Biochar

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A hand holding a piece of biochar with a bucket of it in the background
Biochar produced from residual wood in Namibia
Small pellets of biochar
Smaller pellets of biochar
A large pile of biochar
Biochar after production, in a large pile

Biochar is charcoal that is produced by pyrolysis of biomass in the absence of oxygen; it is used as a soil amendment.[1] Biochar is defined by the International Biochar Initiative as "The solid material obtained from the thermochemical conversion of biomass in an oxygen-limited environment".[2] Biochar is a stable solid that is rich in carbon and can endure in soil for thousands of years.[3]

Biochar is being investigated as a means of carbon sequestration,[3] and it may be a means to mitigate climate change.[4][5][6] It results from processes related to pyrogenic carbon capture and storage (PyCCS).[7] Biochar may increase the soil fertility of acidic soils and increase agricultural productivity.[8]

History[edit]

The word "biochar" is a late 20th century English neologism derived from the Greek word βίος, bios, "life" and "char" (charcoal produced by carbonisation of biomass).[9] It is recognised as charcoal that participates in biological processes found in soil, aquatic habitats and in animal digestive systems.

Pre-Columbian Amazonians produced biochar by smoldering agricultural waste (i.e., covering burning biomass with soil)[10] in pits or trenches.[11] It is not known if they intentionally used biochar to enhance soil productivity.[11] European settlers called it terra preta de Indio.[12] Following observations and experiments, a research team working in French Guiana hypothesized that the Amazonian earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus was the main agent of fine powdering and incorporation of charcoal debris in the mineral soil.[13]

Production[edit]

Biochar is a high-carbon, fine-grained residue that is produced via pyrolysis; it is the direct thermal decomposition of biomass in the absence of oxygen (preventing combustion), which produces a mixture of solids (the biochar proper), liquid (bio-oil), and gas (syngas) products. The specific yield from pyrolysis is dependent on process conditions such as temperature, residence time, and heating rate.[14] These parameters can be tuned to produce either energy or biochar.[15] Temperatures of 400–500 °C (673–773 K) produce more char, whereas temperatures above 700 °C (973 K) favor the yield of liquid and gas fuel components.[16] Pyrolysis occurs more quickly at higher temperatures, typically requiring seconds rather than hours. The increasing heating rate leads to a decrease of biochar yield, while the temperature is in the range of 350–600 °C (623–873 K).[17] Typical yields are 60% bio-oil, 20% biochar, and 20% syngas. By comparison, slow pyrolysis can produce substantially more char (≈35%);[16] this contributes to soil fertility. Once initialized, both processes produce net energy. For typical inputs, the energy required to run a "fast" pyrolyzer is approximately 15% of the energy that it outputs.[18] Pyrolysis plants can use the syngas output and yield 3–9 times the amount of energy required to run.[11]

Besides pyrolysis, torrefaction and hydrothermal carbonization processes can also thermally decompose biomass to the solid material. However, these products cannot be strictly defined as biochar. The carbon product from the torrefaction process contains some volatile organic components, thus its properties are between that of biomass feedstock and biochar.[19] Furthermore, even the hydrothermal carbonization could produce a carbon-rich solid product, the hydrothermal carbonization is evidently different from the conventional thermal conversion process.[20] Therefore, the solid product from hydrothermal carbonization is defined as "hydrochar" rather than "biochar".

The Amazonian pit/trench method[11] harvests neither bio-oil nor syngas, and releases CO2, black carbon, and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) (and potentially, toxins) into the air, though less greenhouse gasses than captured during the growth of the biomass. Commercial-scale systems process agricultural waste, paper byproducts, and even municipal waste and typically eliminate these side effects by capturing and using the liquid and gas products. The production of biochar as an output is not a priority in most cases.

Centralized, decentralized, and mobile systems[edit]

In a centralized system, unused biomass is brought to a central plant (i.e. biomass-fueled thermal power station[21]) for processing into biochar. Alternatively, each farmer or group of farmers can operate a kiln. Finally, a truck equipped with a pyrolyzer can move from place to place to pyrolyze biomass. Vehicle power comes from the syngas stream, while the biochar remains on the farm. The biofuel is sent to a refinery or storage site. Factors that influence the choice of system type include the cost of transportation of the liquid and solid byproducts, the amount of material to be processed, and the ability to supply the power grid.

