|Elevation||326 m (1,070 ft)|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|• Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
In antiquity, the town was known as Dios Hieron (Διός Ἱερόν, "Sanctuary of Zeus"). Dios Hieron was an ancient Greek city of Ionia. It belonged to the Delian League as is mentioned in records of tributes to Athens between 454/3 and 416/5 B.C. Moreover, an Athenian decree of 427/6 B.C. indicates that at that time venerated Hieron Colophon. The city is mentioned by Thucydides after Chios revolted against the Athenians, while Pliny the Elder says Dioshieronitans came to Ephesus to settle their legal issues. The city became part of the Roman Republic and the Roman province of Asia with the annexation of the Kingdom of Pergamon.
It was renamed to Christoupolis (Χριστούπολις) in the 7th century and was known as Pyrgion from the 12th century on. Pyrgion fell to the Turks in 1307, and became the capital of the beylik of Aydin. It was subsequently incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in 1390. Birgi is well known for its classic Seljuk and Ottoman architecture and has been listed as a World Cultural Heritage by ÇEKÜL (Protection and Promotion of the Environment and Cultural Heritage) since 1994.
The Roman Era city had an ancient Christian Bishopric attested as an episcopal see from at least 451, It was a suffragan of Ephesus, which it remained under until the late 12th century when it became a separate metropolis.
- Stephen took part in the Council of Ephesus of 431
- Eustorgios was not present at the Council of Chalcedon (451) and his metropolitan, Stephen of Ephesus, signed on his behalf
- Zoetus was among the fathers of the Council of Constantinople of 680 and the Council in Trullo of 692
- Stephen of Pyrgion participated at the two Councils of Constantinople in 869–870 and 879–880 who dealt with the issue of Patriarch Photios I of Constantinople
Notable historic structures
- Çakırağa Mansion — built in 18th-century Ottoman style by the wealthy Çakırağa family.
- Aydınoğlu Mehmet Bey Mosque — commissioned in 1313 by Mehmet Bey, the founder of the Aydinids.
- Aydınoğlu Baths (14th century)
- Tomb of Birgivi Mehmet Efendi — built in 1335 in the courtyard of the Aydınoğlu Mehmet Bey Mosque.
- Birgivi Mehmet Efendi Madrasa (16th century)
- Sultanşah Mausoleum
- Fortress Madrasa, where Sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was educated.
- Sandıkoğlu Mansion (19th century)
- Karaoğlu Mosque (18th century)
- Birgi city walls
- Iron Magazine (16th century)
- Nesbitt, John W.; Oikonomides, Nicolas, eds. (1996). Catalogue of Byzantine Seals at Dumbarton Oaks and in the Fogg Museum of Art, Volume 3: West, Northwest, and Central Asia Minor and the Orient. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. p. 45. ISBN 0-88402-250-1.
- Michel Lequien, Oriens Christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus , Paris 1740, Volume I, coll. 723-724.
- Pascal Culerrier, Les Évêchés suffragants of Éphèse aux 5th to 13th siècles , in Revue des études byzantines, Vol45, 1987, p.155.
- Raymond Janin, v. Dioshiéron, in Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie ecclésiastiques , vol. XIV, Paris 1960, coll. 514-515.
- Pliny the Elder V, 120.
- Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series Episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae , Leipzig 1931, p. 444.
- Dioshieron at Catholichierachy.org.
- Dioshieron at GCatholic.org.