Biotic component

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Biotic components, or biotic factors, can be described as any living component that affects another organism or shapes the ecosystem.[1] This includes both animals that consume other organisms within their ecosystem, and the organism that is being consumed. Biotic factors also include human influence, pathogens, and disease outbreaks. Each biotic factor needs a proper amount of energy and nutrition to function healthily.

Biotic components are typically sorted into three main categories:

  1. Producers, otherwise known as autotrophs, convert energy (through the process of photosynthesis) into food.
  2. Consumers, otherwise known as heterotrophs, depend upon producers (and occasionally other consumers) for food.
  3. Decomposers, otherwise known as detritivores, break down chemicals from producers and consumers (usually antibiotic) into simpler form which can be reused.



Nearly all species are influenced by biotic factors in one way or another. If the number of predators was to increase, the entire food chain would be affected as any prey falling below that specified predator in the food chain will become prey. If the prey is not given enough time by the predator to repopulate, this could not only cause the endangerment and extinction of the prey, but of the predator as well. Contradicting a decrease in population size, if a particular species reproduces too rapidly, this will cause an increase in population size, thus affecting the environment around them.

Pathogens and Disease Outbreaks[edit]

When disease outbreaks occur, it can be detrimental to an ecosystem. When a disease hits, it will usually affect more than one species, thus causing a serious outbreak. This has the potential to set off a chain reaction thus, causing endangerment to a variety of species within that ecosystem.

Human Contact[edit]

Humans make the most sudden and long-term changes in an environment (e.g. pollution and waste). These changes can either drive species out of their territory or force them to adapt to their new surroundings. These changes have the largest impact on an ecosystem's population size, typically causing a serious decrease.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Biotic Factors". National Geographic. National Geographic. Retrieved 16 November 2020.