Bishop, California

Coordinates: 37°21′49″N 118°23′42″W / 37.3635°N 118.3951°W / 37.3635; -118.3951
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

City of Bishop
Downtown Bishop looking south along U.S. 395
Downtown Bishop looking south along U.S. 395
Location of Bishop in Inyo County, California
Location of Bishop in Inyo County, California
City of Bishop is located in California
City of Bishop
City of Bishop
Location in California
Coordinates: 37°21′49″N 118°23′42″W / 37.3635°N 118.3951°W / 37.3635; -118.3951
CountryUnited States
IncorporatedMay 6, 1903[1]
Named forBishop Creek
 • MayorJim Ellis[2]
 • City1.91 sq mi (4.95 km2)
 • Land1.86 sq mi (4.83 km2)
 • Water0.05 sq mi (0.12 km2)  2.5%
Elevation4,150 ft (1,260 m)
 • City3,819
 • Density2,048.82/sq mi (791.14/km2)
 • Metro
Time zoneUTC−8 (Pacific)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−7 (PDT)
ZIP codes
93514, 93515
Area codes442/760
FIPS code06-06798
GNIS feature IDs277475, 2409852

Bishop (formerly Bishop Creek)[5] is a city in California, United States. It is the largest populated place and only incorporated city in Inyo County. Bishop is located near the northern end of the Owens Valley,[5] at an elevation of 4,150 feet (1,260 m).[4] The city was named after Bishop Creek, flowing out of the Sierra Nevada; the creek was named after Samuel Addison Bishop, a settler in the Owens Valley. Bishop is a commercial and residential center, while many vacation destinations and tourist attractions in the Sierra Nevada are located nearby.

The population of the city was 3,879 at the 2010 Census, up from 3,575 at the 2000 Census. The population of the built-up zone containing Bishop is much larger; more than 14,500 people live in a compact area that includes Bishop, West Bishop, Dixon Lane-Meadow Creek, and the Bishop Paiute Reservation. It is by far the largest settlement in Inyo County.

A number of western films were shot in Bishop, including movies starring John Wayne, Charlton Heston and Joel McCrea.[6]


The Bishop Creek post office operated from 1870 to 1889 and from 1935 to 1938.[5] The first Bishop post office opened in 1889.[5]

In order to support the growth aspirations of the city of Los Angeles, water was diverted from the Owens River into the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913. From the 1910s to 1930s, the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power purchased much of the valley for water rights and control. The result was substantial change to the Owens Valley culture and environment. The economy of Bishop suffered when farmers sold their land. Jack Foley, a Bishop resident and sound effects specialist, mitigated the economic loss by persuading several Los Angeles studio bosses that the town of Bishop would be ideal as a location to shoot westerns.

History and heritage[edit]

Bishop Civic Center

The city of Bishop was named for one of the first European settlers in the area, Samuel A. Bishop. Owens Lake was named for Richard Owens, a member of John C. Fremont's 1845 exploration party which included Kit Carson and Ed Kern. Later the entire valley became known as The Owens Valley (see First Settlers below). The Paiute Indians called Owens Lake by the name of "Pacheta" and the Owens River "Wakopee." Geographically, Inyo County is today the second largest county in California with a population of slightly over 18,000 residents. The county is so big that several eastern states put together would fit neatly within its boundaries. Inyo County contains both the highest and lowest points in the contiguous United States; Mt. Whitney, 14,496 feet (4,418 m) above sea level, and Badwater in Death Valley, 282 feet (86 m) below sea level. The "Inyo" in Inyo County is commonly believed to be a Paiute word meaning "dwelling place of the great spirit," although some scholars are now convinced that it is a mistranslation of the word Indio, which is Spanish for Indian. It is possible that the Paiute were trying to explain to the earliest English speaking settlers in the Owens Valley that this was their land by using a form of "Indio" they had learned from other Indian tribes, who in turn, had learned it from the Spanish or Mexicans, not realizing that not all Europeans spoke the same language. Thus Inyo may actually mean "Indian Land."[citation needed]

First American settlers[edit]

Samuel Addison Bishop in 1870

The first American explorers in the Owens Valley of Eastern California included the famous mountain men Jedediah Smith in 1833[7] and Joseph Walker in 1834.[8]: 144  This remote area of California had never been explored by the Spanish and even though it was shown as Mexican territory on early maps, the Eastern Sierra region remained unvisited by them. Present day Walker Lake in western Nevada, the Walker River on the California/Nevada border and Walker Pass in the southern Sierra were named for their discoverer, Joseph Walker.

