Birmingham New Street railway station

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Birmingham New Street National Rail Midland Metro
2015-09-23 Birmingham New St Station.jpg
The east end of the station. Note the newly rebuilt and refurbished building which opened in 2015.
Location
Place Birmingham
Local authority City of Birmingham
Coordinates 52°28′40″N 1°53′56″W / 52.47777°N 1.89885°W / 52.47777; -1.89885Coordinates: 52°28′40″N 1°53′56″W / 52.47777°N 1.89885°W / 52.47777; -1.89885
Grid reference SP069866
Operations
Station code BHM
Managed by Network Rail
Number of platforms 13
DfT category A
Live arrivals/departures, station information and onward connections
from National Rail Enquiries
Annual rail passenger usage*
2012/13 Increase 32.090 million
– Interchange  Increase 5.165 million
2013/14 Increase 34.748 million
– Interchange  Increase 5.194 million
2014/15 Increase 35.313 million
– Interchange  Increase 5.379 million
2015/16 Increase 39.077 million
– Interchange  Increase 5.825 million
2016/17 Increase 42.367 million
– Interchange  Decrease 5.791 million
Passenger Transport Executive
PTE Transport for West Midlands
Zone 1
History
Original company London & North Western Railway
1 June 1854 First opened
8 February 1885 Extension opened
1964-1967 Rebuilt
2010-2015 Redeveloped
National RailUK railway stations
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
* Annual estimated passenger usage based on sales of tickets in stated financial year(s) which end or originate at Birmingham New Street from Office of Rail and Road statistics. Methodology may vary year on year.
170433 at Edinburgh Waverley.JPG UK Railways portal

Birmingham New Street is the largest and busiest of the three main railway stations in the Birmingham City Centre, England. It is a central hub of the British railway system. It is a major destination for Virgin Trains services from London Euston, Glasgow Central and Edinburgh Waverley via the West Coast Main Line,[1] and the national hub of the CrossCountry network – the most extensive in Britain, with long-distance trains serving destinations from Aberdeen to Penzance.[2] It is also a major hub for local and suburban services within the West Midlands, including those on the Cross City Line between Lichfield Trent Valley, Redditch, and Bromsgrove, and the Chase Line to Walsall and Rugeley Trent Valley.

The station is named after New Street, which runs parallel to the station, although the station has never had a direct entrance to New Street except via the Grand Central shopping centre. Historically the main entrance to the station was on Stephenson Street, just off New Street. Today the station has entrances on Stephenson Street, Smallbrook Queensway, Hill Street and Navigation Street.

New Street is the sixth busiest railway station in the UK and the busiest outside London, with 42 million passenger entries and exits between April 2016 and March 2017. It is also the busiest interchange station outside London, with nearly 5.8 million passengers changing trains at the station annually.

The original New Street station opened in 1854. At the time of its construction, the station had the largest single-span arched roof in the world,[3] In the 1960s, the station was completely rebuilt. An enclosed station, with buildings over most of its span and passenger numbers more than twice those it was designed for, the replacement was not popular with its users. A £550m redevelopment of the station named Gateway Plus opened in September 2015. It includes a new concourse, a new exterior facade, and a new entrance on Stephenson Street.[4][5]

Around 80% of train services to Birmingham go through New Street.[6] The other major city-centre stations in Birmingham are Birmingham Moor Street and Birmingham Snow Hill. Outside Birmingham, in Solihull, is Birmingham International, which serves Birmingham Airport and the National Exhibition Centre.

Since 30 May 2016, New Street has been served by the West Midlands Metro tram line, when the adjacent Grand Central tram stop opened outside the station's main entrance on Stephenson Street as the new terminus of Line 1, following the opening of the city-centre extension from Birmingham Snow Hill.[7]

History[edit]

The first railway stations[edit]

Early 20th century photo taken from the west, showing the LNWR station (left) and the Midland station (right) with the Queens Drive between them.

