Bishkek Protocol

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The final borders of the conflict after the Bishkek Protocol. Armenian forces of Nagorno-Karabakh currently control almost 9% of Azerbaijan's territory outside the former Nagorno Karabakh Autonomous Oblast, while Azerbaijani forces control Shahumian and the eastern parts of Martakert and Martuni.

Bishkek Protocol is a provisional ceasefire agreement, signed by representatives of Republic of Armenia (Parliament Speaker Babken Ararktsian), unrecognized Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh (chairman of NKR parliament Karen Baburian), Republic of Azerbaijan (First Deputy Parliament Speaker Afiyaddin Jalilov) and Russia's representative to the CSCE Minsk Group Vladimir Kazimirov on May 5, 1994 in Bishkek, the capital of Kyrgyzstan. The protocol, still in effect, terminated the Nagorno-Karabakh War and froze the issue. The only severe breach since then became 2008 Mardakert skirmishes.

In addition to the ceasefire agreement itself, the protocol contains the following provisions:[1]

  • the granting of a wide-ranging autonomy to Nagorno-Karabakh, while maintaining the sovereignty of Azerbaijan;[2]
  • measures that guarantee the security of Nagorno-Karabakh (meaning peacekeeping operations by the third-party parties, but there are no agreements about participants; Russia, especially, wanted to play the main role in the peacekeeping, but this is considered[by whom?] the worst scenario for Azerbaijan)[2]
  • the withdrawal of Armenian forces from occupied territories in Azerbaijan;[2]
  • special status for the Lachin Corridor linking Nagorno-Karabakh with Armenia, possibly coupled with similar measures between the mainland Azerbaijan and Nakhchivan;[2]
  • arrangements between Azerbaijan and Armenia securing the return of the majority of refugees on both sides to their homes.[2]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Blair, Betty. "Forging a Lasting Peace: The Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict", Azerbaijan International, spring 1996 (vol. 4, no. 1), p. 52
  2. ^ a b c d e "Visions for Mountainous Karabakh: From the Azerbaijanis and the Armenians" by Yoko Hirose in The Armenia-Azerbaijan Conflict over Karabakh, 2007, ISBN 978-9952-8092-4-4, p. 124

External links[edit]