.[5][2] The response must be clear, easily recognized, and directly measured.[5]

Indirect assay based on quantitative response[edit]

- The relationship between the dose and the response is first ascertained.[5][2] Then the dose corresponding to a given response is obtained from the relation for each preparation separately.[5][2]

Indirect assay based on quantal response[edit]

- The assay involves 'all or none' response (ex. life or death).[2] The response is produced by threshold effect.[2]

Examples[edit]

ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay)[edit]

- quantitative analytical method that measures absorbance of color change from antigen-antibody reaction (ex. Direct, indirect, sandwich, competitive).[11] ELISA is used to measure variety of substances in human body from cortisol levels for stress to glucose level for diabetes.

Home pregnancy test[edit]

Home pregnancy test involves ELISA to detect the increase of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) during pregnancy.[12]

HIV test[edit]

HIV test also uses indirect ELISA to detect HIV antibody caused by infection.[12]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Hoskins, W. M.; Craig, R. (1962-01-01). "Uses of Bioassay in Entomology". Annual Review of Entomology. 7 (1): 437–464. doi:10.1146/annurev.en.07.010162.002253. ISSN 0066-4170. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "Principles Involved in Bioassay by different Methods: A Mini-Review". Research and Reviews: Research Journal of Biology. 
  3. ^ a b c Laska, E M; Meisner, M J (1987-04-01). "Statistical Methods and Applications of Bioassay". Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 27 (1): 385–397. doi:10.1146/annurev.pa.27.040187.002125. ISSN 0362-1642. 
  4. ^ Prinsloo, Gerhard; Papadi, Georgia; Hiben, Mebrahtom G.; Haan, Laura de; Louisse, Jochem; Beekmann, Karsten; Vervoort, Jacques; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M. "In vitro bioassays to evaluate beneficial and adverse health effects of botanicals: promises and pitfalls". Drug Discovery Today. 22 (8): 1187–1200. doi:10.1016/j.drudis.2017.05.002. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Saha, G. M (29 November 2002). Design and Analysis for Bioassays. Kolkata: Indian Statistical Institute. pp. 61–76. 
  6. ^ a b Van Noordwijk, Jacobus. "Bioassays in whole animals". Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. 7 (2): 139–145. doi:10.1016/0731-7085(89)80077-9. 
  7. ^ Analysis of foods and beverages : modern techniques. Charalambous, George, 1922-1994. Orlando: Academic Press. 1984. ISBN 0121691608. OCLC 9682930. 
  8. ^ Bosch, Fèlix; Rosich, Laia (2008). "The Contributions of Paul Ehrlich to Pharmacology: A Tribute on the Occasion of the Centenary of His Nobel Prize". Pharmacology. 82 (3): 171–179. doi:10.1159/000149583. ISSN 0031-7012. 
  9. ^ a b c d e Beyer, L. A.; Beck, B. D.; Lewandowski, T. A. (2011-04-01). "Historical perspective on the use of animal bioassays to predict carcinogenicity: Evolution in design and recognition of utility". Critical Reviews in Toxicology. 41 (4): 321–338. doi:10.3109/10408444.2010.541222. ISSN 1040-8444. 
  10. ^ "Environmental Inquiry - How Are Bioassays Used in the Real World?". ei.cornell.edu. Retrieved 2017-12-01. 
  11. ^ Aydin, Suleyman. "A short history, principles, and types of ELISA, and our laboratory experience with peptide/protein analyses using ELISA". Peptides. 72: 4–15. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2015.04.012. 
  12. ^ a b Bioanalytical chemistry. Manz, A. (Andreas), Dittrich, Petra S., 1974-, Pamme, Nicole., Iossifidis, Dimitri. (Second ed.). London. ISBN 9781783266715. OCLC 897825792.