Common crops used for making biochar include various tree species, as well as various energy crops. Some of these energy crops (i.e. Napier grass) can store much more carbon on a shorter timespan than trees do.[22]

For crops that are not exclusively for biochar production, the Residue-to-Product Ratio (RPR) and the collection factor (CF), the percent of the residue not used for other things, measure the approximate amount of feedstock that can be obtained. For instance, Brazil harvests approximately 460 million tons (MT) of sugarcane annually,[23] with an RPR of 0.30, and a CF of 0.70 for the sugarcane tops, which normally are burned in the field.[24] This translates into approximately 100 MT of residue annually, which could be pyrolyzed to create energy and soil additives. Adding in the bagasse (sugarcane waste) (RPR=0.29 CF=1.0), which is otherwise burned (inefficiently) in boilers, raises the total to 230 MT of pyrolysis feedstock. Some plant residue, however, must remain on the soil to avoid increased costs and emissions from nitrogen fertilizers.[25]

Various companies in North America, Australia, and England sell biochar or biochar production units. In Sweden the 'Stockholm Solution' is an urban tree planting system that uses 30% biochar to support urban forest growth.[26]

At the 2009 International Biochar Conference, a mobile pyrolysis unit with a specified intake of 1,000 pounds (450 kg) was introduced for agricultural applications.[27]

Thermo-catalytic depolymerization[edit]

Alternatively, "thermo-catalytic depolymerization", which utilizes microwaves, has recently been used to efficiently convert organic matter to biochar on an industrial scale, producing ≈50% char.[28][29]

Properties[edit]

The physical and chemical properties of biochars as determined by feedstocks and technologies are crucial. Characterization data explain their performance in a specific use. For example, guidelines published by the International Biochar Initiative provide standardized evaluation methods.[2] Properties can be categorized in several respects, including the proximate and elemental composition, pH value, and porosity. The atomic ratios of biochar, including H/C and O/C, correlate with the properties that are relevant to organic content, such as polarity and aromaticity.[30] A van-Krevelen diagram can show the evolution of biochar atomic ratios in the production process.[31] In the carbonization process, both the H/C and O/C ratios decrease due to the release of functional groups that contain hydrogen and oxygen.[32]

Applications[edit]

Carbon sink[edit]

Biomass burning and natural decomposition releases large amounts of carbon dioxide and methane to the Earth's atmosphere. The biochar production process also releases CO2 (up to 50% of the biomass), however, the remaining carbon content becomes indefinitely stable.[33] Biochar carbon remains in the ground for centuries, slowing the growth in atmospheric greenhouse gas levels. Simultaneously, its presence in the earth can improve water quality, increase soil fertility, raise agricultural productivity, and reduce pressure on old-growth forests.[34]

Biochar can sequester carbon in the soil for hundreds to thousands of years, like coal.[35][36][37][38][39] This technique is advocated by scientists including James Hansen[40] and James Lovelock.[41]

Researchers have estimated that sustainable use of biochar could reduce the global net emissions of carbon dioxide (CO
2
), methane, and nitrous oxide by up to 1.8 Pg CO
2
-C equivalent
(CO
2
-Ce) per year (12% of current anthropogenic CO
2
-Ce emissions), and total net emissions over the course of the next century by 130 Pg CO
2
-Ce, without endangering food security, habitats, or soil conservation.[42]

The price that might make it worthwhile for bioenergy firms to produce biochar for carbon sequestration[43] has been estimated at $37/ton.[43] Carbon credits from biochar sequestration could allow bioenergy firms to meet potential sequestration requirements without disrupting production processes.[21][44]

Soil amendment[edit]

Biochar in a white tarp
Biochar in preparation as a soil amendment

Biochar offers multiple soil health benefits. Its porous nature is effective at retaining both water and water-soluble nutrients. Soil biologist Elaine Ingham highlighted its suitability as a habitat for beneficial soil micro organisms.[45] She pointed out that when pre-charged with these beneficial organisms, biochar becomes promotes good soil, and plant health.

