Biological computer

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This article is about hypothetical computers using brain-to-brain interfaces. For computers composed of biological parts, see biocomputer.

It is hypothesized that by using brain-to-brain interfaces (BTBIs) a biological computer, or brain-net, could be constructed using animal brains as its computational units. Initial exploratory work demonstrated collaboration between rats in distant cages linked by signals from cortical microelectrode arrays implanted in their brains. The rats were rewarded when actions were performed by the "decoding rat" which conformed to incoming signals and when signals were transmitted by the "encoding rat" which resulted in the desired action. In the initial experiment the rewarded action was pushing a lever in the remote location corresponding to the position of a lever near a lighted LED at the home location.[1] About a month was required for the rats to acclimate themselves to incoming "brainwaves."[2][3]

Lastly, it is important to stress that the topology of BTBI does not need to be restricted to one encoder and one decoder subjects. Instead, we have already proposed that, in theory, channel accuracy can be increased if instead of a dyad a whole grid of multiple reciprocally interconnected brains are employed. Such a computing structure could define the first example of an organic computer capable of solving heuristic problems that would be deemed non-computable by a general Turing-machine. Future works will elucidate in detail the characteristics of this multi-brain system, its computational capabilities, and how it compares to other non-Turing computational architectures[3]

Miguel Nicolelis of Duke University, one of the investigators who did the experiment with rats, has done previous work using a brain–computer interface.[1]


  1. ^ a b James Gorman (February 28, 2013). "In a First, Experiment Links Brains of Two Rats". The New York Times. Retrieved March 4, 2013. 
  2. ^ Clive Cookson (February 28, 2013). "Telepathic rats solve problems together". Financial Times. Retrieved February 28, 2013. 
  3. ^ a b Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Mikhail Lebedev; Carolina Kunicki; Jing Wang; Miguel A. L. Nicolelis (February 28, 2013). "A Brain-to-Brain Interface for Real-Time Sharing of Sensorimotor Information". Scientific Reports (Nature Publishing Group) 3: Article no. 1319. doi:10.1038/srep01319. Retrieved February 28, 2013. A brain-to-brain interface (BTBI) enabled a real-time transfer of behaviorally meaningful sensorimotor information between the brains of two rats.