The most renowned early explorer to visit the area was John C. Fremont. He was the first Republican candidate to run for President of the United States in 1856 and later a famous Union Civil War general. Officially sanctioned by the federal government, his 1845 mapping party to the Eastern Sierra included the celebrated Indian scout Kit Carson, for whom the capitol of Nevada, Carson City, was named. Also in the party were Ed Kern for whom Kern County, California was named, and Richard Owens, who gave his name to the Owens Lake near Lone Pine and later the Owens Valley itself. Fremont lost a cannon that he had brought along in case of Indian attacks near present-day Bridgeport, California (about 80 miles [130 km] north of Bishop).[citation needed]

The city of Bishop came into being due to the need for beef in a booming mining camp some eighty miles to the north, Aurora, Nevada, (Aurora was believed to be on the California side of the border at that time and was the county seat of Mono County, California). In 1861 cattlemen drove herds of cattle some three hundred miles from the great San Joaquin Valley of California, through the southern Sierra at Walker Pass, up the Owens Valley, and then through Adobe Meadows to Aurora. Along the way, some cattlemen noticed that the unsettled northern Owens Valley was perfect for raising livestock.

To avoid the long journey from the other side of the mountains, a few of them decided to settle in the valley. Driving some 600 head of cattle and 50 horses, Samuel Addison Bishop, his wife, and several hired hands arrived in the Owens Valley on August 22, 1861, from Fort Tejón in the Tehachapi Mountains. Along with Henry Vansickle, Charles Putnam, Allen Van Fleet, and the McGee brothers, Bishop was one of the first white settlers in the valley.

The cattlemen were soon followed by sheepmen who initially struggled with a lack of forage for their stock in the area. Remnants of these early settlers' stone corrals and fences can still be seen north of Bishop along Highway 395 in Round Valley (barb wire fencing was not invented until 1873). Establishing a homestead, the San Francis Ranch, along the creek which still bears his name, Samuel Bishop set up a market to sell beef to the miners and business owners in Aurora.

One of the residents of Aurora at that time was a young Samuel Clemens who later gained fame as author Mark Twain (see Twain's Roughing It for his comments on this area).

By 1862, a frontier settlement (and later town), known as Bishop Creek, was established a couple of miles east of the San Francis Ranch. Though the town continues to prosper, the only reminder of Samuel Bishop's ranch today is a monument placed near the original site at the corner of Highway 168 West and Red Hill Road, two miles west of downtown Bishop.

Historic cemetery on West Line St. was established in 1868

In 1866, the County of Inyo was established from part of Tulare County. The Eastern High Sierra and the Owens Valley was the westernmost frontier in America at that time. In 1871, Daniel Bruhn was one of 41 wranglers herding some 3,000 wild Spanish mustangs from Stockton, California, to Texas. Their travels took them over the High Sierra and into the remote Owens Valley, where they lost over 500 head of horses. The descendants of those mustangs still roam wild on the California/Nevada border just north of Bishop.

Water conflicts of the Owens Valley[edit]

As Los Angeles expanded during the late 19th century, it began outgrowing its water supply. Fred Eaton, mayor of Los Angeles, promoted a plan to take water from Owens Valley, where Bishop lies, to Los Angeles via an aqueduct.[9] Between 1905 and 1907, most of the land in the Owens Valley was purchased from farmers and ranchers at bargain prices by Eaton, ostensibly for a his own use.[10]: 66  The real goal was to send Owens Valley water south to Los Angeles.[11] In 1907, Eaton traveled to Washington to meet with advisers of Theodore Roosevelt to convince them that the water of the Owens River would do more good flowing through faucets in Los Angeles than it would if used on Owens Valley fields and orchards.[12] Despite a political fight with Congressman Sylvester Smith, who represented the area around Bishop, Roosevelt decided in favor of the aqueduct.[13]

The aqueduct was built from 1907 to 1913 under the supervision of William Mullholland.[14]: 151–153  The aqueduct is 223 miles (359 km) long, used no pumping stations; only gravity siphons.[14] By 1928, Los Angeles owned 90 percent of the water in Owens Valley and agriculture interests in the region were effectively dead. With the diversion of water to Los Angeles, the Owens Lake and lower Owens River dried up, forcing many valley residents to leave the area.[7] For a number of years, Owens Valley residents expressed much animosity toward the city of Los Angeles;[7][15] for example, in Dry Ditches, a book of poems published in 1934 by the Parcher family of Bishop. The Owens Valley–city of Los Angeles conflict was the inspiration of the 1974 film Chinatown, starring Jack Nicholson.[16]

Native American cultural heritage[edit]

Paiute Indian hut, reconstructed in 1940
Example of Paiute Hut, re-constructed for a float in a parade in Bishop, 1940

Indigenous peoples still live in and near Bishop. They now reside on four reservations. The southernmost is the Lone Pine Indian Reservation; northward is Fort Independence Reservation and Big Pine Indian Reservation. The largest and northernmost is the Bishop Indian Reservation.


