Biosphere reserves of India

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

There are 18 Biosphere Reserves in India. [1]to protect larger areas of natural habitat than a typical national park or animal sanctuary, and that often include one or more national parks or reserves, along with buffer zones that are open to some economic uses. Protection is granted not only to the flora and fauna of the protected region, but also to the human communities who inhabit these regions, and their ways of life. In total there are 18 biosphere reserves in India

World network[edit]

Twelve of the eighteen biosphere reserves are a part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves, based on the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme list.[1][2][3]

# Name States/ UT Year
1 Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka 2000
2 Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve Tamil Nadu 2001
3 Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve West Bengal 2001
4 Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve Uttarakhand 2004
5 Nokrek Biosphere Reserve Meghalaya 2009
6 Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve Madhya Pradesh 2009
7 Simlipal Biosphere Reserve Odisha 2009
8 Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve Andaman & Nicobar Islands 2013
9 Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh 2012[2]
10 Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve Kerala and Tamil Nadu 2016[4]
11 Khangchendzonga National Park Sikkim 2018[5]
12 Panna Biosphere Reserve Madhya Pradesh 2020[6]

List of biosphere reserves in India[edit]

Biosphere reserves of India[7]
Year Name Location State Type Key fauna Area (km2)
1 1980 Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve Part of Waynad, Nagarhole, Bandipur and Mudumalai, Nilambur, Silent Valley Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala Western Ghats Nilgiri tahr, tiger, lion-tailed macaque 5520
2 1988 Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve Parts of Chamoli District, Pithoragarh District & Bageshwar District Uttarakhand Western Himalayas Snow leopard, Himalayan black bear 5860
3 1988 Nokrek In West Garo Hills Meghalaya Eastern hills Red panda 820.00 
4 1989 Gulf of Mannar Indian part of Gulf of Mannar extending from Rameswaram island in the north to Kanyakumari in the south of Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka Tamil Nadu Coasts Dugong 10500
5 1989 Sundarbans Part of delta of Ganges and Brahmaputra river system West Bengal Gangetic Delta Royal Bengal tiger 9630
6 1989 Manas Part of Kokrajhar, Bongaigaon, Barpeta, Nalbari, Kamrup and Darrang Districts Assam Eastern Hills Asiatic elephant, tiger, Assam roofed turtle, hispid hare, golden langur, pygmy hog 2837
7 1989 Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve Southernmost of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Andaman and Nicobar Islands Islands Saltwater crocodile 885
8 1994 Simlipal Part of Mayurbhanj district Odisha Deccan Peninsula Gaur, royal Bengal tiger, Asian elephant 4374
9 1998 Dihang-Dibang Part of Siang and Dibang Valley Arunachal Pradesh Eastern Himalaya Mishmi takin, musk deer 5112 10 1997 Dibru-Saikhowa Part of Dibrugarh and Tinsukia districts Assam Eastern Hills White-winged wood duck, water buffalo, black-breasted parrotbill, tiger, capped langur 765
11 1999 Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve Parts of Betul District, Hoshangabad District and Chhindwara District Madhya Pradesh Semi-Arid Giant squirrel, flying squirrel 4981.72
12 2000 Khangchendzonga National Park Parts of Kangchenjunga Sikkim East Himalayas Snow leopard, red panda 2620
13 2001 Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve Neyyar, Peppara and Shenduruny Wildlife Sanctuary and their adjoining areas Kerala, Tamil Nadu Western Ghats Nilgiri tahr, Asian elephant 3500.08
14 2005 Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve Part of Annupur, Dindori and Bilaspur districts Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh Maikal Hills Four-horned antelope, Indian wild dog, sarus crane, white-rumped vulture, sacred grove bush frog 3835
15 2008 Great Rann of Kutch Part of Kutch, Morbi, Surendranagar and Patan districts; the largest biosphere reserve in India. Gujarat Desert Indian wild ass 12454
16 2009 Cold Desert Pin Valley National Park and surroundings; Chandratal and Sarchu & Kibber Wildlife Sanctuary Himachal Pradesh Western Himalayas Snow leopard 7770
17 2010 Seshachalam Hills Seshachalam Hill Ranges covering parts of Chittoor and Kadapa districts Andhra Pradesh Eastern Hills Slender loris 4755.997[8]
18 2022 Panna Part of Panna and Chhattarpur districts in Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Moist deciduous forest Bengal tiger, Chinkara, Nilgai, Sambhar sambar deer, and Sloth bear 2998.98[9]