New Street station was built by the London and North Western Railway (LNWR) between 1846 and 1854. Samuel Carter, solicitor to both LNWR and the Midland Railway, managed the conveyancing. It was built in the centre of Birmingham, replacing several earlier rail termini on the outskirts of the centre, most notably Curzon Street, which had opened in 1838, and was no longer adequate for the level of traffic.[8]

Until 1885 the LNWR shared the station with the Midland. However, in 1885 the Midland Railway opened its own extension alongside the original station for the exclusive use of its trains, effectively creating two stations side-by-side. The two companies stations were separated by a central roadway; Queens Drive.[8]

Traffic grew steadily, and by 1900 New Street had an average of 40 trains an hour departing and arriving, rising to 53 trains in the peak hours.[9]

Original LNWR station[edit]

Birmingham New Street station as pictured in the Illustrated London News on 3 June 1854

The London and North Western Railway had obtained an Act of Parliament in 1846, to extend their line into the centre of Birmingham, which involved the acquisition of some 1.2 hectares (3 acres) of land, and the demolition of 70 or so houses in Peck Lane, The Froggery, Queen Street, and Colmore Street.[10] The Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion chapel, on the corner of Peck Lane and Dudley Street, which had only been built six years before,[11] was also demolished.[12] The station was formally opened on 1 June 1854,[6] although the uncompleted station had already been in use for two years as a terminus for trains from the Stour Valley Line, which entered the station from the Wolverhampton direction. On the formal opening day, the LNWR's Curzon Street railway station was closed to regular passenger services, and trains from the London direction started using New Street.[8]

The station was constructed by Messrs. Fox, Henderson & Co. and designed by Edward Alfred Cowper of that firm, who had previously worked on the design of The Crystal Palace. When completed, it had the largest arched single-span iron and glass roof in the world, spanning a width of 211 feet (64 m) and being 840 ft (256 m) long.[8][6] It held this title for 14 years until St Pancras station opened in 1868. It was originally intended to have three spans, supported by columns, however it was soon realised that the supporting columns would severely restrict the workings of the railway. Cowper's single-span design, was therefore adopted, even though it was some 62 feet (19 metres) wider than the widest roof span at that time.[13][14] George Gilbert Scott praised Cowper's roof at New Street, stating “An iron roof in its most normal condition is too spider-like a structure to be handsome, but with a very little attention this defect is obviated. The most wonderful specimen, probably, is that at the great Birmingham Station . . . ”[15] When first opened, New Street was described as the "Grand Central Station at Birmingham".[16]

The internal layout of tracks and platforms was designed by Robert Stephenson and his assistants; the station contained a total of nine platforms, comprising four through, and five bay platforms.[8]

The main entrance building on Stephenson Street incorporated Queen's Hotel, designed by John William Livock, which was opened on the same day. The Queen's Hotel was built in an Italianate style and was originally provided with 60 rooms. The hotel was expanded several times over the years, and reached its final form in 1917 with the addition of a new west wing.[6][17]

The scale of the station at this time can be taken from the station's entry in the 1863 edition of Bradshaw's Guide:[18]

The roof of the original station was strengthened with additional steel tie bars during 1906–7, this was done as a precaution following the collapse of a similar roof at Charing Cross station in 1905.[19]

Midland Railway extension[edit]

Midland Railway's extension of New Street station, in 1885.

Midland Railway trains that had used Curzon Street began to use New Street from 1854. However, its use by the Midland Railway was limited by the fact that those trains going between Derby and Bristol would have to reverse, so many trains bypassed New Street and ran through Camp Hill. This was remedied in 1885, when a new link to the south; the Birmingham West Suburban Railway was extended into New Street, this allowed through trains to and from the south-west to run through New Street without reversing.[20]

Aerial view of New Street from the early 20th century, showing the LNWR station (top) and the Midland station (bottom) side by side, with Queens Drive between them

To cope with the increase in traffic this would bring, the station required an extension, the construction of which began in 1881. A number of buildings, mostly along Dudley Street were demolished to make room for it, including a number of cottages, some business premises and a small church.[8] Built immediately to the south of the original station, the extension contained four through platforms and one bay.[21] It consisted of a trainshed with a glass and steel roof comprising two trussed arches, 58 ft (18 m) wide by 620 ft (189 m) long, and 67 ft 6 in (21 m) wide by 600 ft (183 m) long. It was designed by Francis Stevenson, Chief Engineer to the LNWR.[6] The extension was opened on 8 February 1885.[6] With its completion, New Street nearly doubled in size, and became one of the largest stations in Britain, covering an area of over twelve acres (4.9 ha).[17]

In early 1885 the number of daily users of the station was surveyed. On a Thursday, the number was 22,452 and on a Saturday it was 25,334.[22]

Initially the extension was used by both the LNWR and Midland Railway, but from 1889, it became used exclusively by Midland Railway trains,[23] It was separated from the original LNWR trainshed by Queens Drive, which became a central carriageway, but the two were linked by a footbridge which ran over Queens Drive, and across the entire width of both the LNWR and Midland stations.[24] Queens Drive was lost in the rebuilding of the 1960s, but the name was later carried by a new driveway which served the car park and a tower block, and is the access route for the station's taxis.