Bishop lies west of the Owens River at the northern end of the Owens Valley.

The city is located on U.S. Route 395, the main north–south artery through the Owens Valley, connecting the Inland Empire to Reno, Nevada. US 395 also connects Bishop to Los Angeles via State Route 14 through Palmdale. Bishop is the western terminus of U.S. Route 6. The Paiute-Shoshone Indians of the Bishop Community of the Bishop Colony control land just west of the town. The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (DWP) controls much of the upstream and surrounding area.

Bishop is immediately to the east of the Sierra Nevada, and west of the White Mountains. Numerous peaks are within a short distance of Bishop, including Mount Humphreys (13,986 ft; 4,263 m) to the west, White Mountain Peak (14,242 ft; 4,341 m) to the northeast, and pyramidal Mount Tom (13,658 ft; 4,163 m) northwest of town. Basin Mountain (13,187 ft; 4,019 m) is viewed to the west from Bishop as it rises above the Buttermilks.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.9 square miles (4.9 km2), over 97% of it land.

Bishop is known as the "Mule Capital of the World" and a week-long festival called Bishop Mule Days has been held since 1969 during the week of Memorial Day, celebrating the contributions of pack mules to the area. The festival attracts many tourists, primarily from the Southern California area.[17][18]

Bishop is well known in the rock climbing community. Near the city are numerous climbing spots that attract visitors from around the world.[19] There are over 2,000 bouldering problems in Bishop. The two main types of rock are volcanic tuff (at the Happy and Sad boulders) and granite (at the Buttermilks).[20]

Aerial view of Bishop, looking west. Line Street, Bishop's main East-West Street, is in center left, running from the bottom of the photo into the distance.

Notable locations[edit]


Bishop, as well as the rest of the Owens Valley, has an arid climate (Köppen BWk) with an annual average of 4.84 inches (123 mm) of precipitation, and is part of USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 7b.[24] The wettest year was 1969 with 17.09 in (434 mm) of precipitation and the driest 2013 with 1.33 in (33.8 mm).[25] Measurable precipitation occurs on an average of 26 days annually. The most precipitation in one month was 8.93 in (227 mm) in January 1969, which included 4.00 in (102 mm) on January 4, the most rainfall recorded in 24 hours in Bishop. Snowfall averages 6.8 inches (17 cm) per season. The snowiest season was from July 1968 to June 1969 with 57.1 inches (145 cm),[26] which included the snowiest month, January 1969, at 23.2 inches (59 cm).

There is an average of 3 nights of sub 10 °F (−12 °C) lows, 139 nights where the low reaches the freezing mark, 104 days with 90 °F (32 °C)+ highs, and 29 days with 100 °F (38 °C)+ highs. Due to the aridity and hot high-altitude sun, there are only 34 days with maxima below 50 °F (10 °C) and only one per year with a maximum below 32 °F (0 °C),[27] and the annual diurnal temperature variation is 36.9 °F (20.5 °C), reaching 42 °F (23 °C) in summer. The record high temperature of 111 °F (44 °C) occurred on July 10, 2021; the record low of −8 °F (−22 °C) was recorded on December 22, 1990, and December 27, 1988. Diurnals are wide enough that temperatures both during summer and winter afternoons resemble Southern Spain's interior, whereas nights in both seasons are similar to those found on the Baltic Sea in far northern Europe.

Cold daytime highs and warm nights are rare, but have happened on occasion. The coldest daytime maximum measured was 19 °F (−7 °C) in 1962.[28] Ice days are infrequent with the warmer climate of recent decades. Between 1991 and 2020 the coldest maximum temperature of the year averaged 35 °F (2 °C) with the coldest days barely remaining below freezing.[28] The warmest night on record was 75 °F (24 °C) in 1961 while the average warmest night stands at 68 °F (20 °C).[28]

Climate data for Bishop, California (Eastern Sierra Regional Airport), 1991–2020 normals,[29] extremes 1943–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 77
Mean maximum °F (°C) 67.3
Mean daily maximum °F (°C) 56.3
Mean daily minimum °F (°C) 23.5
Mean minimum °F (°C) 11.0
Record low °F (°C) −7
Average precipitation inches (mm) 1.14
Average snowfall inches (cm) 4.1
trace trace 0
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 3.9 4.0 2.9 1.9 1.7 1.5 1.7 1.5 1.7 1.5 2.3 3.0 27.6
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 1.3 0.4 0.5 0.1 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0.4 0.8 3.6
Source: NOAA,[25][30] WRCC[31][32]


Historical population
U.S. Decennial Census[33]

The demographic information below applies to residents living within the city limits of Bishop; 3,879 in downtown Bishop.

