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A birthstone is a gem stone. It represents the month of birth. Birth stones are and can be worn as jewellery and pendants.

History of birthstones[edit]

Western custom[edit]

The first century Jewish historian Josephus believed there was a connection between the twelve stones in Aaron's breastplate, the twelve months of the year, and the twelve signs of the zodiac.[1] Translations and interpretations of the passage in Exodus regarding the breastplate have varied widely, however, with Josephus himself giving two different lists for the twelve stones[2] (Kunz argues that Josephus saw the breastplate of the Second Temple, not the one described in Exodus).[3] St. Jerome, referencing Josephus, said the Foundation Stones of the New Jerusalem (Revelation 21:19–20) would be appropriate for Christians to use.[4] In the eighth and ninth century, religious treaties associating a particular stone with an apostle were written because the book of Revelation stated "their name would be inscribed on the Foundation Stones, and his virtue".[5] Practice became to keep twelve stones and wear one a month.[6] Wearing a single birthstone is only a few centuries old, although modern authorities differ on dates Kunz places the custom in eighteenth century Poland, while the Gemological Institute of America starts it in Germany in the 1560s.[7]

Modern lists of birthstones have little to do with either the breastplate or the Foundation Stones of Christianity. Tastes, customs and confusing translations have distanced them from their historical origins,[8] with one author calling the 1912 Kansas list "nothing but a piece of unfounded salesmanship."[9]

Traditional birthstones[edit]

Ancient traditional birthstones are society-based birthstones. The table below contains many stones which are popular choices, often reflecting Polish tradition.[10]

The Gregorian calendar has poems matching each month with its birthstone. These are traditional stones of English-speaking societies. Tiffany & Co. published these poems "of unknown author" for the first time in a pamphlet in 1870.[11]

Modern birthstones[edit]

In 1912, in an effort to standardize birthstones, the (American) National Association of Jewelers met in Kansas and officially adopted a list.[12] The Jewelry Industry Council of America updated the list in 1952[13] by adding alexandrite to June and citrine to November; specifying pink tourmaline for October; replacing December's lapis with zircon; and switching the primary/alternative gems in March. The American Gem Trade Association added tanzanite as a December birthstone in 2002.[14] Britain's National Association of Goldsmiths created their own standardized list of birthstones in 1937.[15]

Eastern custom[edit]

A Hindu text from 1879, Mani Mala, lists gems for each month.[16]

Birthstones by cultures[edit]

Month 15th- 20th century[17] U.S. (1912)[18] U.S. (2013) Britain (2013)[19] Hindu[20]
January garnet garnet garnet garnet serpent stone
February amethyst, hyacinth, pearl amethyst amethyst amethyst chandrakanta
March bloodstone, jasper bloodstone, aquamarine aquamarine, bloodstone aquamarine, bloodstone Gold Siva-linga
April diamond, sapphire diamond diamond diamond, rock crystal diamond
May emerald, agate emerald emerald emerald, chrysoprase emerald
June cat's eye, turquoise, agate pearl, moonstone pearl, moonstone, alexandrite pearl, moonstone pearl
July turquoise, onyx ruby ruby ruby, carnelian sapphire
August sardonyx, carnelian, moonstone, topaz sardonyx, peridot peridot peridot, sardonyx ruby
September chrysolite sapphire sapphire sapphire, lapis lazuli zircon
October opal, aquamarine opal, tourmaline opal, tourmaline opal coral
November topaz, pearl topaz topaz, citrine topaz, citrine cat's-eye
December bloodstone, ruby turquoise, lapis lazuli turquoise, zircon, tanzanite tanzanite, turquoise topaz


Tropical zodiac[edit]

Sign Dates[21] Stone[22]
Capricorn 22 December – 21 January ruby
Aquarius 21 January – 18 February garnet
Pisces 19 February – 21 March amethyst
Aries 22 March – 20 April bloodstone
Taurus 21 April – 21 May sapphire
Gemini 22 May – 21 June agate
Cancer 21 June – 22 July emerald
Leo 23 July – 22 August onyx
Virgo 23 August – 22 September carnelian
Libra 23 September – 23 October chrysolite
Scorpio 24 October – 21 November beryl
Sagittarius 22 November – 21 December topaz

Birthday (day of the week) stones[edit]

While this word has also been used as synonym of Birth stone (see above), there is a separate list of assignment according to the day of the week of the recipient's birth:[23]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Kunz, George F. (1913). The curious lore of precious stones. Lippincott. pp. 275–306. 
  2. ^ Gleadow, Rupert (2001). The Origin of the Zodiac. Dover Publications. pp. 130–131. 
  3. ^ Kunz (1913), p. 289
  4. ^ Knuth, Bruce G. (2007). Gems in Myth, Legend and Lore (Revised edition). Parachute: Jewelers Press. p. 294. 
  5. ^ Knuth, p. 299
  6. ^ Knuth, p. 298
  7. ^ Knuth, p. 293
  8. ^ Knuth, p. 310
  9. ^ Gleadow, p. 132
  10. ^ Kunz (1913), p. 320
  11. ^ Farrington, Oliver Cummins (1903). Gems and Gem Minerals. Mumford. pp. 63–64. 
  12. ^ Kunz (1913), p. 317
  13. ^ Knuth, p. 311
  14. ^ Grande, Lance; Augustyn, Allison (2009). Gems and Gemstones: Timeless Natural Beauty of the Mineral World. University of Chicago Press. p. 335. ISBN 0226305112. 
  15. ^ Osborne, Harold, ed. (1985). The Oxford Companion to the Decorative Arts. Oxford University Press. p. 513. ISBN 978-0192818638. 
  16. ^ Knuth, p. 336
  17. ^ Kunz (1913), p. 315
  18. ^ Kunz (1913), pp. 319-320
  19. ^ "Tips & Tools: Birthstones". The National Association of Goldsmiths. Retrieved 2014-06-16. 
  20. ^ Knuth, p. 336
  21. ^ Knuth, p. 318
  22. ^ Kunz (1913), pp. 345–347
  23. ^ Kunz (1913), pp. 332–333

External links[edit]