LMS and British Rail[edit]

Image from 1956 of the station following the removal of the overall roof.

In 1923, the LNWR and Midland Railway, with others, were grouped into the London, Midland and Scottish Railway (LMS) by the Railways Act 1921. In 1948, the railways were nationalised and came under the control of British Railways.

During World War II, Cowper's roof sustained extensive bomb damage as a result of air raids during the Birmingham Blitz. After the war, the remains of the roof were dismantled after being deemed beyond economic repair. It was replaced with basic 'austerity' canopies over the platforms, made from surplus war materials, which remained in use until the station was rebuilt in the 1960s.[25][26][8]

1960s rebuild[edit]

The station was completely rebuilt in the 1960s as part of the West Coast Main Line modernisation programme. Demolition of the old station and Queen's Hotel began in 1964 and was not completed until 1966.[27] The rebuilt New Street station was opened on 6 March 1967 to coincide with the introduction of electric expresses on the West Coast Main Line. It cost £4.5 million to build[28] (equivalent to £74,960,000 in 2016).[29]

Approach tracks, platforms and exterior of 1960s New Street from the east, seen in 2010.

The new station was designed by Kenneth J. Davies, lead planner for British Rail London Midland Region.[30] Twelve through platforms replaced the eight through and six bay platforms of the previous station.[28] The platforms were covered over by a seven-acre (2.8 ha) concrete deck, supported by 200 columns, upon which the concourse and other buildings were constructed. Escalators, stairs and lifts are provided to reach the platforms from the concourse. The new station had sold its air rights, leading to the construction of the Pallasades Shopping Centre (then known as the Birmingham Shopping Centre) above the station between 1968 and 1970.[17][30][31] The public right of way across the station, which had previously been maintained by the station footbridge, was retained in the new station via a winding route through the shopping centre.[32] The station and the Pallasades are now partly integrated with the Bullring Shopping Centre via elevated walkways above Smallbrook Queensway.

Also above the station was a nine-storey office block called Ladywood House,[33] and a multi-storey car park dating from the 1970s. The car park closed in May 2012 and was demolished to provide space for the new concourse and rebuilt.[34] Stephenson Tower, a 20-storey residential tower block, was built alongside the station between 1965 and 1966.[35] The tower, designed by the City Architect of Birmingham, was demolished in March 2012 as part of the station redevelopment.[36]

In 1987, twelve different horse sculptures by Kevin Atherton, titled Iron Horse, were erected between New Street station and Wolverhampton at a cost of £12,000.[37][38] One stands on a platform at New Street.[39]

Due to its enclosed sub-surface platforms, New Street was designated as an underground station by the fire service. In the 1990s a number of changes had to be made to the station in order to comply with stricter fire regulations, introduced for underground stations as a result of the 1987 King's Cross fire. In 1993, a new enclosed footbridge was opened at the Wolverhampton end of the station, with access to the platforms separate from the main building: this was built primarily as a fire exit, but the new exit from the station into Navigation Street was opened to the public. All wooden fittings were removed from the platforms, and new fire doors were also installed at the foot of the stairs and elevators on the platforms.[32]

The concrete constructed design of the 1960s station was widely criticised for being ugly.[40] An enclosed station, with buildings over most of its span and passenger numbers more than twice those it was designed for,[3] by 2007 it was not popular with its users, having a customer satisfaction rate of only 52%, the joint lowest of any Network Rail major station.[41] The 1960s station was redeveloped in 2010-15.

New Street signal box

New Street signal box[edit]

The power signal box at New Street was completed in 1964.[6] The signal box is a brutalist building with corrugated concrete architecture, designed by John Bicknell and Paul Hamilton in collaboration with William Robert Headley, the regional architect for British Railways London Midland Region.[42] The four-storey structure is at the side of the tracks connected to Navigation Street. It is now a Grade II-listed building.[43][44]

Don's Miniature New Street[edit]

A Sutton Coldfield model railway enthusiast, Don Jones, built a scale model of the entire 1960s station, and surrounding buildings including the Rotunda, the old Head Post Office and the signal box, at OO scale, and held open days to raise funds for local charities.[45][46] Private visits were held for Robert Redford and King Hussein of Jordan.[46]

