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*Raja (Mantri)
Santantri (मंत्री)
Mukhya Senapati and Advisor to the Emperor
BornMahesh Das
Sidhi, Madhya Pradesh, India
Died1586 (aged 57–58)
Swat valley, present-day Pakistan
SpouseUrvashi Devi
IssueSaudamini (daughter)
OccupationMain advisor in the Mughal court of Emperor Akbar

Birbal (IPA: [biːrbəl]; born Mahesh Das; 1528–1586), or Raja Birbal, was Kayastha advisor and main commander (mukhya senapati) of army in the court of the Mughal emperor, Akbar. He is mostly known in the Indian subcontinent for the folk tales which focus on his wit. Birbal was appointed by Akbar as a minister "mantri" and used to be a poet and singer in around 1556–1562. He had a close association with Emperor Akbar and was one of his most important courtiers, part of a group called the navaratnas (nine jewels of Akbar). In 1586, Birbal led an army to crush an unrest in the north-west Indian subcontinent where he was killed along with many troops in an ambush by the rebel tribe. He was the only Hindu to adopt Din-i Ilahi, the religion founded by Akbar.

By the end of Akbar's reign, local folk tales emerged involving his interactions with Akbar, portraying him as being extremely clever and witty. As the tales gained popularity in India, he became even more of a legendary figure across the Indian subcontinent. These tales involve him outsmarting rival courtiers and sometimes even Akbar, using only his intelligence and cunning, often with giving witty and humorous responses and impressing Akbar. From the twentieth century onwards, plays, films and books based on these folk tales were made, some of these are in children's comics and school textbooks.

Early life[edit]

Birbal was born as Mahesh Das in 1528, in Hindu Kayastha family[1] in district Sidhi, Madhya Pradesh, India;[2]:29 according to folklore, it was at Tikawanpur near the banks of river Yamuna.[3] His father was Ganga Das and mother, Anabha Davito. He was the third son of a Hindu Brahmbhatt- family[2]:29 which had a previous association with poetry and literature.[4][5][better source needed]

Educated in Hindi, Sanskrit and Persian, Birbal wrote prose, specialised in music and poetry in the Braj language, thus gaining fame.[6] He served at the Rajput court of Raja Ram Chandra of Rewa (Madhya Pradesh), under the name "Brahma Kavi". Birbal's economic and social status improved when he married the daughter of a respected and rich family, contrary to the notion that he was on poor economic terms before his appointment at Mughal Emperor Akbar's imperial court.[6]

At the imperial court[edit]

Titles and name origin[edit]

Akbar was known to give his Hindu courtiers titles based on their cultural background.

The details and year of his first meeting with Akbar and his employment at the court are disputed but estimated to be between 1556 and 1562.[7] He became the "Kavi Priya" (poet laureate) of the Emperor within a few years of his appointment.[7] Akbar bestowed upon him the name 'Birbal' with the title "Raja", by which he was known from then on.[6]

Birbal comes from Bir Bar or Vir Var which means courageous and great, quite contrary for him since he was not known for his bravery or for his military skill. Akbar gave titles to his Hindu subjects according to their traditions and S. H. Hodivala writes that it could have been taken from a character in the folk tale Vetal Panchvinshati. This featured a courtier called Vir Var who showed great loyalty to his king. Akbar was also fond of literature, having works of Sanskrit and other local languages translated into Persian.[8]

Position and association with Akbar[edit]

His growing reputation led him to be part of Akbar's nine advisers, known as the navaratna - the nine jewels. Birbal also played the role of a religious advisor, military figure and close friend of the Emperor, serving him for 30 years.[9][10] In 1572, he was among a large army sent to aid Husain Quli Khan against an attack from the Akbar's brother, Hakim Mirza, which was his first military role. He later accompanied the Emperor during his Gujarat campaigns. Despite having no military background, he often participated in Akbar's campaigns and was given leadership positions, like Todar Mal, who was an advisor in economic matters.[11]

Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak and Abdul Qadir Badayuni were historians of the court. While Fazl respected him, listed him as having twenty five honorific titles and rank of a commander of two thousand; Badayuni distrusted Birbal because he was a Hindu, calling him a "bastard" and in contempt, writing how he, as a Hindu musician, was getting favour and becoming the king's "confidant", but at the same time acknowledging his talent.[7] Akbar's other orthodox Muslim advisers were known to dislike Birbal.[10]

Birbal's house at Fatehpur Sikri, he was the only courtier to get a special place near Akbar's palace.