Key faunas[edit]

Name Key fauna
Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve Lion Tailed Macaque (EN), Nilgiri Tahr (EN), Malabar Giant Squirrel (LC), Nilgiri Langur (VU)
Nanda Devi Snow Leopard (VU), Musk Deer (EN), Bharal Or Blue Sheep (LC)
Nokrek Red Panda (EN), Hoolock Gibbons (EN), Red Giant Flying Squirrel (LC)
Great Nicobar Dugong (VU), Saltwater Crocodile (LC)
Gulf of Mannar Dugong (VU), Olive Ridley turtles (VU)
Manas Assam Roofed Turtle (EN), Hispid Hare (EN), Golden Langur (EN), Pygmy Hog (EN), Wild Water Buffalo (EN), Bengal florican (CR)
Sunderbans Royal Bengal Tiger (EN)
Simlipal Royal Bengal Tigers, Wild Elephants (EN), Gaurs (VU – Indian Bison), Chausingha (VU)
Dibru-Saikhowa Bengal Tiger, Clouded Leopard (VU), Gangetic Dolphin (EN)
Dehang-Dibang Takin (VU), Red Panda (EN)
Pachmarhi Tiger, Gaur, Indian Giant Flying Squirrels (LC)
Khangchendzonga Red Panda (EN), Snow Leopard (VU), Musk Deer (EN), Great Tibetan Sheep (Argali – NT)
Agasthyamalai Nilgiri Tahr (EN)
Achanakamar - Amarkantak Four Horned Antelope (Chausingha (VU)), Indian Wild Dog (VU)
Great Rann of Kutch (Kachchh) Great Indian Bustard (CR), Indian Wild Ass (NT)
Cold Desert Snow Leopard (VU), Himalayan Ibex (also referred to as Siberian Ibex – LC)
Seshachalam Hills Red Sanders (NT), Golden Gecko (LC – Endemic To Tirumala Hills)
Panna Tiger (EN), Chital (LC), Chinkara (LC), Sambar (VU)

Potential sites[edit]

The following is a list of potential sites for Biosphere Reserves as selected by Ministry of Forests and Environment:[10]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Biosphere Reserves in India" (PDF). Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change. 2019. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  2. ^ a b "20 new Biosphere Reserves added to UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme". UNESCO. 11 July 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  3. ^ "Man and the Biosphere Programme". UNESCO. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  4. ^ "20 sites added to UNESCO's World Network of Biosphere Reserves". UNESCO. 19 March 2016. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  5. ^ Mohan, Vishwa (8 August 2018). "Kanchenjunga Biosphere Reserve gets entry into the UNESCO's global list". The Economic Times (India). Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  6. ^ "Panna Biosphere Reserve, India". UNESCO. 12 November 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2022.
  7. ^ Biosphere Reserves Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Government of India.
  8. ^ "Biosphere Reserves in India (as on Dec, 2014)". December 2014. Retrieved 23 December 2021.
  9. ^ "Panna Tiger Reserve gets UNESCO's 'Biosphere Reserve' Status". Outlook India. 7 November 2020. Retrieved 23 December 2021.
  10. ^ "Status of Biosphere reserves in India" (PDF). ENVIRO NEWS, Ministry of Environment and Forests. January–March 2008. p. 9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2013.

External links[edit]