2010–2015 redevelopment[edit]

In November 2003 the station was voted the second biggest "eyesore" in the UK by readers of Country Life magazine.[47] This might be blamed on the sub-surface nature of the station and the 1960s architecture. New Street was voted joint worst station for customer satisfaction with Liverpool Lime Street and East Croydon, with only 52% satisfied; the national average was 60%.[41]

The 1960s station also had become inadequate for the level of traffic it was dealing with; it had been designed with capacity for 650 trains and 60,000 passengers per day. In 2008 there were 1,350 trains and over 120,000 passengers per day.[48] By 2013 it was 140,000 passengers per day.[49] This made overcrowding and closures on safety grounds more common.[50]

The new eastern entrance to the station.

A feasibility study into the redevelopment of the station was approved in January 2005. Designs were shown to the public in February 2006 for a new Birmingham New Street Station in a project known as Gateway Plus.[51]

A regeneration scheme was launched in 2006[52] and evolved through names such as Birmingham Gateway, Gateway Plus, and New Street Gateway. The scheme proposed complete rebuilding of the street-level buildings and refurbishment of the platforms by 2013, with track and platform level remaining essentially unchanged.

The approved planning application of August 2006 showed a glass façade with rounded edges. The entrance on Station Street originally included two curved 130-metre-tall towers on the site of Stephenson Tower. Due to the economic slowdown, the "twin towers" plan was shelved.[53]

The new concourse, opened in 2015.

In February 2008, the Secretary of State for Transport, Ruth Kelly, announced that the Department for Transport would provide £160 million in addition to £128 million that through the government White Paper Delivering a Sustainable Railway.[54] A further £100 million came from the Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform and channelled through Advantage West Midlands, the regional development agency. The announcement brought total government spending on the project to £388 million.[55] After earlier proposals were discarded, six architects were shortlisted to design the new station following a call for submissions,[56] and it was announced in September 2008 that the design by Foreign Office Architects had been chosen.[57]

The new roof seen from above.

The approved plans for the redevelopment included:[5]

  • A new concourse three and a half times larger than the 1960s concourse, with a domed atrium at the centre to let in natural light.
  • Refurbished platforms reached by new escalators and lifts.
  • A new station facade, and new entrances.

The fact that the Gateway development leaves the railway capacity of the station more or less unaltered has not escaped attention. In July 2008 the House of Commons Transport Committee criticised the plans: it was not convinced they were adequate for the number of trains which could end up using the station. It said if the station could not be adapted, the government needed to look for alternative solutions.[58]

Work began on the redevelopment on 26 April 2010.[59] Construction was completed in phases to minimise disruption. On 28 April 2013, one half of the new concourse was opened to the public, and the old 1960s concourse was closed for redevelopment, along with the old entrances.[60] The complete concourse opened on 20 September 2015, the Grand Central shopping centre opened on the 24th.[61][62] The refurbished Pallasades Shopping Centre was renamed Grand Central and includes a new John Lewis store.[63]

During heavy winds on 30 December 2015, several roof tiles blew off, landing in the adjacent Station Street, which was therefore closed by the police as a precautionary measure.[64]

Operations[edit]

Railway operations[edit]

New Street is the hub of the West Midlands rail network, as well as being a major national hub. The station is one of seventeen operated and managed by Network Rail,[65] Network Rail also provides operational staff for the station .

Station staff are provided on all platforms to assist with the safe 'dispatch' of trains. For operational reasons all trains departing New Street much be dispatched via the use of Right Away (RA) indicators. RA indicators display a signal informing the train driver it is safe to start the train, instead of using more traditional bell or hand signals.

The 12 through platforms are divided into a and b ends, with an extra bay platform called 4c between 4b and 5b, with the b end of the station towards Wolverhampton, this in effect allows twice the platforms. Longer trains that are too long for one section of the platform occupy the entire length of the platform, such as Class 390 or HSTs.

Trains departing towards Proof House Junction (a end) can depart from any platform, but there are restrictions on trains departing from the b end. All platforms can accommodate trains heading towards Wolverhampton, however due the platform layout and road bridge supports, only 5–12 can accommodate trains heading towards Five Ways. There are a number of sidings on the station for the stabling of trains; between platforms 5/6, 7/8, 9/10. The bay platforms at either end of platform 12 have been removed during the current[when?] rebuild. The sidings in front of New Street signal box have also been removed.

