Jump to content


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Biota (ecology))
One way of mapping terrestrial (land) biomes around the world

A biome (/ˈb.m/) is a distinct geographical region with specific climate, vegetation, and animal life. It consists of a biological community that has formed in response to its physical environment and regional climate.[1][2] Biomes may span more than one continent. A biome encompasses multiple ecosystems within its boundaries. It can also comprise a variety of habitats.

While a biome can cover small areas, a microbiome is a mix of organisms that coexist in a defined space on a much smaller scale. For example, the human microbiome is the collection of bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms that are present on or in a human body.[3]

A biota is the total collection of organisms of a geographic region or a time period, from local geographic scales and instantaneous temporal scales all the way up to whole-planet and whole-timescale spatiotemporal scales. The biotas of the Earth make up the biosphere.



The term was suggested in 1916 by Clements, originally as a synonym for biotic community of Möbius (1877).[4] Later, it gained its current definition, based on earlier concepts of phytophysiognomy, formation and vegetation (used in opposition to flora), with the inclusion of the animal element and the exclusion of the taxonomic element of species composition.[5][6] In 1935, Tansley added the climatic and soil aspects to the idea, calling it ecosystem.[7][8] The International Biological Program (1964–74) projects popularized the concept of biome.[9]

However, in some contexts, the term biome is used in a different manner. In German literature, particularly in the Walter terminology, the term is used similarly as biotope (a concrete geographical unit), while the biome definition used in this article is used as an international, non-regional, terminology—irrespectively of the continent in which an area is present, it takes the same biome name—and corresponds to his "zonobiome", "orobiome" and "pedobiome" (biomes determined by climate zone, altitude or soil).[10]

In the Brazilian literature, the term biome is sometimes used as a synonym of biogeographic province, an area based on species composition (the term floristic province being used when plant species are considered), or also as synonym of the "morphoclimatic and phytogeographical domain" of Ab'Sáber, a geographic space with subcontinental dimensions, with the predominance of similar geomorphologic and climatic characteristics, and of a certain vegetation form. Both include many biomes in fact.[5][11][12]



To divide the world into a few ecological zones is difficult, notably because of the small-scale variations that exist everywhere on earth and because of the gradual changeover from one biome to the other. Their boundaries must therefore be drawn arbitrarily and their characterization made according to the average conditions that predominate in them.[13]

A 1978 study on North American grasslands[14] found a positive logistic correlation between evapotranspiration in mm/yr and above-ground net primary production in g/m2/yr. The general results from the study were that precipitation and water use led to above-ground primary production, while solar irradiation and temperature lead to below-ground primary production (roots), and temperature and water lead to cool and warm season growth habit.[15] These findings help explain the categories used in Holdridge's bioclassification scheme (see below), which were then later simplified by Whittaker. The number of classification schemes and the variety of determinants used in those schemes, however, should be taken as strong indicators that biomes do not fit perfectly into the classification schemes created.

Holdridge (1947, 1964) life zones

Holdridge life zone classification scheme. Although conceived as three-dimensional by its originator, it is usually shown as a two-dimensional array of hexagons in a triangular frame.

In 1947, the American botanist and climatologist Leslie Holdridge classified climates based on the biological effects of temperature and rainfall on vegetation under the assumption that these two abiotic factors are the largest determinants of the types of vegetation found in a habitat. Holdridge uses the four axes to define 30 so-called "humidity provinces", which are clearly visible in his diagram. While this scheme largely ignores soil and sun exposure, Holdridge acknowledged that these were important.

Allee (1949) biome-types


The principal biome-types by Allee (1949):[16]

Kendeigh (1961) biomes


The principal biomes of the world by Kendeigh (1961):[17]

Whittaker (1962, 1970, 1975) biome-types

The distribution of vegetation types as a function of mean annual temperature and precipitation.

Whittaker classified biomes using two abiotic factors: precipitation and temperature. His scheme can be seen as a simplification of Holdridge's; more readily accessible, but missing Holdridge's greater specificity.