Biochar reduces leaching of E-coli through sandy soils depending on application rate, feedstock, pyrolysis temperature, soil moisture content, soil texture, and surface properties of the bacteria.[46][47][48]

For plants that require high potash and elevated pH,[49] biochar can improve yield.[50]

Biochar can improve water quality, reduce soil emissions of greenhouse gases, reduce nutrient leaching, reduce soil acidity,[51] and reduce irrigation and fertilizer requirements.[52] Under certain circumstances biochar induces plant systemic responses to foliar fungal diseases and to improve plant responses to diseases caused by soilborne pathogens.[53][54][55]

Biochar's impacts are dependent on its properties,[56] as well as the amount applied,[55] although knowledge about the important mechanisms and properties is limited.[57] Biochar impact may depend on regional conditions including soil type, soil condition (depleted or healthy), temperature, and humidity.[58] Modest additions of biochar reduce nitrous oxide (N
2
O
)[59] emissions by up to 80% and eliminate methane emissions, which are both more potent greenhouse gases than CO2.[60]

Studies reported positive effects from biochar on crop production in degraded and nutrient–poor soils.[61] The application of compost and biochar under FP7 project FERTIPLUS had positive effects on soil humidity, crop productivity and quality in multiple countries.[62] Biochar can be adapted with specific qualities to target distinct soil properties.[63] In Colombian savanna soil, biochar reduced leaching of critical nutrients, created a higher nutrient uptake, and provided greater nutrient availability.[64] At 10% levels biochar reduced contaminant levels in plants by up to 80%, while reducing chlordane and DDX content in the plants by 68 and 79%, respectively.[65] However, because of its high adsorption capacity, biochar may reduce pesticide efficacy.[66][67] High-surface-area biochars may be particularly problematic.[66]

Biochar may be ploughed into soils in crop fields to enhance their fertility and stability, and for medium- to long-term carbon sequestration in these soils. It has meant a remarkable improvement in tropical soils showing positive effects in increasing soil fertility and in improving disease resistance in West European Soils.[62] The use of biochar as a feed additive can be a way to apply biochar to pastures and to reduce methane emissions.[68][69]

One study reported that biochar helps build soil carbon by an average 3.8%.

Application rates of 2.5–20 tonnes per hectare (1.0–8.1 t/acre) appear to be required to produce significant improvements in plant yields. Biochar costs in developed countries vary from $300–7000/tonne, generally impractical for the farmer/horticulturalist and prohibitive for low-input field crops. In developing countries, constraints on agricultural biochar relate more to biomass availability and production time. A compromise is to use small amounts of biochar in lower cost biochar-fertilizer complexes.[70]

Slash-and-char[edit]

Switching from slash-and-burn to slash-and-char farming techniques in Brazil can decrease both deforestation of the Amazon basin and carbon dioxide emission, as well as increase crop yields. Slash-and-burn leaves only 3% of the carbon from the organic material in the soil.[71] Slash-and-char can retain up to 50%.[72] Biochar reduces the need for nitrogen fertilizers, thereby reducing cost and emissions from fertilizer production and transport.[73] Additionally, by improving soil's till-ability, its fertility and its productivity, biochar-enhanced soils can indefinitely sustain agricultural production, whereas slash/burn soils quickly become depleted of nutrients, forcing farmers to abandon the fields, producing a continuous slash and burn cycle. Using pyrolysis to produce bio-energy does not require infrastructure changes the way, e.g., processing biomass for cellulosic ethanol does. Additionally, biochar can be applied by the widely-used machinery.[74]

Water retention[edit]

Biochar is hygroscopic due to its porous structure and high specific surface area.[75] As a result, fertilizer and other nutrients are retained for plants' benefit.

Energy production: bio-oil and syngas[edit]

Along with biochar, pyrolysis produces renewable energy in the form of bio-oil and syngas. Bio-oil contains organic acids that are corrosive to steel containers, has a high water vapor content that is detrimental to ignition, and, unless carefully cleaned, contains biochar particles which can block injectors.[76] Currently, it is less suitable for use as a kind of biodiesel than other sources.[77]

Biochar used for the production of energy rather than as a soil amendment can be directly substituted for coal. Pyrolysis may be the most cost-effective way of electricity generation from biomaterial.[78]

Pyrolysis of forest- or agriculture-derived biomass generates does not compete with crop production.