All signalling is controlled by New Street power signal box at the Wolverhampton or b end of the station; it can be seen at street level on Navigation Street. The station is allocated the IATA location identifier QQN.

Approach tunnels[edit]

All trains arriving and departing must use one of the several tunnels around the station.[8]

  • New Street North Tunnel – also known as Monument Lane Tunnel, heads westwards towards Soho Junction & Wolverhampton, and passes under the National Indoor Arena. This tunnel is 760 yards (695 metres) long. It was opened in 1852 as part of the Stour Valley Line, and holds two tracks.
  • New Street South Tunnel – 266 yards (243 metres) long, heading eastbound, passing under the Bullring, and Birmingham Moor Street station, heading towards Duddeston, Adderley Park, the Camp Hill Line and the Derby lines towards Tamworth. This tunnel opened in 1854, originally holding two tracks; it was widened in 1896 to hold four tracks, with two double-track parallel bores.
  • Gloucester Line Tunnels – are four separate tunnels heading south-west towards Five Ways. Heading from New Street in sequence the tunnels are named Holiday Street Tunnel, 93 yards (85 metres) long; Canal Tunnel, 224 yards (204 metres) long, passing under the Birmingham Canal Navigations; Granville Street Tunnel, 81 yards (74 metres) long; and Bath Row Tunnel, 209 yards (191 metres) long. These tunnels opened in 1885 as part of the Birmingham West Suburban Railway and hold two tracks.

Customer service and ticketing[edit]

Network Rail, as well as operating the station, operate a customer reception located on the main concourse, provide mobility assistance and train dispatch. Booking office and barriers are operated by Virgin Trains, with customer service or floor walker staff provided by CrossCountry and Network rail. Virgin Trains operates a first class lounge and Network West Midlands also provides a public transport information point of the station.

New Street is a penalty fare station for West midlands trains (West Midlands railway & London north western railway) only. This scheme is operated on its trains and at the automatic ticket barriers at the station. The other train operating companies that use the station do not have penalty fare schemes.

Pollution and Air Quality Concerns[edit]

The station is designated as underground. There are fans that remove fumes but there are still a large number of services operated by diesel trains despite the whole station being electrified in the 1960s. There have been environmental concerns about the level of pollution in the station in particular NOx [66]

Train operating companies[edit]

Since the privatisation of British Rail there have been 12 train companies that have called at New Street: Arriva Trains Wales, Central Trains, CrossCountry, First North Western, London Midland, Silverlink, Virgin CrossCountry, Virgin Trains West Coast, Transport for Wales, Wales & Borders, Wales & West and West Midlands Trains.

Currently CrossCountry, Virgin Trains, Transport for Wales and West Midlands Trains provide services from New Street. Chiltern Railways have on occasion used New Street during engineering works.

West Midlands Trains operates a traincrew depot at the station and stables some trains overnight around the station. For the most part they use Soho TMD for electric traction units, with its non-electric units kept at Tyseley TMD to the southeast of Birmingham.

CrossCountry also operates a traincrew depot at the station; it uses Tyseley TMD for the Class 170 units, and its Voyagers are based at Central Rivers TMD.

Train services[edit]

Map of passenger railways in the Birmingham & West Midlands area

The basic Monday to Saturday off-peak service in trains per hour (tph) is as follows:

Virgin Trains

CrossCountry

West Midlands Trains

Transport for Wales

Preceding station National Rail National Rail Following station
Birmingham International   Transport for Wales
Birmingham - Wales
  Smethwick Galton Bridge
Birmingham International   CrossCountry
Bournemouth - Manchester
  Wolverhampton
Cheltenham Spa   CrossCountry
Bristol - Manchester
 