Whittaker based his approach on theoretical assertions and empirical sampling. He had previously compiled a review of biome classifications.[18]

Key definitions for understanding Whittaker's scheme

  • Physiognomy: sometimes referring to the plants' appearance; or the biome's apparent characteristics, outward features, or appearance of ecological communities or species - including plants.
  • Biome: a grouping of terrestrial ecosystems on a given continent that is similar in vegetation structure, physiognomy, features of the environment and characteristics of their animal communities.
  • Formation: a major kind of community of plants on a given continent.
  • Biome-type: grouping of convergent biomes or formations of different continents, defined by physiognomy.
  • Formation-type: a grouping of convergent formations.

Whittaker's distinction between biome and formation can be simplified: formation is used when applied to plant communities only, while biome is used when concerned with both plants and animals. Whittaker's convention of biome-type or formation-type is a broader method to categorize similar communities.[19]

Whittaker's parameters for classifying biome-types


Whittaker used what he called "gradient analysis" of ecocline patterns to relate communities to climate on a worldwide scale. Whittaker considered four main ecoclines in the terrestrial realm.[19]

  1. Intertidal levels: The wetness gradient of areas that are exposed to alternating water and dryness with intensities that vary by location from high to low tide
  2. Climatic moisture gradient
  3. Temperature gradient by altitude
  4. Temperature gradient by latitude

Along these gradients, Whittaker noted several trends that allowed him to qualitatively establish biome-types:

  • The gradient runs from favorable to the extreme, with corresponding changes in productivity.
  • Changes in physiognomic complexity vary with how favorable of an environment exists (decreasing community structure and reduction of stratal differentiation as the environment becomes less favorable).
  • Trends in the diversity of structure follow trends in species diversity; alpha and beta species diversities decrease from favorable to extreme environments.
  • Each growth-form (i.e. grasses, shrubs, etc.) has its characteristic place of maximum importance along the ecoclines.
  • The same growth forms may be dominant in similar environments in widely different parts of the world.

Whittaker summed the effects of gradients (3) and (4) to get an overall temperature gradient and combined this with a gradient (2), the moisture gradient, to express the above conclusions in what is known as the Whittaker classification scheme. The scheme graphs average annual precipitation (x-axis) versus average annual temperature (y-axis) to classify biome-types.



Goodall (1974–) ecosystem types


The multi-authored series Ecosystems of the World, edited by David W. Goodall, provides a comprehensive coverage of the major "ecosystem types or biomes" on Earth:[21]

  1. Terrestrial Ecosystems
    1. Natural Terrestrial Ecosystems
      1. Wet Coastal Ecosystems
      2. Dry Coastal Ecosystems
      3. Polar and Alpine Tundra
      4. Mires: Swamp, Bog, Fen, and Moor
      5. Temperate Deserts and Semi-Deserts
      6. Coniferous Forests
      7. Temperate Deciduous Forests
      8. Natural Grasslands
      9. Heathlands and Related Shrublands
      10. Temperate Broad-Leaved Evergreen Forests
      11. Mediterranean-Type Shrublands
      12. Hot Deserts and Arid Shrublands
      13. Tropical Savannas
      14. Tropical Rain Forest Ecosystems
      15. Wetland Forests
      16. Ecosystems of Disturbed Ground
    2. Managed Terrestrial Ecosystems
      1. Managed Grasslands
      2. Field Crop Ecosystems
      3. Tree Crop Ecosystems
      4. Greenhouse Ecosystems
      5. Bioindustrial Ecosystems
  2. Aquatic Ecosystems
    1. Inland Aquatic Ecosystems
      1. River and Stream Ecosystems
      2. Lakes and Reservoirs
    2. Marine Ecosystems
      1. Intertidal and Littoral Ecosystems
      2. Coral Reefs
      3. Estuaries and Enclosed Seas
      4. Ecosystems of the Continental Shelves
      5. Ecosystems of the Deep Ocean
    3. Managed Aquatic Ecosystems
      1. Managed Aquatic Ecosystems
  3. Underground Ecosystems
    1. Cave Ecosystems

Walter (1976, 2002) zonobiomes


The eponymously named Heinrich Walter classification scheme considers the seasonality of temperature and precipitation. The system, also assessing precipitation and temperature, finds nine major biome types, with the important climate traits and vegetation types. The boundaries of each biome correlate to the conditions of moisture and cold stress that are strong determinants of plant form, and therefore the vegetation that defines the region. Extreme conditions, such as flooding in a swamp, can create different kinds of communities within the same biome.[10][22][23]