The "greater Bishop area," which includes unincorporated nearby neighborhoods such as West Bishop, Meadow Creek-Dixon Lane, Wilkerson Ranch, Rocking K, Mustang Mesa, Round Valley and the Bishop Paiute Tribe includes an additional 11,000 residents.[22]


The 2010 United States Census[34] reported that Bishop had a population of 3,879. The population density was 2,029.9 inhabitants per square mile (783.7/km2). The racial makeup of Bishop was 2,867 (73.9%) White, 22 (0.6%) African American, 91 (2.3%) Native American, 61 (1.6%) Asian, 1 (0.0%) Pacific Islander, 723 (18.6%) from other races, and 114 (2.9%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1,200 persons (30.9%).

The Census reported that 3,771 people (97.2% of the population) lived in households, 36 (0.9%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 72 (1.9%) were institutionalized.

There were 1,748 households, out of which 499 (28.5%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 574 (32.8%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 181 (10.4%) had a female householder with no husband present, 99 (5.7%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 143 (8.2%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 10 (0.6%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 767 households (43.9%) were made up of individuals, and 288 (16.5%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.16. There were 854 families (48.9% of all households); the average family size was 3.07.

The population was spread out, with 925 people (23.8%) under the age of 18, 298 people (7.7%) aged 18 to 24, 1,014 people (26.1%) aged 25 to 44, 1,031 people (26.6%) aged 45 to 64, and 611 people (15.8%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.9 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.7 males.

There were 1,926 housing units at an average density of 1,007.9 per square mile (389.2/km2), 1,748 of which were occupied, of which 676 (38.7%) were owner-occupied, and 1,072 (61.3%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 0.3%; the rental vacancy rate was 5.8%. 1,353 people (34.9% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 2,418 people (62.3%) lived in rental housing units.


Snow-covered Sierra Nevada Mountain Range viewed from Bishop, CA
Snowy Sierra Nevada Mountains as seen from Bishop, CA

As of the census[35] of 2000, there were 3,575 people, 1,684 households, and 831 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,042.5 inhabitants per square mile (788.6/km2). There were 1,867 housing units at an average density of 1,066.7 per square mile (411.9/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 84.6% White, 0.2% Black or African American, 2.0% Native American, 1.4% Asian, <0.1% Pacific Islander, 6.5% from other races, and 5.4% from two or more races. 17.4% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 1,684 households, out of which 26.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.5% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 50.6% were non-families. 44.2% of all households were made up of individuals, and 19.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.08 and the average family size was 2.93.

In the city the population was spread out, with 24.2% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 26.5% from 25 to 44, 22.8% from 45 to 64, and 19.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.0 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $27,338, and the median income for a family was $34,423. Males had a median income of $23,433 versus $24,545 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,660. About 14.0% of families and 16.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.0% of those under age 18 and 6.0% of those age 65 or over.

Politics and government[edit]

In the state legislature, Bishop is in the 8th Assembly District, represented by Republican Jim Patterson.[36] It is also in the 4th State Senate district.

Federally, Bishop is in California's 3rd congressional district, represented by Republican Kevin Kiley.[37]

Bishop maintains its own police force, but also has a substation of the Inyo County Sheriff's Department on the outskirts of the city. The California Highway Patrol also has an office in town.[38][39]


U.S. Route 395 is the four-lane divided highway serving Bishop between southern California and Reno while U.S. Route 6 provides access to Tonopah and other communities in Nevada. The junction of U.S. Routes 395 and 6 is one of only two junctions of two U.S. Routes in California, the other being the junction of U.S. Routes 101 and 199 in Crescent City.

The Eastern Sierra Regional Airport provides general aviation services in addition to seasonal scheduled passenger airline service nonstop to Los Angeles, San Francisco and Denver operated by SkyWest Airlines flying as United Express with regional jet aircraft on behalf of United Airlines.[40]

Eastern Sierra Transit bus shelter in Bishop

Eastern Sierra Transit offers bus service as far north as Reno, Nevada, and as far south as Lancaster, California.