Biomass production to obtain biofuels and biochar for carbon sequestration in the soil is a carbon-negative process, i.e. more CO
2
is removed from the atmosphere than released, thus enabling long-term sequestration.[79]

Stock fodder[edit]

A Western Australian farmer explored the use of biochar mixed with molasses as stock fodder. He asserted that in ruminants, biochar can assist digestion and reduce methane production. The farmer also used dung beetles to work the resulting biochar-infused dung into the soil without using machinery. The nitrogen and carbon in the dung are both incorporated into the soil rather than staying on the soil surface, reducing the production of nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide. The nitrogen and carbon add to soil fertility. On-farm evidence indicates that the fodder led to improvements of liveweight gain in Angus-cross cattle.[80]

Doug Pow won the Australian Government Innovation in Agriculture Land Management Award at the 2019 Western Australian Landcare Awards for this innovation.[81][80] Pow's work led to two further trials on dairy cattle, yielding reduced odour and increased milk production.[82]

Anode material of lithium batteries[edit]

Biomass can also be used in lithium batteries. The commercialized anode material of lithium batteries is commercial graphite which is a kind of carbon. The biomass also can be produced into carbon by simply heating biomass and dehydration.

Biomass materials is a kind of recycle energy. It has the properties like low-cost, easy-to-get and environmentally friendly. Biomass have plenty of structure and element which not only can form the carbon-net-structure but also and realize the atom dopes in carbon, especially nitrogen doped which can improve the electric properties of lithium batteries.

In the field of undoped carbon, Feng et al. used natural ramie fiber and corncob as raw materials to prepare three-dimensional rod-shaped carbon and two-dimensional carbon nanosheets through simple heat treatment. When used as anode materials for lithium batteries, these two materials exhibit high specific capacity, excellent rate performance and stable recyclability.[83] In the voltage range of 0.01~3.0 V, when the current density is 100 mAh/g, after 180 cycles, the specific capacities of three-dimensional rod-shaped carbon and two-dimensional carbon nanosheets are 606 and 489 mAh/g, respectively, which are better than those of graphite theoretical specific capacity (376 mAh/g).

In addition to simple carbon atoms, doping heteroatoms in carbon materials can induce defects, increase effective active centers, and adjust the electrochemical activity of the materials. It is a simple and economical method to prepare doped carbon anode materials with heteroatom doping and good electrochemical performance by using inherent heteroatoms in biomass. For example, Ou et al. used ginkgo biloba as a raw material, and prepared a porous carbon material doped with nitrogen through simple heat treatment and washing with hydrochloric acid solution.[84]It has a surface area of 504 m2 and a nitrogen content of 1.5%. As a negative electrode material for lithium batteries, it has a reversible specific capacity of 505 mAh/g at 0.1 C, which is 1.36 times the theoretical capacity of graphite. It exhibits a high-rate performance of 190 mAh/g at 10 C.

Moreover, mushrooms are a kind of renewable biomass resources. Mushrooms are widely distributed all over the world and are available all year round at low prices. The water content of mushrooms is very high, accounting for 90% of the weight, which indicates that mushrooms have sufficient microscopic channel structure for nutrient absorption and transportation. Such a structure can easily obtain a layered porous structure after carbonization, which is conducive to the diffusion of reactants and electrolytes and the exposure of active centers. Campbell et al. used Portobello mushrooms to prepare lithium-ion battery anodes, and discussed the effects of different pyrolysis temperatures on the microstructure of the material and the electrochemical performance of lithium batteries.[85] When the pyrolysis temperature reaches 1100 degrees, after 700 cycles, the material has a coulombic efficiency of 101.1% and a specific capacity of 260 mAh/g.

Research[edit]

A hand holding a piece of biochar with a bucket of it in the background
Biochar applied to the soil in research trials in Namibia

Research into aspects involving pyrolysis/biochar is underway around the world. From 2005 to 2012, 1,038 articles included the word "biochar" or "bio-char" in the topic indexed in the ISI Web of Science.[86] Research is in progress by Cornell University, University of Edinburgh (which has a dedicated research unit),[87] University of Georgia,[88][89] the Agricultural Research Organization (ARO) of Israel, Volcani Center,[90] and University of Delaware.