Zonobiome Zonal soil type Zonal vegetation type
ZB I. Equatorial, always moist, little temperature seasonality Equatorial brown clays Evergreen tropical rainforest
ZB II. Tropical, summer rainy season and cooler "winter" dry season Red clays or red earths Tropical seasonal forest, seasonal dry forest, scrub, or savanna
ZB III. Subtropical, highly seasonal, arid climate Serosemes, sierozemes Desert vegetation with considerable exposed surface
ZB IV. Mediterranean, winter rainy season and summer drought Mediterranean brown earths Sclerophyllous (drought-adapted), frost-sensitive shrublands and woodlands
ZB V. Warm temperate, occasional frost, often with summer rainfall maximum Yellow or red forest soils, slightly podsolic soils Temperate evergreen forest, somewhat frost-sensitive
ZB VI. Nemoral, moderate climate with winter freezing Forest brown earths and grey forest soils Frost-resistant, deciduous, temperate forest
ZB VII. Continental, arid, with warm or hot summers and cold winters Chernozems to serozems Grasslands and temperate deserts
ZB VIII. Boreal, cold temperate with cool summers and long winters Podsols Evergreen, frost-hardy, needle-leaved forest (taiga)
ZB IX. Polar, short, cool summers and long, cold winters Tundra humus soils with solifluction (permafrost soils) Low, evergreen vegetation, without trees, growing over permanently frozen soils

Schultz (1988) eco-zones


Schultz (1988, 2005) defined nine ecozones (his concept of ecozone is more similar to the concept of biome than to the concept of ecozone of BBC):[24]

  1. polar/subpolar zone
  2. boreal zone
  3. humid mid-latitudes
  4. dry mid-latitudes
  5. subtropics with winter rain
  6. subtropics with year-round rain
  7. dry tropics and subtropics
  8. tropics with summer rain
  9. tropics with year-round rain

Bailey (1989) ecoregions


Robert G. Bailey nearly developed a biogeographical classification system of ecoregions for the United States in a map published in 1976. He subsequently expanded the system to include the rest of North America in 1981, and the world in 1989. The Bailey system, based on climate, is divided into four domains (polar, humid temperate, dry, and humid tropical), with further divisions based on other climate characteristics (subarctic, warm temperate, hot temperate, and subtropical; marine and continental; lowland and mountain).[25][26]

  • 100 Polar Domain
    • 120 Tundra Division (Köppen: Ft)
    • M120 Tundra Division – Mountain Provinces
    • 130 Subarctic Division (Köppen: E)
    • M130 Subarctic Division – Mountain Provinces
  • 200 Humid Temperate Domain
    • 210 Warm Continental Division (Köppen: portion of Dcb)
    • M210 Warm Continental Division – Mountain Provinces
    • 220 Hot Continental Division (Köppen: portion of Dca)
    • M220 Hot Continental Division – Mountain Provinces
    • 230 Subtropical Division (Köppen: portion of Cf)
    • M230 Subtropical Division – Mountain Provinces
    • 240 Marine Division (Köppen: Do)
    • M240 Marine Division – Mountain Provinces
    • 250 Prairie Division (Köppen: arid portions of Cf, Dca, Dcb)
    • 260 Mediterranean Division (Köppen: Cs)
    • M260 Mediterranean Division – Mountain Provinces
  • 300 Dry Domain
    • 310 Tropical/Subtropical Steppe Division
    • M310 Tropical/Subtropical Steppe Division – Mountain Provinces
    • 320 Tropical/Subtropical Desert Division
    • 330 Temperate Steppe Division
    • 340 Temperate Desert Division
  • 400 Humid Tropical Domain
    • 410 Savanna Division
    • 420 Rainforest Division

Olson & Dinerstein (1998) biomes for WWF / Global 200

Terrestrial biomes of the world according to Olson et al. and used by the WWF and Global 200.

