Biodiversity of Assam
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The biodiversity of Assam, a state in North-East India, makes it a biological hotspot with many rare and endemic plant and animal species. The greatest success in recent years has been the conservation of the Indian rhinoceros at the Kaziranga National Park, but a rapid increase in human population in Assam threatens many plants and animals and their natural habitats.
The rhinoceros, tiger, deer or chital / futukihorina (Axis axis), swamp deer or dolhorina (Cervus duvauceli duvauceli), clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), hoolock gibbon, pygmy hog or nol-gahori (Porcula salvania), hispid hare, golden langur (Trachypithecus geei), golden cat, giant civet, binturong, hog badger, porcupine, and civet are found in Assam. Moreover, there are abundant numbers of Gangetic dolphins, mongooses, giant squirrels and pythons. The largest population of wild water buffalo anywhere is in Assam.
The major birds in Assam include the blue-throated barbet or hetuluka (Megalaima asiatica), white-winged wood duck or deuhnah (Asarcornis scultulata), ring-tailed fishing eagle or kuruwa (Haliaeetus leucorythus), great pied hornbill or rajdhonesh (Buceros bicornis homrai), Himalayan golden-backed three-toed wood-pecker or barhoituka (Dinopium shorii shorii), and migratory pelican.
Assam is also known for orchids and for valuable plant species and forest products.
Protected areas in Assam
There are several protections in Assam, including several national parks, in particular in the Brahmaputra Valley.
- National parks
- Manas National Park (560 km2)
- Kaziranga National Park (320 km2)
- Orang National Park (110 km2)
- Nameri National Park (90 km2)
- Dibru-Saikhowa National Park (490 km2)
- Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary (90 km2)
- Laokhowa Wildlife Sanctuary (170 km2)
- Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary (80 km2)
- Sonai Rupai Wildlife Sanctuary (160 km2)
- Pabha Wildlife Sanctuary (110 km2)
- Choudhury, A.U. (2010)The vanishing herds : the wild water buffalo. Gibbon Books, Rhino Foundation, CEPF & COA, Taiwan, Guwahati, India
- Biodiversity of Assam: Status Strategy & Action Plan for Conservation, eds A K Bhagabati, M C Kalita, S Baruah, Eastern Book House, New Delhi (2006)
- "Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund.