Bischofia javanica

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Bishop wood
Bischofia javanica.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Phyllanthaceae
Genus: Bischofia
B. javanica
Binomial name
Bischofia javanica

Bischofia javanica, or bishop wood, is a plant species of the family Phyllanthaceae. It and the related Bischofia polycarpa are the only two members of genus Bischofia and tribe Bischofieae. These species are distributed throughout southern and southeast Asia to Australia and Polynesia also in North America (brought to North America as a decorative plant but now considered to be an invasive species). The tree is commonly used by tigers to scratch-mark territory in the jungles of Assam where it is locally called uriam. They also occur in southwestern, central, eastern, and southern China, and also Taiwan, where the indigenous people consider it a sacred tree.[1][2]


  • The dark red, dense wood is used as a building material for items ranging from furniture to bridges; it is durable but is difficult to air-dry. It is also ideal as firewood.[3]
  • The fruits are used in making wine.
  • The seeds, which are edible, contain 30-54% oil, which is used as a lubricant.
  • The bark has a high tannin content and is used as a source of red dye to stain rattan baskets[4] and colour tapa cloth.[3]
  • The roots are used medicinally.[1]
  • The leaves are eaten in Southern Laos dipped into chili sauce.


  1. ^ a b Hao Zheng; Yun Wu; Jianqing Ding; Denise Binion; Weidong Fu & Richard Reardon (September 2004). "Bischofia javanica (Bishop wood)". Invasive Plants of Asian Origin Established in the US and Their Natural Enemies (PDF). USDA Forest Service. pp. 34–35. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-09-28. Retrieved 2006-11-17.
  2. ^ Li Bingtao (1994). Li Bingtao (ed.). "Bischofia Bl". Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae. Science Press. Beijing, China. 44 (1): 184–188.
  3. ^ a b Keppel, Gunnar; Ghazanfar, Shahina A. (2011). Trees of Fiji: A Guide to 100 Rainforest Trees (third, revised ed.). Secretariat of the Pacific Community & Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit. pp. 138–9.
  4. ^ Gardner, Simon, Pindar Sidisunthorn, and Vilaiwan Anusarnsunthorn. A Field Guide to Forest Trees of Northern Thailand. Bangkok: Kobfai Publishing Project, 2000.