A team of biologists convened by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) developed a scheme that divided the world's land area into biogeographic realms (called "ecozones" in a BBC scheme), and these into ecoregions (Olson & Dinerstein, 1998, etc.). Each ecoregion is characterized by a main biome (also called major habitat type).[27][28]

This classification is used to define the Global 200 list of ecoregions identified by the WWF as priorities for conservation.[27]

For the terrestrial ecoregions, there is a specific EcoID, format XXnnNN (XX is the biogeographic realm, nn is the biome number, NN is the individual number).

Biogeographic realms (terrestrial and freshwater)


The applicability of the realms scheme above - based on Udvardy (1975)—to most freshwater taxa is unresolved.[29]

Biogeographic realms (marine)


Biomes (terrestrial)

  1. Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests (tropical and subtropical, humid)
  2. Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests (tropical and subtropical, semihumid)
  3. Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests (tropical and subtropical, semihumid)
  4. Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests (temperate, humid)
  5. Temperate coniferous forests (temperate, humid to semihumid)
  6. Boreal forests/taiga (subarctic, humid)
  7. Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands (tropical and subtropical, semiarid)
  8. Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands (temperate, semiarid)
  9. Flooded grasslands and savannas (temperate to tropical, fresh or brackish water inundated)
  10. Montane grasslands and shrublands (alpine or montane climate)
  11. Tundra (Arctic)
  12. Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub or sclerophyll forests (temperate warm, semihumid to semiarid with winter rainfall)
  13. Deserts and xeric shrublands (temperate to tropical, arid)
  14. Mangrove (subtropical and tropical, salt water inundated)[28]

Biomes (freshwater)


According to the WWF, the following are classified as freshwater biomes:[31]

Biomes (marine)


Biomes of the coastal and continental shelf areas (neritic zone):

Summary of the scheme



Other biomes


Marine biomes


Pruvot (1896) zones or "systems":[33]

Longhurst (1998) biomes:[34]

  • Coastal
  • Polar
  • Trade wind
  • Westerly

Other marine habitat types (not covered yet by the Global 200/WWF scheme):[citation needed]

Anthropogenic biomes


Humans have altered global patterns of biodiversity and ecosystem processes. As a result, vegetation forms predicted by conventional biome systems can no longer be observed across much of Earth's land surface as they have been replaced by crop and rangelands or cities. Anthropogenic biomes provide an alternative view of the terrestrial biosphere based on global patterns of sustained direct human interaction with ecosystems, including agriculture, human settlements, urbanization, forestry and other uses of land. Anthropogenic biomes offer a way to recognize the irreversible coupling of human and ecological systems at global scales and manage Earth's biosphere and anthropogenic biomes.

Major anthropogenic biomes:

Microbial biomes


Endolithic biomes


The endolithic biome, consisting entirely of microscopic life in rock pores and cracks, kilometers beneath the surface, has only recently been discovered, and does not fit well into most classification schemes.[36]

Effects of climate change


Anthropogenic climate change has the potential to greatly alter the distribution of Earth's biomes.[37][38] Meaning, biomes around the world could change so much that they would be at risk of becoming new biomes entirely.[39] More specifically, 54% and 22% of global land area will experience climates that correspond to other biomes.[37] 3.6% of land area will experience climates that are completely new or unusual.[40][41] An example of a biome shift is woody plant encroachment, which can change grass savanna into shrub savanna.[42]

Average temperatures have risen more than twice the usual amount in both arctic and mountainous biomes,[43][44][45] which leads to the conclusion that arctic and mountainous biomes are currently the most vulnerable to climate change.[43] South American terrestrial biomes have been predicted to go through the same temperature trends as arctic and mountainous biomes.[46][47] With its annual average temperature continuing to increase, the moisture currently located in forest biomes will dry up.[46][48]

Predicated changes for Earth's biomes under two different climate change scenarios for 2081–2100. Top row is low emissions scenario, bottom row is high emissions scenario. Biomes are classified with Holdridge life zones system. A shift of 1 or 100% (darker colours) indicates that the region has fully moved into a completely different biome zone type.[49]
Climate change is altering biomes already now, adversely affecting ecosystems on land and in the ocean.[50][51] Climate change represents the long-term changes of temperature and average weather patterns.[52][53] In addition, it leads to a substantial increase in both the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events.[54] As a region's climate changes, a change in its flora and fauna follows.[55] For instance, out of 4000 species analyzed by the IPCC Sixth Assessment Report, half were found to have shifted their distribution to higher latitudes or elevations in response to climate change.[56]