Long-term effects of biochar on C sequestration has been examined using soil from arable fields in Belgium with charcoal-enriched black spots dating from before 1870 from charcoal production mound kilns. Topsoils from these 'black spots' had a higher organic C concentration [3.6 ± 0.9% organic carbon (OC)] than adjacent soils outside these black spots (2.1 ± 0.2% OC). The soils had been cropped with maize for at least 12 years which provided a continuous input of C with a C isotope signature (δ13C) −13.1, distinct from the δ13C of soil organic carbon (−27.4 ‰) and charcoal (−25.7 ‰) collected in the surrounding area. The isotope signatures in the soil revealed that maize-derived C concentration was significantly higher in charcoal-amended samples ('black spots') than in adjacent unamended ones (0.44% vs. 0.31%; p = 0.02). Topsoils were subsequently collected as a gradient across two 'black spots' along with corresponding adjacent soils outside these black spots and soil respiration, and physical soil fractionation was conducted. Total soil respiration (130 days) was unaffected by charcoal, but the maize-derived C respiration per unit maize-derived OC in soil significantly decreased about half (p < 0.02) with increasing charcoal-derived C in soil. Maize-derived C was proportionally present more in protected soil aggregates in the presence of charcoal. The lower specific mineralization and increased C sequestration of recent C with charcoal are attributed to a combination of physical protection, C saturation of microbial communities and, potentially, slightly higher annual primary production. Overall, this study evidences the capacity of biochar to enhance C sequestration through reduced C turnover.[91]

Biochar sequesters carbon (C) in soils because of its prolonged residence time, ranging from years to millennia. In addition, biochar can promote indirect C-sequestration by increasing crop yield while, potentially, reducing C-mineralization. Laboratory studies have evidenced effects of biochar on C-mineralization using 13
C
signatures.[92]

Fluorescence analysis of biochar-amended soil dissolved organic matter revealed that biochar application increased a humic-like fluorescent component, likely associated with biochar-carbon in solution. The combined spectroscopy-microscopy approach revealed the accumulation of aromatic-carbon in discrete spots in the solid-phase of microaggregates and its co-localization with clay minerals for soil amended with raw residue or biochar. The co-localization of aromatic-C:polysaccharides-C was consistently reduced upon biochar application. These finding suggested that reduced C metabolism is an important mechanism for C stabilization in biochar-amended soils.[93]

Students at Stevens Institute of Technology in New Jersey are developing supercapacitors that use biochar electrodes.[94] A process developed by University of Florida researchers that removes phosphate from water also yields methane gas usable as fuel and phosphate-laden carbon suitable for enriching soil.[95] Researchers at University of Auckland are working on utilizing biochar in concrete applications to reduce carbon emissions during concrete production and to improve strength.[96] Biochar can be used as a suitable filler in a polymer matrix.[97] Biochar-starch bio-composites were prepared[98] and their nano-mechanical behaviours were investigated using dynamic atomic force microscopy.[99] The agglomeration behaviour of biochar in polypropylene was investigated using micro-CT studies.[100]

Research and practical investigations into the potential of biochar for coarse soils in semi-arid and degraded ecosystems are ongoing. In Namibia biochar is under exploration as climate change adaptation effort, strengthening local communities' drought resilience and food security through the local production and application of biochar from abundant encroacher biomass.[101]

In recent years, biochar has attracted interest as a wastewater filtration medium as well as for its adsorbing capacity for the wastewater pollutants.[102][103]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