Akbar had started a religion called Din-i-Ilahi, which acknowledged him as God's representative on earth and had a combination of Hindu and Muslim beliefs. In the Ain-i-Akbari (The Institutes of Akbar), it is mentioned that Birbal was one of the few people other than Akbar who were its followers, besides being the only Hindu.[12] He had a close association with Akbar, despite being fourteen years elder than him; of the nine ratnas, Birbal was often called the brightest jewel.[8] Badaoni referred to this in sarcasm, as "a case of 'thy flesh is my flesh and thy blood my blood'".[7] Akbar is reported to have saved Birbal's life in two instances.[2]:30

The painting Akbari Nao Ratna in Victoria hall, Kolkata depicts Birbal having a prominent position right next to Akbar. The Emperor found him entertaining at the start but in later years, sent him on important missions. Birbal was said to have received a two-storey house in Fatehpur Sikri within the palace complex,[6][unreliable source?][13][unreliable source?]Template:Date=17 June 2019 built close to Akbar's own chambers. He was said to enjoy having Birbal by his side and he was the only courtier to reside within the palace complex.[7] One of the seven gates is known as "Birbal's gate".[7]


The Afghani Yousafzai tribes had started a rebellion along the east bank of river Indus against the Mughal rule. After troops sent to crush the unrest suffered losses, Akbar sent Birbal with reinforcements from his new fort at Attock, to help the commander Zain-e- Khan in 1586. Birbal and the army advanced into a narrow pass in Swat valley (in present-day Pakistan) where the Afghanis were waiting in prepared positions in the hills.[14][unreliable source?] In the ensuing ambush and heavy defeat, Birbal and over 8000 soldiers were killed.[15] This was one of the largest military losses for Akbar.[6][unreliable source?] He was said to have expressed his grief over the loss his favourite courtier and not taken food or drink for two days.[7] He was anguished since his body could not be found for Hindu cremation.[8] He proclaimed that it was his greatest tragedy since his coming to the throne.[8]

Badayuni writes,[11]

His majesty cared for the death of no grandee more than for that of Birbal. He said, 'Alas! they could not even get his body out of the pass, that it might have been burned"; but at last, he consoled himself with the thought that Birbal was now free and independent of all earthly fetters, and as the rays of the sun were sufficient for him, there was no necessity that he should be cleansed by fire.

Folklore and legacy[edit]


Akbar-Birbal folk tales were passed on mainly by oral tradition.[16][better source needed] They focus on how Birbal manages to outsmart envious courtiers who try to trap and portray him in poor light in front of Akbar, often in a humorous manner with him shown giving sharp and intelligent responses. Others show his interactions with the Emperor which involve him trying to test Birbal's wit and Birbal making him realise his folly, which always ends with Akbar getting amused and impressed. He occasionally challenges Birbal by giving him a line of poetry which Birbal has to complete. Some of the other stories are simple humorous anecdotes. Getting an advantage in a seemingly impossible situation and making his challengers look silly are usual occurrences in these tales.[7]

According to C. M. Naim, the earliest known reference of Birbal's wit is in the 18th-century biographical dictionary, Ma'athir al-Umara in which he, thanks to his poetry and wit, becomes a member of the Akbar's inner circle and gradually outranks all other courtiers. Naim draws a parallel between the Akbar-Birbal tales with others in Indian folklore involving a king and his quick-witted minister such as the Vijaynagara emperor, Krishnadevaraya and Tenali Ramakrishna and King Krishnachandra of Nadia and his barber, Gopal Bhar.[2]:35 In later years, a third character, Mulla Do-Piyaza began to appear. He was very likely a fictional character and was portrayed as Birbal's Muslim counterpart and a proponent of orthodox Islam.[2]:32 However, when viewed within the context of folkloric literature, these stories, much like other similar tales like those of Krishnadevaraya and Tenali Rama, make fun of the human imperfections in the character of the king and then offer a corrective to his behaviour.[2]:xiv

Historic role versus folklore[edit]

In the folk tales, he is always portrayed as a pious Hindu, being elder than Akbar, and being morally strict in the midst of opposing Muslim courtiers, who are shown plotting against him; his success was only because of his skill and he convinces the Emperor to favour Hinduism over Islam. He is thus depicted as acquiring religious, political and personal influence over Akbar, using his intelligence and sharp tongue and never resorting to violence. However, historically he never played such a role.[2][8]

Badayuni mistrusted him but did mention that he was "having a considerable amount of capacity and genius".[2] The Braj language poet, Rai Hol, praised Akbar and his nine jewels, having a special emphasis on Birbal for his generosity. Abul Fazl respected him by emphasising on his spiritual excellence and position as a confidant of the Emperor rather than on his wit or poetry.[2]