See also

  • Climate classification – Systems that categorize the world's climates
  • Ecotope – Smallest ecologically distinct landscape features in a landscape mapping and classification system
  • Life zone – Concept was developed by C. Hart Merriam in 1889
  • Natural environment – Living and non-living things on Earth


  1. ^ Bowman, William D.; Hacker, Sally D. (2021). Ecology (5th ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. H3–1–51. ISBN 978-1605359212.
  2. ^ Rull, Valentí (2020). "Organisms: adaption, extinction, and biogeographical reorganizations". Quaternary Ecology, Evolution, and Biogeography. Academic Press. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-12-820473-3.
  3. ^ "Finally, A Map Of All The Microbes On Your Body". NPR. Archived from the original on 2018-04-16. Retrieved 2018-04-05.
  4. ^ Clements, F. E. (1917). "The development and structure of biotic communities". Journal of Ecology. 5: 120–121. JSTOR 2255652. Archived from the original on 2016-10-07.
  5. ^ a b Coutinho, L. M. (2006). "O conceito de bioma" [The biome concept]. Acta Botanica Brasilica (in Portuguese). 20 (1): 13–23. doi:10.1590/S0102-33062006000100002.
  6. ^ Martins, F. R. & Batalha, M. A. (2011). Formas de vida, espectro biológico de Raunkiaer e fisionomia da vegetação. In: Felfili, J. M., Eisenlohr, P. V.; Fiuza de Melo, M. M. R.; Andrade, L. A.; Meira Neto, J. A. A. (Org.). Fitossociologia no Brasil: métodos e estudos de caso. Vol. 1. Viçosa: Editora UFV. pp. 44–85. [1] Archived 2016-09-24 at the Wayback Machine. Earlier version, 2003, [2] Archived 2016-08-27 at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ Cox, C. B.; Moore, P.D.; Ladle, R. J. (2016). Biogeography: an ecological and evolutionary approach (9th ed.). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons. p. 20. ISBN 9781118968581. Archived from the original on 2016-11-26 – via Google Books.
  8. ^ Tansley, A.G. (1935). "The use and abuse of vegetational terms and concepts" (PDF). Ecology. 16 (3): 284–307. doi:10.2307/1930070. JSTOR 1930070. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-10-06. Retrieved 2016-09-24.
  9. ^ Box, E.O. & Fujiwara, K. (2005). Vegetation types and their broad-scale distribution. In: van der Maarel, E. (ed.). Vegetation ecology. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford. pp. 106–128, [3] Archived 2016-08-28 at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ a b Walter, H.; Breckle, S-W. (2002). Walter's Vegetation of the Earth: The Ecological Systems of the Geo-Biosphere. New York: Springer-Verlag. p. 86. ISBN 9783540433156. Archived from the original on 2016-11-27 – via Google Books.
  11. ^ Batalha, M.A. (2011). "The Brazilian cerrado is not a biome". Biota Neotropica. 11: 21–24. doi:10.1590/S1676-06032011000100001.
  12. ^ Fiaschi, P.; Pirani, J.R. (2009). "Review of plant biogeographic studies in Brazil". Journal of Systematics and Evolution. 47 (5): 477–496. doi:10.1111/j.1759-6831.2009.00046.x. S2CID 84315246. Archived from the original on 2017-08-31.
  13. ^ Schultz, Jürgen (1995). The ecozones of the world. Springer. pp. 2–3. ISBN 978-3-540-28527-4.
  14. ^ Sims, Phillip L.; Singh, J.S. (July 1978). "The Structure and Function of Ten Western North American Grasslands: III. Net Primary Production, Turnover and Efficiencies of Energy Capture and Water Use". Journal of Ecology. 66 (2). British Ecological Society: 573–597. Bibcode:1978JEcol..66..573S. doi:10.2307/2259152. JSTOR 2259152.
  15. ^ Pomeroy, Lawrence R.; Alberts, James J., eds. (1988). Concepts of Ecosystem Ecology. New York: Springer-Verlag.
  16. ^ Allee, W.C. (1949). Principles of animal ecology. Philadelphia: Saunders Co. Archived from the original on 2017-10-01.