In popular culture[edit]

A number of western and other films were shot in Bishop:[6]

Bishop Twin Theatre on Main Street

Notable residents[edit]


AM radio[edit]

FM radio[edit]



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  3. ^ "2020 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on March 18, 2021. Retrieved October 30, 2021.
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  5. ^ a b c d Durham, David L. (1998). California's Geographic Names: A Gazetteer of Historic and Modern Names of the State. Clovis, Calif.: Word Dancer Press. p. 1148. ISBN 1-884995-14-4.
  6. ^ a b Schneider, Jerry L. (2016). Western Filming Locations California, Book 6. CP Entertainment Books. Page 149. ISBN 9780692722947.
  7. ^ a b c Smith, Genny; Putnam, Jeff; James, Greg; DeDecker, Mary; Heindel, Jo (1995). Deepest Valley: Guide to Owens Valley, its Roadsides and Mountain Trails. Genny Smith Books. ISBN 978-0-931378-14-0.
  8. ^ Gilbert, Bil (1985) [1983]. Westering Man: The Life of Joseph Walker. Tulsa: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0806119349. Archived from the original on November 8, 2023. Retrieved October 22, 2023.
  9. ^ McDougal, Dennis (April 25, 2001). Privileged Son: Otis Chandler And The Rise And Fall Of The L.A. Times Dynasty. Da Capo Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-306-81161-6.
  10. ^ Reisner, Mark (1993). Cadillac Desert (revised ed.). Penguin USA. ISBN 978-0-14-017824-1.
  11. ^ Wheeler, Mark (October 2002). "California Scheming". Smithsonian Magazine. Archived from the original on March 15, 2012. Retrieved October 8, 2011.
  12. ^ "Fred Eaton". PBS: New Perspectives on The West. Archived from the original on October 10, 2011. Retrieved October 8, 2011.
  13. ^ "A Hundred or a Thousand Fold More Important". Los Angeles Department of Water and Power. Archived from the original on February 23, 2009. Retrieved May 23, 2014.
  14. ^ a b Prud'homme, Alex (2011). The Ripple Effect: The Fate of Fresh Water in the Twenty-First Century. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4165-3545-4.
  15. ^ "The Ernest Bulpitt collection of Inyo/Mono Water wars memorabilia". Archived from the original on April 18, 2023. Retrieved September 28, 2020.
  16. ^ Wilkman, Jon (February 28, 2016). "William Mulholland Gave Water to LA and Inspired Chinatown". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on September 15, 2016.
  17. ^ Hauer, John (2006). The Natural Superiority of Mules. New York, NY: Skyhorse. p. 29. ISBN 978-1-62636-166-9.
  18. ^ "Mule Days," American Cowboy Archived July 10, 2018, at the Wayback Machine, May/June 1999, p.54.
  19. ^ Linville, Sarah (March 26, 2014). "Is Bishop World Class? Niccolò Ceria Says Don't Believe The Hype". Rock and Ice. Archived from the original on June 16, 2015.
  20. ^ "Happy and Sad Boulders – Climbing | Bishop Visitor Information Center". Archived from the original on November 27, 2020. Retrieved December 12, 2020.
  21. ^ "Bishop Chamber of Commerce | Bishop, California". Archived from the original on October 30, 2020. Retrieved November 2, 2020.
  22. ^ a b "Bishop Visitor Information Center | Bishop California Welcome Center". Archived from the original on November 3, 2020. Retrieved November 2, 2020.
  23. ^ "Bishop Paiute Tribe | Tribal Court". Archived from the original on December 12, 2017. Retrieved December 11, 2017.
  24. ^ "USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map". Agricultural Research Center, PRISM Climate Group Oregon State University. Archived from the original on February 27, 2014. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
  25. ^ a b "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on July 21, 2021. Retrieved August 17, 2020.
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  27. ^ "Climate Nortmals 1971-2000 BISHOP AP, CA" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 2, 2014. Retrieved April 9, 2013.
  28. ^ a b c "NOWData for Las Vegas, NV, forecast office". NOAA. Archived from the original on June 16, 2022. Retrieved August 2, 2022.
  29. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1991 to 2020.
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  36. ^ "Members Assembly". State of California. Archived from the original on April 24, 2013. Retrieved April 11, 2013.
  37. ^ "California's 3rd Congressional District - Representatives & District Map". Civic Impulse, LLC. Retrieved March 9, 2013.
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  39. ^ "(825) Bishop". California Highway Patrol. Retrieved February 1, 2024.
  40. ^ "BIH Bishop Airport (BIH/KBIH)". Archived from the original on March 4, 2022. Retrieved March 4, 2022.

External links[edit]