Modern Hindu scholars assert that he made Akbar make bold decisions and the orthodox Muslims in the court despised him, since he made Akbar renounce Islam. But no evidence is present that he influenced Akbar's beliefs.[8] Though sources suggest he influenced Akbar's policies to some extent. It was Akbar's affection for him, his religious tolerance and social liberalism which was the reason for this and Birbal was not the cause. Historically, he was more of a supporter of Akbar's religious policy and his religion, Din-i-Ilahi. Ain-i-Akbari mentions an incident involving prostitutes, where Akbar wanted to punish him, contrary to how he is portrayed as a deeply religious man.[2]

In popular culture[edit]

Akbar and Birbal folk tales are featured in Amar Chitra Katha and Chandamama[17] children's comics and many books are available containing these collections.[18][19] There are various paperback editions, films, textbooks, booklets and plays with his character as the lead.[20] The television channel Cartoon Network in India, has two featured animated series based on him, Chota Birbal and Akbar & Birbal.[21] Salman Rushdie's novel The Enchantress of Florence has the character of Birbal.[22] Akbar Birbal is a 2014 historical comedy broadcast by Big Magic.[23]


  1. ^ Gayatri Rahasya: Or, An Exposition of the Gayatri
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Meenakshi Khanna, ed. (2007). "Section 1: Kingship and Court Mixing the Classic with the Folk". Cultural History of Medieval India. Berghahn Books. pp. 24–44. ISBN 978-81-87358-30-5.
  3. ^ Neela Subramaniam. Birbal Stories (32 pp). Sura Books. p. 2. ISBN 978-81-7478-301-1. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  4. ^ Robert Watson Frazer (1898). A Literary History of India. T.F. Unwin. p. 359. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
  5. ^ Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (1834). Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. p. 698. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
  6. ^ a b c d e Reddy (1 December 2006). Indian Hist (Opt). Tata McGraw-Hill Education. pp. B–207, 236, D–13. ISBN 978-0-07-063577-7. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Beatrice K. Otto (1 April 2001). Fools Are Everywhere: The Court Jester Around the World. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-64091-4. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Vicki K. Janik, Editor. (1 January 1998). Fools and Jesters in Literature, Art, and History: A Bio-Bibliographical Sourcebook. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 91–96. ISBN 978-0-313-29785-4. Retrieved 28 June 2013.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  9. ^ S.R. Sharma (1 January 1999). Mughal Empire in India: A Systematic Study Including Source Material. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. p. 787. ISBN 978-81-7156-819-2. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
  10. ^ a b G. George Bruce Malleson (2001). Akbar and the Rise of the Mughal Empire. Cosmo Publications. pp. 131, 160, 161. ISBN 978-81-7755-178-5. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
  11. ^ a b Mehta J L. Advanced Study in the History of Medieval India-II. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. pp. 264, 305, 321, 335. ISBN 978-81-207-1015-3. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
  12. ^ Radhey Shyam Chaurasia (1 January 2002). History of Medieval India: From 1000 A.D. to 1707 A.D. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. pp. 204–221. ISBN 978-81-269-0123-4. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
  13. ^ hindigondia. "moral stories in hindi". hindigondia. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
  14. ^ Amita Sarin (21 March 2005). Akbar and Birbal. Penguin Books Limited. p. 64. ISBN 978-81-8475-006-5. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  15. ^ Richards, John F. (1995). The Mughal Empire. Cambridge University Press. pp. 49–51. ISBN 978-0-521-56603-2. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
  16. ^ E. B. Havell (1 August 2006). A Handbook to Agra and the Taj. Echo Library. p. 49. ISBN 978-1-4068-3384-3. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
  17. ^ "Chandamama Website is Revamped". techtree. 13 December 2007. Archived from the original on 11 November 2013. Retrieved 3 July 2013.
  18. ^ Lawrence A. Babb; Susan S. Wadley (1 January 1998). Media and the Transformation of Religion in South Asia. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 107. ISBN 978-81-208-1453-0. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
  19. ^ Shashi Tharoor (1 April 2012). Bookless in Baghdad: Reflections on Writing and Writers. Skyhorse Publishing Inc. pp. 13, 14. ISBN 978-1-61145-408-6. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
  20. ^ Amaresh Datta (1988). Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: devraj to jyoti. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 1080, 1319, 1364, 1607. ISBN 978-81-260-1194-0. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
  21. ^ Sangeeta Barooah Pisharoty. "Time now for Birbal and company". The Hindu. Retrieved 3 July 2013.
  22. ^ "Love among the Mughals". The Daily Star. 8 January 2011. Retrieved 3 July 2013.
  23. ^ "When Delnaz Irani felt like a queen". Hindustan Times. 22 March 2014. Archived from the original on 25 April 2014. Retrieved 25 April 2014.

Further reading[edit]

  • 50 Wittiest Tales of Birbal (ISBN 81-7806-050-7) by Clifford Sawhney (Publishers: Pustak Mahal, Delhi).