  17. ^ Kendeigh, S.C. (1961). Animal ecology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  18. ^ Whittaker, Robert H. (January–March 1962). "Classification of Natural Communities". Botanical Review. 28 (1): 1–239. Bibcode:1962BotRv..28....1W. doi:10.1007/BF02860872. S2CID 25771073.
  19. ^ a b Whittaker, Robert H. (1975). Communities and Ecosystems. New York: MacMillan Publishing.
  20. ^ Whittaker, R. H. (1970). Communities and Ecosystems. Toronto, pp. 51–64, [4].
  21. ^ Goodall, D. W. (ed.). Ecosystems of the World. Vol. 36. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Archived from the original on 2016-09-18.
  22. ^ Walter, H. (1976). Die ökologischen Systeme der Kontinente (Biogeosphäre). Prinzipien ihrer Gliederung mit Beispielen [The ecological systems of the continents (biogeosphere). Principles of their outline with examples] (in German). Stuttgart.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  23. ^ Walter, H.; Breckle, S-W. (1991). Ökologie der Erde [Ecology of the Earth] (in German). Vol. 1, Grundlagen. Stuttgart.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  24. ^ Schultz, J. Die Ökozonen der Erde, 1st ed., Ulmer, Stuttgart, Germany, 1988, 488 pp.; 2nd ed., 1995, 535 pp.; 3rd ed., 2002; 4th ed., 2008; 5th ed., 2016. Transl.: The Ecozones of the World: The Ecological Divisions of the Geosphere. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1995; 2nd ed., 2005, [5].
  25. ^ "Bailey System". US Forest Service. Archived from the original on 2009-01-01.
  26. ^ Bailey, R. G. (1989). "Explanatory supplement to ecoregions map of the continents". Environmental Conservation. 16 (4): 307–309. Bibcode:1989EnvCo..16..307B. doi:10.1017/S0376892900009711. S2CID 83599915. [With map of land-masses of the world, "Ecoregions of the Continents – Scale 1 : 30,000,000", published as a supplement.]
  27. ^ a b Olson, D. M. & E. Dinerstein (1998). The Global 200: A representation approach to conserving the Earth's most biologically valuable ecoregions. Conservation Biol. 12:502–515, [6] Archived 2016-10-07 at the Wayback Machine.
  28. ^ a b c Olson, D. M., Dinerstein, E., Wikramanayake, E. D., Burgess, N. D., Powell, G. V. N., Underwood, E. C., D'Amico, J. A., Itoua, I., Strand, H. E., Morrison, J. C., Loucks, C. J., Allnutt, T. F., Ricketts, T. H., Kura, Y., Lamoreux, J. F., Wettengel, W. W., Hedao, P., Kassem, K. R. (2001). Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: a new map of life on Earth. Bioscience 51(11):933–938, [7] Archived 2012-09-17 at the Wayback Machine.
  29. ^ Abell, R., M. Thieme, C. Revenga, M. Bryer, M. Kottelat, N. Bogutskaya, B. Coad, N. Mandrak, S. Contreras-Balderas, W. Bussing, M. L. J. Stiassny, P. Skelton, G. R. Allen, P. Unmack, A. Naseka, R. Ng, N. Sindorf, J. Robertson, E. Armijo, J. Higgins, T. J. Heibel, E. Wikramanayake, D. Olson, H. L. Lopez, R. E. d. Reis, J. G. Lundberg, M. H. Sabaj Perez, and P. Petry. (2008). Freshwater ecoregions of the world: A new map of biogeographic units for freshwater biodiversity conservation. BioScience 58:403–414, [8] Archived 2016-10-06 at the Wayback Machine.
  30. ^ Spalding, M. D. et al. (2007). Marine ecoregions of the world: a bioregionalization of coastal and shelf areas. BioScience 57: 573–583, [9] Archived 2016-10-06 at the Wayback Machine.
  31. ^ "Freshwater Ecoregions of the World: Major Habitat Types" "Freshwater Ecoregions of the World". Archived from the original on 2008-10-07. Retrieved 2008-05-13.
  32. ^ "Marine Ecoregions of the World". World Wide Fund. Archived from the original on 2009-02-07.
