Outline of biology

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Biology – The natural science that involves the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy.

Branches of biology[edit]

Branch of biology – subdiscipline of biology, also referred to as a biological science. Note that biology and all of its branches are also life sciences.

  • Anatomy – study of form in animals, plants and other organisms, or specifically in humans. Simply, the study of internal structure of living organisms.
  • Astrobiology – study of origin, early-evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe. Also known as exobiology,and bioastronomy.
  • Biochemistry – study of the chemical reactions required for life to exist and function, usually a focus on the cellular level.
  • Biogeography – study of the distribution of species spatially and temporally.
  • Biophysics – study of biological processes through the methods traditionally used in the physical sciences.
  • Biotechnology – new and sometimes controversial branch of biology that studies the manipulation of living matter, including genetic modification and synthetic biology.
    • Bioinformatics – use of information technology for the study, collection, and storage of genomic and other biological data.
    • Bioengineering – study of biology through the means of engineering with an emphasis on applied knowledge and especially related to biotechnology.
    • Synthetic biology – research integrating biology and engineering; construction of biological functions not found in nature.
  • Botany – study of plants.
    • Photobiology – scientific study of the interactions of light (technically, non-ionizing radiation) and living organisms. The field includes the study of photosynthesis, photomorphogenesis, visual processing, circadian rhythms, bioluminescence, and ultraviolet radiation effects.
    • Phycology – scientific study of algae.
    • Plant physiology – subdiscipline of botany concerned with the functioning, or physiology, of plants.[1]
  • Cell biology – study of the cell as a complete unit, and the molecular and chemical interactions that occur within a living cell.
    • Histology – study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.
  • Chronobiology – field of biology that examines periodic (cyclic) phenomena in living organisms and their adaptation to solar- and lunar-related rhythms.
    • Dendrochronology – study of tree rings, using them to date the exact year they were formed in order to analyze atmospheric conditions during different periods in natural history.
  • Developmental biology – study of the processes through which an organism forms, from zygote to full structure
    • Embryology – study of the development of embryo (from fecundation to birth).
    • Gerontology – study of aging processes.
  • Ecology – study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with the non-living elements of their environment.
  • Epidemiology – major component of public health research, studying factors affecting the health of populations.
  • Ethnobiology - the scientific study of the way living things are treated or used by different human cultures.
  • Evolutionary biology – study of the origin and descent of species over time.
    • Evolutionary developmental biology – field of biology that compares the developmental processes of different organisms to determine the ancestral relationship between them, and to discover how developmental processes evolved.
    • Paleobiology – discipline which combines the methods and findings of the natural science biology with the methods and findings of the earth science paleontology.
      • Paleoanthropology – the study of fossil evidence for human evolution, mainly using remains from extinct hominin and other primate species to determine the morphological and behavioral changes in the human lineage, as well as the environment in which human evolution occurred.
      • Paleobotany - study of fossil plants.
      • Paleontology – study of fossils and sometimes geographic evidence of prehistoric life.
      • Paleopathology – the study of pathogenic conditions observable in bones or mummified soft tissue, and on nutritional disorders, variation in stature or morphology of bones over time, evidence of physical trauma, or evidence of occupationally derived biomechanic stress.
  • Genetics – study of genes and heredity.
  • Immunology – study of immune systems in all organisms.
  • Marine biology – study of ocean ecosystems, plants, animals, and other living beings.
  • Microbiology – study of microscopic organisms (microorganisms) and their interactions with other living things.
  • Molecular biology – study of biology and biological functions at the molecular level, with some cross over from biochemistry.
  • Neuroscience – study of the nervous system, including anatomy, physiology and emergent proprieties.
    • Cellular neuroscience - study of neurons at a cellular level.
    • Cognitive neuroscience - study of biological substrates underlying cognition, with a focus on the neural substrates of mental processes.
    • Computational neuroscience - study of the information processing functions of the nervous system, and the use of digital computers to study the nervous system.
    • Developmental neuroscience - study of the cellular basis of brain development and addresses the underlying mechanisms.
    • Molecular neuroscience - studies the biology of the nervous system with molecular biology, molecular genetics, protein chemistry and related methodologies.
    • Neuroanatomy - study of the anatomy of nervous tissue and neural structures of the nervous system.
    • Neuroendocrinology - studies the interaction between the nervous system and the endocrine system, that is how the brain regulates the hormonal activity in the body.
    • Neuroethology - study of animal behavior and its underlying mechanistic control by the nervous system.
    • Neuroimmunology - study of the nervous system, and immunology, the study of the immune system.
    • Neuropharmacology - study of how drugs affect cellular function in the nervous system.
    • Neurophysiology - study of the function (as opposed to structure) of the nervous system.
    • Neuropsychology - studies the structure and function of the brain related to psychological processes and behaviors. The term is used most frequently with reference to studies of the effects of brain damage in humans and animals.
    • Systems neuroscience - studies the function of neural circuits and systems. It is an umbrella term, encompassing a number of areas of study concerned with how nerve cells behave when connected together to form neural networks.
  • Physiology – study of the internal workings of organisms.
  • Psychology – study of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
  • Theoretical Biology – the mathematical modeling of biological phenomena.
  • Systems biology – computational modeling of biological systems.
  • Zoology – study of animals, including classification, physiology, development, and behavior. Subbranches include:
    • Arthropodology – biological discipline concerned with the study of arthropods, a phylum of animals that include the insects, arachnids, crustaceans and others that are characterized by the possession of jointed limbs.
      • Acarology – study of the taxon of arachnids that contains mites and ticks.
      • Arachnology – scientific study of spiders and related animals such as scorpions, pseudoscorpions, harvestmen, collectively called arachnids.
      • Entomology – study of insects.
      • Carcinology – study of crustaceans.
      • Myriapodology – study of centipedes, millipedes, and other myriapods.
    • Ethology – scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions.
    • Helminthology – study of worms, especially parasitic worms.
    • Herpetology – study of amphibians (including frogs, toads, salamanders, newts, and gymnophiona) and reptiles (including snakes, lizards, amphisbaenids, turtles, terrapins, tortoises, crocodilians, and the tuataras).
      • Batrachology – subdiscipline of herpetology concerned with the study of amphibians alone.
    • Ichthyology – study of fishes. This includes bony fishes (Osteichthyes), cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes), and jawless fishes (Agnatha).
    • Malacology – branch of invertebrate zoology which deals with the study of the Mollusca (mollusks or molluscs), the second-largest phylum of animals in terms of described species after the arthropods.
    • Mammalogy – study of mammals, a class of vertebrates with characteristics such as homeothermic metabolism, fur, four-chambered hearts, and complex nervous systems. Mammalogy has also been known as "mastology," "theriology," and "therology." There are about 4,200 different species of animals which are considered mammals.
    • Nematology – scientific discipline concerned with the study of nematodes, or roundworms.
    • Ornithology – scientific study of birds.

History of biology[edit]

Ecology[edit]

Outline of ecology

Evolution[edit]

Outline of evolution

Organismal biology[edit]

Cellular and molecular biology[edit]

Outline of cell biology

Outline of biochemistry

Outline of genetics

Biologists[edit]

Lists[edit]

See also[edit]

Related outlines

References[edit]

  1. ^ Frank B. Salisbury; Cleon W. Ross (1992). Plant physiology. Brooks/Cole Pub Co. ISBN 0-534-15162-0.

External links[edit]

Journals[edit]