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  10. ^ Solomon, Dawit; Lehmann, Johannes; Thies, Janice; Schäfer, Thorsten; Liang, Biqing; Kinyangi, James; Neves, Eduardo; Petersen, James; Luizão, Flavio; Skjemstad, Jan (May 2007). "Molecular signature and sources of biochemical recalcitrance of organic C in Amazonian Dark Earths". Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 71 (9): 2285–2298. Bibcode:2007GeCoA..71.2285S. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2007.02.014. ISSN 0016-7037. Archived from the original on 22 November 2021. Retrieved 9 August 2021. "Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) are a unique type of soils apparently developed between 500 and 9000 years B.P. through intense anthropogenic activities such as biomass-burning and high-intensity nutrient depositions on pre-Columbian Amerindian settlements that transformed the original soils into Fimic Anthrosols throughout the Brazilian Amazon Basin
  11. ^ a b c d Lehmann 2007a, pp. 381–387 Similar soils are found, more scarcely, elsewhere in the world. To date, scientists have been unable to completely reproduce the beneficial growth properties of terra preta. It is hypothesized that part of the alleged benefits of terra preta require the biochar to be aged so that it increases the cation exchange capacity of the soil, among other possible effects. In fact, there is no evidence natives made biochar for soil treatment, but rather for transportable fuel charcoal; there is little evidence for any hypothesis accounting for the frequency and location of terra preta patches in Amazonia. Abandoned or forgotten charcoal pits left for centuries were eventually reclaimed by the forest. In that time, the initially harsh negative effects of the char (high pH, extreme ash content, salinity) wore off and turned positive as the forest soil ecosystem saturated the charcoals with nutrients. supra note 2 at 386 ("Only aged biochar shows high cation retention, as in Amazonian Dark Earths. At high temperatures (30–70 °C), cation retention occurs within a few months. The production method that would attain high CEC in soil in cold climates is not currently known.") (internal citations omitted).
  12. ^ Glaser, Lehmann & Zech 2002, pp. 219–220 "These so-called Terra Preta do Indio (Terra Preta) characterize the settlements of pre-Columbian Indios. In Terra Preta soils large amounts of black C indicate a high and prolonged input of carbonized organic matter probably due to the production of charcoal in hearths, whereas only low amounts of charcoal are added to soils as a result of forest fires and slash-and-burn techniques." (internal citations omitted)
  13. ^ Jean-François Ponge; Stéphanie Topoliantz; Sylvain Ballof; Jean-Pierre Rossi; Patrick Lavelle; Jean-Marie Betsch; Philippe Gaucher (2006). "Ingestion of charcoal by the Amazonian earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus: a potential for tropical soil fertility" (PDF). Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 38 (7): 2008–2009. doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2005.12.024. Archived from the original on 13 February 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
  14. ^ Tripathi, Manoj; Sabu, J.N.; Ganesan, P. (21 November 2015). "Effect of process parameters on production of biochar from biomass waste through pyrolysis: A review". Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 55: 467–481. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2015.10.122. ISSN 1364-0321.
  15. ^ Gaunt & Lehmann 2008, pp. 4152, 4155 ("Assuming that the energy in syngas is converted to electricity with an efficiency of 35%, the recovery in the life cycle energy balance ranges from 92 to 274 kg CO2 MWn−1 of electricity generated where the pyrolysis process is optimized for energy and 120 to 360 kg CO2 MWn−1 where biochar is applied to land. This compares to emissions of 600–900 kg CO
    2
    MWh−1 for fossil-fuel-based technologies.)
  16. ^ a b Winsley, Peter (2007). "Biochar and bioenergy production for climate change mitigation". New Zealand Science Review. 64. (See Table 1 for differences in output for Fast, Intermediate, Slow, and Gasification).
  17. ^ Aysu, Tevfik; Küçük, M. Maşuk (16 December 2013). "Biomass pyrolysis in a fixed-bed reactor: Effects of pyrolysis parameters on product yields and characterization of products". Energy. 64 (1): 1002–1025. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2013.11.053. ISSN 0360-5442.
  18. ^ Laird 2008, pp. 100, 178–181 "The energy required to operate a fast pyrolyzer is ∼15% of the total energy that can be derived from the dry biomass. Modern systems are designed to use the syngas generated by the pyrolyzer to provide all the energy needs of the pyrolyzer."
  19. ^ Kambo, Harpreet Singh; Dutta, Animesh (14 February 2015). "A comparative review of biochar and hydrochar in terms of production, physicochemical properties and applications". Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 45: 359–378. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2015.01.050. ISSN 1364-0321.
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  22. ^ Menezes, Bruna Rafaela da Silva; Daher, Rogério Figueiredo; Gravina, Geraldo de Amaral; Pereira, Antônio Vander; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Tardin, Flávio Dessaune (20 September 2016). "Combining ability in elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) for energy biomass production" (PDF). Australian Journal of Crop Science. 10 (9): 1297–1305. doi:10.21475/ajcs.2016.10.09.p7747. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 June 2018. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
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  25. ^ Laird 2008, pp. 179 "Much of the current scientific debate on the harvesting of biomass for bioenergy is focused on how much can be harvested without doing too much damage."
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References[edit]

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External links[edit]