  33. ^ Pruvot, G. (1896). Conditions générales de la vie dans les mers et principes de distribution des organismes marins: Année Biologique [General conditions of life in the seas and principles of distribution of marine organisms: Biological Year] (in French). Vol. 2. pp. 559–587. Archived from the original on 2016-10-18.
  34. ^ Longhurst, A. (1998). Ecological Geography of the Sea. San Diego: Academic Press. ISBN 9780124555594 – via Google Books.
  35. ^ Zimmer, Carl (March 19, 2015). "The Next Frontier: The Great Indoors". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 14, 2018. Retrieved 2021-02-04.
  36. ^ "What is the Endolithic Biome? (with picture)". wiseGEEK. Archived from the original on 2017-03-07. Retrieved 2017-03-07.
  37. ^ a b Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Littlefield, Caitlin E.; Lyons, Drew S.; Hollenberg, Clark; Carroll, Carlos; Parks, Sean A.; Abatzoglou, John T.; Hegewisch, Katherine; Gage, Josh (September 29, 2021). "Protected-area targets could be undermined by climate change-driven shifts in ecoregions and biomes". Communications Earth & Environment. 2 (1): 198. Bibcode:2021ComEE...2..198D. doi:10.1038/s43247-021-00270-z. S2CID 238208819.
  38. ^ Rockström, Johan; Steffen, Will; Noone, Kevin (2017-12-31), ""A Safe Operating Space for Humanity" (2009)", The Future of Nature, Yale University Press, pp. 491–505, doi:10.12987/9780300188479-042, ISBN 9780300188479, S2CID 246162286, retrieved 2022-09-18
  39. ^ Nolan, Connor; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Allen, Judy R. M.; Anderson, Patricia M.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Binney, Heather A.; Brewer, Simon; Bush, Mark B.; Chase, Brian M.; Cheddadi, Rachid; Djamali, Morteza; Dodson, John; Edwards, Mary E.; Gosling, William D.; Haberle, Simon (2018-08-31). "Past and future global transformation of terrestrial ecosystems under climate change". Science. 361 (6405): 920–923. Bibcode:2018Sci...361..920N. doi:10.1126/science.aan5360. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 30166491. S2CID 52131254.
  40. ^ Abatzoglou, John T.; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Parks, Sean A. (2020-03-03). "Multivariate climate departures have outpaced univariate changes across global lands". Scientific Reports. 10 (1): 3891. Bibcode:2020NatSR..10.3891A. doi:10.1038/s41598-020-60270-5. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 7054431. PMID 32127547.
  41. ^ Williams, John W.; Jackson, Stephen T.; Kutzbach, John E. (2007-04-03). "Projected distributions of novel and disappearing climates by 2100 AD". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 104 (14): 5738–5742. Bibcode:2007PNAS..104.5738W. doi:10.1073/pnas.0606292104. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 1851561. PMID 17389402.
  42. ^ Stevens, Nicola; Lehmann, Caroline E. R.; Murphy, Brett P.; Durigan, Giselda (January 2017). "Savanna woody encroachment is widespread across three continents". Global Change Biology. 23 (1): 235–244. doi:10.1111/gcb.13409. hdl:20.500.11820/ff572887-5c50-4c25-8b65-a9ce5bd8ea2a. ISSN 1354-1013.
  43. ^ a b De Boeck, Hans J.; Hiltbrunner, Erika; Jentsch, Anke; Vandvik, Vigdis (2019-03-28). "Editorial: Responses to Climate Change in the Cold Biomes". Frontiers in Plant Science. 10: 347. doi:10.3389/fpls.2019.00347. ISSN 1664-462X. PMC 6447700. PMID 30984216.
  44. ^ Gobiet, Andreas; Kotlarski, Sven; Beniston, Martin; Heinrich, Georg; Rajczak, Jan; Stoffel, Markus (September 15, 2014). "21st century climate change in the European Alps—A review". Science of the Total Environment. 493: 1138–1151. Bibcode:2014ScTEn.493.1138G. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.07.050. hdl:20.500.11850/87298. PMID 23953405.
