Biological dark matter

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Biological dark matter is an informal term for genetic material or microorganisms that are unclassified or poorly understood.

Biological dark matter includes non-coding DNA (junk DNA)[1][2][3] and non-coding RNA.[4][5][6] Much of the genomic dark matter is thought to originate from ancient transposable elements and from other low-complexity repetitive elements.[7][8] Uncategorized genetic material is found in humans and in several other organisms.[9][10] Their phylogenetic novelty could indicate the cellular organisms or viruses from which they evolved.[11]

Biologists are unable to culture and grow 99% of all living microorganisms,[12][13][14][15][16] so few functional insights exist about the metabolic potential of these organisms.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Carey, Nessa (2015). Junk DNA: A Journey Through the Dark Matter of the Genome. Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231170840. 
  2. ^ Kolata, Gina (5 September 2012). "Bits of Mystery DNA, Far From 'Junk', Play Crucial Role". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-09-09. 
  3. ^ Boyle, Rebecca (6 September 2012). "Inside the Mysterious Dark Matter of the Human Genome". Popular Science. Retrieved 2015-09-09. 
  4. ^ B. F., Pugh; Voss, Katrina (13 September 2013). "Scientists Discover the Origins of Genomic "Dark Matter"". Penn State Science. Retrieved 2015-09-09. 
  5. ^ "Scientists shed some light on biological "dark matter"". Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne. 20 January 2014. Retrieved 2015-09-09. 
  6. ^ van Bakel H, Nislow C, Blencowe BJ, Hughes TR (2010). Eddy SR, ed. "Most "dark matter" transcripts are associated with known genes". PLoS Biol. 8 (5): e1000371. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000371. PMC 2872640Freely accessible. PMID 20502517. 
  7. ^ de Koning AP, Gu W, Castoe TA, Batzer MA, Pollock DD (2011). "Repetitive elements may comprise over two-thirds of the human genome". PLoS Genet. 7 (12): e1002384. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002384. PMC 3228813Freely accessible. PMID 22144907. 
  8. ^ Maumus F, Quesneville H (2014). "Deep investigation of Arabidopsis thaliana junk DNA reveals a continuum between repetitive elements and genomic dark matter". PLoS ONE. 9 (4): e94101. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0094101. PMC 3978025Freely accessible. PMID 24709859. 
  9. ^ Wu, D.; Wu, M.; Halpern, A.; Rusch, D. B.; Yooseph, S.; Frazier, M.; Venter, J. C.; Eisen, J. A. (2011). "Stalking the Fourth Domain in Metagenomic Data: Searching for, Discovering, and Interpreting Novel, Deep Branches in Marker Gene Phylogenetic Trees". PLoS ONE. 6 (3): e18011. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018011. PMC 3060911Freely accessible. PMID 21437252. 
  10. ^ Barras, Colin (March 18, 2011). "Biology's 'dark matter' hints at fourth domain of life". New Scientist. Reed Business Information Ltd. Retrieved August 23, 2015. 
  11. ^ Kemsley, Tamarra (13 July 2015). "New Study on "Dark Matter" of Biology Fills in Major Holes in Tree of Life". Nature World News. Retrieved 2015-09-09. 
  12. ^ Huang, Wei E.; Song, Yizhi; Xu, Jian (28 January 2015). "Single cell biotechnology to shed a light on biological 'dark matter' in nature". Microbial Biotechnology. 8 (1): 15–16. doi:10.1111/1751-7915.12249. PMC 4321360Freely accessible. PMID 25627841. 
  13. ^ Lok, Corie (16 June 2015). "Mining the microbial dark matter". Nature News. Retrieved 2015-09-09. 
  14. ^ Check-Hayden, Erika (14 July 2013). "Researchers glimpse microbial 'dark matter'". Nature News. Retrieved 2015-09-09. 
  15. ^ Gronstal, Aaron L. (4 November 2011). "Studying Biology's Dark Matter". NASA Astrobiology Institute. Retrieved 2015-09-09. 
  16. ^ Rinke, Chris (2015). "What is Microbial Dark Matter and why should we explore it?". Microbial Dark Matter. Retrieved 2015-09-09.