Leamington Spa   CrossCountry
Reading - Newcastle
  Derby
Cheltenham Spa   CrossCountry
Plymouth - Edinburgh
  Tamworth or
Burton-on-Trent
University
or Terminus
  CrossCountry
Cardiff - Birmingham - Nottingham
  Wilnecote
or Tamworth
Terminus   CrossCountry
Birmingham - Leicester - Stansted Airport
  Water Orton or
Coleshill Parkway
University   West Midlands Railway
Hereford - Birmingham
  Terminus
Sandwell and Dudley   West Midlands Railway
Shrewsbury - Birmingham
  Terminus
Aston or
Duddeston
  West Midlands Railway
Cross City Line
  Five Ways
Duddeston   West Midlands Railway
Walsall - Aston - Birmingham - Wolverhampton
  Smethwick Rolfe Street
Terminus   West Midlands Railway
Birmingham - Walsall - Rugeley
  Tame Bridge Parkway
Adderley Park   West Midlands Railway
Birmingham International - Birmingham New Street
  Terminus
Terminus   London Northwestern Railway
Birmingham - Liverpool
  Smethwick Galton Bridge
or Coseley
Marston Green
or Stechford
  London Northwestern Railway
London - Birmingham
  Terminus
Birmingham International   Virgin Trains
London - Birmingham - Scotland
London - Shrewsbury
  Terminus or
Sandwell and Dudley
  Historical railways  
Monument Lane   London and North Western Railway
Stour Valley Line
  Duddeston or
Adderley Park
Terminus   London and North Western Railway
Birmingham–Peterborough line
  Adderley Park
Five Ways   Midland Railway
Cross City Line
  Saltley
Camp Hill   Midland Railway
Camp Hill Line
  Terminus

Transport links[edit]

West Midlands Metro[edit]

Two Urbos 3 trams at Grand Central tram stop, the one on the left arriving, and the one on the right about to depart for Wolverhampton.

New Street is served by the West Midlands Metro tram system from the adjacent Grand Central tram stop outside the station's main entrance on Stephenson Street. This was opened on 30 May 2016, when the city centre extension of the Metro came into operation. The stop is the current terminus of West Midlands Metro Line One, and provides a link to Snow Hill station and onwards to Wolverhampton.[7]

Initially, Grand Central was planned to act as the terminus of the city centre extension. However, it was later decided that further extension would take place towards Centenary Square and later to Edgbaston, work towards this is ongoing.[67][68]

Links to Moor Street and Snow Hill stations[edit]

New Street station is 660 yards (600 m) away from Birmingham Moor Street;[69] the city's second busiest railway station.[69] There is a signposted route for passengers travelling between New Street and Moor Street stations which involves a short walk through a tunnel under the Bullring shopping centre. Although the railway lines into New Street pass directly underneath Moor Street station, there is no rail connection. In 2013 a new direct walkway was opened between the two stations.[70] Birmingham Snow Hill station is 1,100 yards (1,000 m) away;[69] either a ten-minute walk away to the north or can be reached via a short tram ride on the Midland Metro.[71]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