  45. ^ Johannessen, Ola M.; Kuzmina, Svetlana I.; Bobylev, Leonid P.; Miles, Martin W. (2016-12-01). "Surface air temperature variability and trends in the Arctic: new amplification assessment and regionalisation". Tellus A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography. 68 (1): 28234. Bibcode:2016TellA..6828234J. doi:10.3402/tellusa.v68.28234. ISSN 1600-0870. S2CID 123468873.
  46. ^ a b Anjos, Luciano J. S.; Barreiros de Souza, Everaldo; Amaral, Calil Torres; Igawa, Tassio Koiti; Mann de Toledo, Peter (2021-01-01). "Future projections for terrestrial biomes indicate widespread warming and moisture reduction in forests up to 2100 in South America". Global Ecology and Conservation. 25: e01441. doi:10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e01441. ISSN 2351-9894. S2CID 234107449.
  47. ^ Locosselli, Giuliano Maselli; Brienen, Roel J. W.; Leite, Melina de Souza; Gloor, Manuel; Krottenthaler, Stefan; Oliveira, Alexandre A. de; Barichivich, Jonathan; Anhuf, Dieter; Ceccantini, Gregorio; Schöngart, Jochen; Buckeridge, Marcos (2020-12-14). "Global tree-ring analysis reveals rapid decrease in tropical tree longevity with temperature". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 117 (52): 33358–33364. Bibcode:2020PNAS..11733358M. doi:10.1073/pnas.2003873117. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 7776984. PMID 33318167.
  48. ^ Marcolla, Barbara; Migliavacca, Mirco; Rödenbeck, Christian; Cescatti, Alessandro (2020-04-30). "Patterns and trends of the dominant environmental controls of net biome productivity". Biogeosciences. 17 (8): 2365–2379. Bibcode:2020BGeo...17.2365M. doi:10.5194/bg-17-2365-2020. hdl:10449/64139. ISSN 1726-4170. S2CID 219056644.
  49. ^ Kummu, Matti; Heino, Matias; Taka, Maija; Varis, Olli; Viviroli, Daniel (21 May 2021). "Climate change risks pushing one-third of global food production outside the safe climatic space". One Earth. 4 (5): 720–729. Bibcode:2021OEart...4..720K. doi:10.1016/j.oneear.2021.04.017. PMC 8158176. PMID 34056573.
  50. ^ "IPCC Special Report on Climate Change, Desertification, Land Degradation, Sustainable Land Management, Food Security, and Greenhouse gas fluxes in Terrestrial Ecosystems:Summary for Policymakers" (PDF).
  51. ^ "Summary for Policymakers — Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate". Retrieved 2019-12-23.
  52. ^ "Climate Change". National Geographic. 28 March 2019. Retrieved 1 November 2021.
  53. ^ Witze, Alexandra. "Why extreme rains are gaining strength as the climate warms". Nature. Retrieved 30 July 2021.
  54. ^ "Summary for Policymakers". Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis. Working Group I contribution to the WGI Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (PDF). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 9 August 2021. p. SPM-23; Fig. SPM.6. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 November 2021.
  55. ^ Van der Putten, Wim H.; Macel, Mirka; Visser, Marcel E. (2010-07-12). "Predicting species distribution and abundance responses to climate change: why it is essential to include biotic interactions across trophic levels". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 365 (1549): 2025–2034. doi:10.1098/rstb.2010.0037. PMC 2880132. PMID 20513711.
  56. ^ Parmesan, C., M.D. Morecroft, Y. Trisurat, R. Adrian, G.Z. Anshari, A. Arneth, Q. Gao, P. Gonzalez, R. Harris, J. Price, N. Stevens, and G.H. Talukdarr, 2022: Chapter 2: Terrestrial and Freshwater Ecosystems and Their Services. In Climate Change 2022: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability [H.-O. Pörtner, D.C. Roberts, M. Tignor, E.S. Poloczanska, K. Mintenbeck, A. Alegría, M. Craig, S. Langsdorf, S. Löschke,V. Möller, A. Okem, B. Rama (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 257-260 |doi=10.1017/9781009325844.004

Further reading