Birjand

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Birjand
City
مدرسه شوکتیه.jpg
Nicknames: 
City of Pines, City of Culture
Birjand is located in Iran
Birjand
Birjand
Coordinates: 32°52′N 59°13′E / 32.867°N 59.217°E / 32.867; 59.217Coordinates: 32°52′N 59°13′E / 32.867°N 59.217°E / 32.867; 59.217
Country Iran
ProvinceSouth Khorasan
CountyBirjand
BakhshCentral
First mention13th century
Elevation
1,491 m (4,892 ft)
Population
 (2016 census)
 • Density3,697/km2 (9,580/sq mi)
 • Urban
203,636 [1]
 • Metro
248,623
Time zoneUTC+3:30 (IRST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+4:30 (IDST)
Area code(s)(+98) 56
ClimateBWk
Websitewww.birjand.ir/
Prefix code: +98 Iran – (0)56 Birjand

Birjand (Persian: بیرجندAbout this soundpronunciation , also Romanized as Bīrjand and Birdjand)[2] is the capital of the Iranian province of South Khorasan. The city is known for its saffron, barberry, jujube, and handmade carpet exports.[3] Birjand had a population of 187,020 in 2013.[4]

History[edit]

Cossacks in Birjand, circa 1909.

The first citation of the city in the historical literature belongs to the famous book Mojem Alboldan, by Yaqut Homavi (13th century) which introduces the Birjand as the most beautiful town in the Qohestan. Before this, Birjand had been probably not as big and important as a municipality but rather as a rural community. However, the Birjand geographical area had its historical and political importance long before the emergence of the city of Birjand. Many citations of the region are available in the original literature like Ehya -ol- Molook of the once important localities in the area. Apart from literature, the oldest evidence on the history of the region is the ancient Lakh-Mazar inscription in the Kooch village some 25 km (16 mi) southeast of Birjand. Numerous fine drawings and inscriptions are carved on an igneous rock surface. The inscriptions include pictograms as well as Arsacid Pahlavi, Sasanian Pahlavi, Arabic and Persian scripts.[5]

Climate[edit]

Birjand has a cold desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWk) with hot summers and cool winters and a significant difference between day and night temperatures. Precipitation falls mostly in winter and spring.

Climate data for Birjand
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 25.0
(77.0)
27.0
(80.6)
32.0
(89.6)
36.0
(96.8)
40.0
(104.0)
43.0
(109.4)
44.0
(111.2)
42.0
(107.6)
39.2
(102.6)
36.0
(96.8)
29.0
(84.2)
25.0
(77.0)
44.0
(111.2)
Average high °C (°F) 11.0
(51.8)
13.1
(55.6)
18.8
(65.8)
24.7
(76.5)
30.6
(87.1)
35.2
(95.4)
35.6
(96.1)
34.3
(93.7)
31.7
(89.1)
26.6
(79.9)
19.7
(67.5)
13.4
(56.1)
24.6
(76.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.0
(39.2)
6.2
(43.2)
11.7
(53.1)
17.6
(63.7)
23.3
(73.9)
27.9
(82.2)
28.8
(83.8)
26.8
(80.2)
23.1
(73.6)
17.5
(63.5)
10.8
(51.4)
5.8
(42.4)
17.0
(62.5)
Average low °C (°F) −2.3
(27.9)
−0.3
(31.5)
4.4
(39.9)
9.6
(49.3)
13.9
(57.0)
17.9
(64.2)
19.7
(67.5)
17.1
(62.8)
12.1
(53.8)
7.3
(45.1)
2.2
(36.0)
−1.2
(29.8)
8.4
(47.1)
Record low °C (°F) −16.5
(2.3)
−14.7
(5.5)
−12
(10)
−4.5
(23.9)
0.0
(32.0)
7.0
(44.6)
10.2
(50.4)
6.6
(43.9)
1.0
(33.8)
−5.6
(21.9)
−11
(12)
−15.8
(3.6)
−16.5
(2.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 31.3
(1.23)
32.4
(1.28)
35.1
(1.38)
31.6
(1.24)
7.1
(0.28)
0.3
(0.01)
0.1
(0.00)
0.2
(0.01)
0.0
(0.0)
2.6
(0.10)
8.4
(0.33)
19.7
(0.78)
168.8
(6.64)
Average rainy days 7.9 8.3 9.2 8.0 3.6 0.7 0.4 0.2 0.3 1.6 3.3 6.3 49.8
Average snowy days 2.6 1.7 0.3 0.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 1.1 6
Average relative humidity (%) 57 55 46 38 27 21 21 22 22 28 39 52 36
Mean monthly sunshine hours 196.3 188.3 211.4 231.8 303.4 334.8 347.2 349.3 298.2 286.0 229.6 195.8 3,172.1
Source: NOAA (1961–1990) [6]

Education[edit]

It is said that the Shokatiyeh School in Birjand together with Darolfonoon in Tehran were the first modern public schools of higher education in Iran in the mid-19th century. Ever since then, Birjand has amassed an abundance of institutions of higher education and become an important location for research and development.

The city contains such universities and academic institutions as:

Aerial view of Birjand, 2006

Notable people[edit]

Band Darreh, 5km South of Birjand

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ https://www.amar.org.ir/english
  2. ^ Birjand can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3056455" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database".
  3. ^ "Cities in Iran: 2005 Population Estimates". Mongabay.com.
  4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-12-11. Retrieved 2016-02-06.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ Research articles collection (archaeology, ancient inscriptions): Lakh-Mazar, Birjand. Rajab Ali Labbaf Khaniki, Rassul Bashash Kanzaq. 25. Iranian Cultural Heritage Organization. Summer 1994.
  6. ^ "Birjand Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 29, 2012.
  7. ^ http://www.birjand.ac.ir
  8. ^ http://www.birjandut.ac.ir
  9. ^ http://www.bums.ac.ir/
  10. ^ "سامانه خدمت دانشگاه پیام نور استان خراسان جنوبی". www.skpnu.ac.ir. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  11. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-08-24. Retrieved 2006-07-28.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

External links[edit]