Birhor language

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Native toIndia
EthnicityBirhor people
Native speakers
2,000 (2007)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3biy

The Birhor language is a highly endangered Munda language spoken by the Birhor people in Chhattisgarh, Odisha, West Bengal, and Maharashtra states in India.[1]

According to Vidyarthi (1960:519), the Birhor are found mostly in Chota Nagpur and Santhal Paragana, with the Uthlu Birhors living near Bishunpur, Gumla district, Jharkhand (along the western border with Chhattisgarh).


Most Birhor know Santali and Hindi, and a small minority know Ho. However, children still learn the language, and Birhor families use the language all the time at home. In addition, most Birhor want to be educated in their own language, and the language is used in most community affairs.[3]


  1. ^ a b Birhor at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Birhor". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Sarkar, Sangita. "Birhor: A Sociolinguistic Study of Language Endangerment" (PDF).
  • Roy, Sarat Chandra. 1925. The Birhors: a little-known jungle tribe of Chota Nagpur. Ranchi: K.E.M. Mission Press.
  • Vidyarthi, L. P. 1960. The Birhor (the little nomadic tribe of India). In Wallace, Anthony F. C. (ed.), Men and cultures: selected papers of the Fifth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Philadelphia, September 1–9, 1956, 519-525. Philadelphia: Pennsylvania University Press.

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