  • On 26 November 1921, a serious accident occurred on the Midland half of New Street station, when an express from Bristol crashed into the rear of a stationary train to Derby, which was standing at platform four and had been delayed due to engine trouble. The collision caused the guards van of the Derby train to telescope with the rear coach. Three people were killed, and twenty four injured. The later inquest ruled that the express had overrun the danger signal due to driver error, and the misty conditions had made the rails moist, leading to wheelslip when the train tried to brake.[72]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Our routes & stations". Virgin Trains. Retrieved 19 May 2013.
  2. ^ "Routes". CrossCountry. Archived from the original on 19 May 2013. Retrieved 19 May 2013.
  3. ^ a b "Birmingham New Street's 150-year history revealed as station switchover nears" (Press release). Network Rail. 22 April 2013. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 19 May 2013.
  4. ^ "Birmingham New Street update January 2013" (PDF). Jewellery Quarter Development Trust. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
  5. ^ a b "New Street: New Start - The Birmingham Gateway Project". Birmingham City Council. Retrieved 22 June 2011.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g "Birmingham New Street — History". Network Rail. Retrieved 6 July 2008.
  7. ^ a b Brown, Graeme (30 May 2016). "WATCH: Midland Metro trams head to Birmingham New Street for first time". Birmingham Mail. Retrieved 30 May 2016.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Smith, Donald.J. (1984). New Street Remembered, The Story of Birmingham's New Street Station 1854-1967. Barbryn Press Limited. ISBN 0 906160 05 7.
  9. ^ "www.warwickshirerailways.com - lnwrbns_str1295c". www.warwickshirerailways.com. Retrieved 28 February 2013.
  10. ^ Aris's Birmingham Gazette, 16 February 1850.
  11. ^ It had been opened Tuesday 16 May 1843. Aris's Birmingham Gazette, 20 November 1848.
  12. ^ Aris's Birmingham Gazette, 20 November 1848.
  13. ^ "warwickshirerailways.com - lnwrbns_str1295.htm". warwickshirerailways.com. Retrieved 10 Feb 2013.
  14. ^ "Edward Alfred Cowper". Graces Guide.co.uk. Retrieved 17 November 2013.
  15. ^ "A Selection of Great Victorian Railway Stations". victorianweb.org. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
  16. ^ "Birmingham New Street Station: An engraved illustration of the entrance to New Street station and the frontage of the Queen's Hotel shortly after the station was opened". www.warwickshirerailways.com.
  17. ^ a b c "Birmingham New Street". Network Rail. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
  18. ^ Bradshaw (1863). Bradshaw's Descriptive Railway Hand-book of Great Britain and Ireland. Oxford: Old House. pp. Section III, Page 20. ISBN 9781908402028.
  19. ^ "Birmingham New Street Station: View taken from the Queens Hotel from above the South Staffordshire bay showing the entrance to the LNWR's parcel offices on Platform 3 to the left of the footbridge". www.warwickshirerailways.com.
  20. ^ "Birmingham New Street Station: An early view of Platform 4 looking East with the entrance off Queens Drive to the left and with a MR train for Kings Norton standing in the platform". www.warwickshirerailways.com. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015.
  21. ^ "Birmingham New Street Station: A June 1883 view of the site of the extension to New Street station with Hill Street seen on the left". www.warwickshirerailways.com.
  22. ^ "The largest passenger station in the world". Lichfield Mercury. England. 6 February 1885. Retrieved 29 December 2016 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  23. ^ "Birmingham New Street Station: View from the Midland Railway's Parcels Offices looking West towards New Street No 2 Signal Box with Platform 6 on the left". www.warwickshirerailways.com.
  24. ^ "Birmingham New Street Station: A 1950 view of the layout of the enlarged station with the Midland portion at the bottom and the turntable at the West end of the station". www.warwickshirerailways.com.
  25. ^ "Birmingham New Street Station: Looking towards Wolverhampton showing the erection of the temporary roof above the West end of Platforms 2A and 3". www.warwickshirerailways.com.
  26. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 10 August 2011. Retrieved 11 April 2011.
  27. ^ Foster, Andy (2007) [2005]. Birmingham. Pevsner Architectural Guides. Yale University Press. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-300-10731-9.
  28. ^ a b Christiansen, Rex (1983). A Regional History of the Railways of Great Britain, Volume 7 The West Midlands. David St John Thomas David and Charles. ISBN 0946537 00 3.
  29. ^ UK Retail Price Index inflation figures are based on data from Clark, Gregory (2017). "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
  30. ^ a b Foster, Andy (2007) [2005]. Birmingham. Pevsner Architectural Guides. Yale University Press. p. 216. ISBN 978-0-300-10731-9.
  31. ^ "Aerial View of New Street Station 1963". Birmingham City Council. Archived from the original on 11 May 2008. Retrieved 6 July 2008.
  32. ^ a b Boynton, John. Rails Across The City, The Story of the Birmingham Cross City Line. Mid England Books. p. 6. ISBN 0-9522248-0-1.
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Further reading[edit]

  • Foster, Richard, Birmingham New Street. The Story of a Great Station Including Curzon Street. 1 Background and Beginnings. The Years up to 1860. Wild Swan Publications, 1990. ISBN 0-906867-78-9
  • Foster, Richard, Birmingham New Street. The Story of a Great Station Including Curzon Street. 2 Expansion and Improvement. 1860 to 1923. Wild Swan Publications, 1990. ISBN 0-906867-79-7
  • Foster, Richard, Birmingham New Street. The Story of a Great Station Including Curzon Street. 3 LMS Days. 1923-1947. Wild Swan Publications, 1997. ISBN 1-874103-37-2
  • Foster, Richard, Birmingham New Street. The Story of a Great Station Including Curzon Street. 4 British Railways. The First 15 Years. Wild Swan Publications. (Not yet published).
  • Kirkman, Richard (2015). Transforming Birmingham New Street. Lily Publications Ltd. (UK). ISBN 9781907945915. OCLC 927826418.
  • Norton, Mark, Birmingham New Street Station Through Time. Amberley, 2013. ISBN 978-1-4456-1095-5.
  • Smith, Donald J., New Street Remembered: The story of Birmingham's New Street Station 1854-1967 in words and pictures. Barbryn Press, 1984. ISBN 0-906160-05-7.
  • Upton, Chris, A History of Birmingham, Phillimore 1997. ISBN 0-85033-870-0.

External links[edit]