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Biorobotics is often used to refer to a real subfield of robotics: studying how to make robots that emulate or simulate living biological organisms mechanically or even chemically.
The term is also used in a reverse definition: making biological organisms as manipulatable and functional as robots, or making biological organisms as components of robots. In the latter sense, biorobotics can be referred to as a theoretical discipline of comprehensive genetic engineering in which organisms are created and designed by artificial means. The creation of life from non-living matter for example, would be biorobotics. The field is in its infancy and is sometimes known as synthetic biology or bionanotechnology.
Bio-inspired robotics is the practice of making robots that are inspired by real biological systems, while being simpler and more effective. In contrast, the resemblance of animatronics to biological organisms is usually only in general shape and form.
Orel V.E. invented the device of mechanochemiemission microbiorobotics. The phenomenon of mechanochemiemission is related to the processes interconversion of mechanical, chemical, electromagnetic energy in the mitochondria. Microbiorobot may be used for treatment of cancer patients.
A biological brain, grown from cultured neurons which were originally separated, has been developed as the neurological entity subsequently embodied within a robot body by Kevin Warwick and his team at University of Reading. The brain receives input from sensors on the robot body and the resultant output from the brain provides the robot's only motor signals. The biological brain is the only brain of the robot.
- Orel, V.E.; Zlobinskaya, O. (November 1999), "Mechanochemiemission microbiorobotic", Workshop Biomechanics meets Robotics Modelling and Simulation of Motion, Heidelberg, Germany, p. 50
- Orel, V.E. (1992), Editor-in-Chief:Kolyadenko, V.G., ed., "Concept of mehanochemiemission biorobotics", Proceeding. Actual problems of medicine and biology, Kyiv, Ukraine: Glushkov Institute of Cybernetics.The Academy of Sciences of Ukraine: 42–61
- Xydas, S.; Norcott, D.; Warwick, K.; Whalley, B.; Nasuto, S.; Becerra, V.; Hammond, M.; Downes, J. & Marshall (March 2008), Bruyninckx, Herman; Přeučil, Libor & Kulich, Miroslav, eds., "Architecture for Neuronal Cell Control of a Mobile Robot", European Robotics Symposium 2008, Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics, Prague: Springer, 44, pp. 23–31, doi:10.1007/978-3-540-78317-6, ISBN 978-3-540-78315-2
- Bioroïdes - A timeline of the popularization of the idea (in French)
- Harvard BioRobotics Laboratory, Harvard University
- Locomotion in Mechanical and Biological Systems (LIMBS) Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University
- BioRobotics Lab in Korea
- Laboratory of Biomedical Robotics and Biomicrosystems, Italy
- Tiny backpacks for cells (MIT News)
- Biologically Inspired Robotics Lab, Case Western Reserve University
- Bio-Robotics and Human Modeling Laboratory - Georgia Institute of Technology
- Biorobotics Laboratory at École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland)
- BioRobotics Laboratory, Free University of Berlin (Germany)
- Biorobotics research group, Institute of Movement Science, CNRS/Aix-Marseille University (France)
- Center for Biorobotics, Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia)