Bishop of Exeter

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Bishop of Exeter
Bishopric
anglican
Diocese of Exeter arms.svg
Arms of the Bishop of Exeter: Gules, a sword erect in pale argent hilted or surmounted by two keys addorsed in saltire of the last[1]
Incumbent:
Robert Atwell
Province Canterbury
Diocese Exeter
Cathedral Exeter Cathedral (1112–present)
First incumbent Werstan
Leofric (first Bishop of Exeter)
Formation 905 (founded at Tawton)
912 (translated to Crediton)
1050 (translated to Exeter)

The Bishop of Exeter is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Exeter in the Province of Canterbury.[2] The current incumbent, since 30 April 2014, is Robert Atwell.[3] The incumbent signs his name as his Christian name or forename followed by Exon., abbreviated from the Latin Episcopus Exoniensis ("Bishop of Exeter").

From the first bishop until the sixteenth century the Bishops of Exeter were in full communion with the Roman Catholic Church. However, during the Reformation the church in England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church, at first temporarily and later more permanently. Since the Reformation, the Bishop and Diocese of Exeter has been part of the Church of England and of the Anglican Communion.

History[edit]

The Anglo-Saxon dioceses after 950

The history of Christianity in the South West of England remains to some degree obscure. At a certain point the historical county of Devon formed part of the diocese of Wessex. About 703 Devon and Cornwall were included in the separate Diocese of Sherborne and in 900 this was again divided, the Devon bishop having from 905 his seat at Tawton (now Bishop's Tawton) and from 912 at Crediton, birthplace of St Boniface. Lyfing became Bishop of Crediton in 1027 and shortly afterwards became Bishop of Cornwall.

Tawton[edit]

According to Risdon (d. 1640), the present village of Bishops Tawton, on the River Taw two miles south of Barnstaple in North Devon, was the earliest bishop's see in the shire of Devon, when in 905

"Edward, surnamed Senior, a nurse-father of the church, finding these western parts to want ecclesiastical discipline, by the advice of Pleymond, (sic) Archbishop of Canterbury, ordained a provincial synod and decreed that three new bishops should be consecrated, whereupon Edulph was appointed to Wells, Herstan to Cornwall and Werstan to Devon, who had here his see, where after him one only of his successors sat being hence removed to Crediton".[4]

Werstan's successor appears to have been Putta (bishop 906–910), who was murdered whilst travelling from his see at Tawton to visit the Saxon viceroy Uffa, whose residence was at Crediton.[5] It is believed that Copplestone Cross, mentioned in a charter dated 947 and situated 6 miles north-west of Crediton and 22 miles south-east of Bishops Tawton, was erected in commemoration of his murder.[6]

Crediton[edit]

The Diocese of Crediton was created out of the Diocese of Sherborne in 909 to cover the area of Devon and Cornwall.[7] Crediton was chosen as the site for its cathedral possibly due it having been the birthplace of Saint Boniface and the existence of a monastery there.[8]

In 1046, Leofric became the Bishop of Crediton. Following his appointment he decided that the see should be moved to the larger and more culturally significant and defensible walled town of Exeter. In 1050, King Edward the Confessor authorised that Exeter was to be the seat of the bishop for Devon and Cornwall and that a cathedral was to be built there for the bishop's throne. Thus, Leofric became the last diocesan Bishop of Crediton and the first Bishop of Exeter.[8]

Exeter[edit]

The two dioceses of Crediton and Cornwall, covering Devon and Cornwall, were permanently united under Edward the Confessor by Lyfing's successor Leofric, hitherto Bishop of Crediton, who became first Bishop of Exeter under Edward the Confessor, which was established as his cathedral city in 1050. At first the abbey church of St Mary and St Peter, founded by Athelstan in 932 and rebuilt in 1019, served as the cathedral.

Cathedral[edit]

Main article: Exeter Cathedral

The present cathedral was begun by William de Warelhurst in 1112, the transept towers he built being the only surviving part of the Norman building, which was completed by Marshall at the close of the twelfth century. The cathedral is dedicated to St Peter.

As it now stands, the cathedral is in the decorated style. It was begun by Peter Quinel (1280–1291), continued by Bytton and Stapeldon, and completed, much as it has since remained, by John Grandisson during his long tenure of 42 years.

In many respects Exeter cathedral resembles those of France rather than others found in England. Its special features are the transept towers and the choir, containing much early stained glass. There is also an episcopal throne, separated from the nave by a choir screen (1324) and a stately West front. In a comparison with certain other English cathedrals, it is perhaps disadvantaged by the absence of a central tower and a general lack of elevation, but it is undoubtedly very fine.

Organization[edit]

The bishops of Exeter, like the general population of the diocese, always enjoyed considerable independence, and the see was one of the largest and richest in England. The remoteness of the see from London prevented it from being bestowed on statesmen or courtiers, so that over the centuries the roll of bishops possessed more capable scholars and administrators than in many other sees. The result was a long and stable line of bishops, leading to active Christian observance in the area.

The diocese contained 604 parishes grouped in four archdeaconries: Cornwall, Barnstaple, Exeter, and Totnes. There were Benedictine, Augustinian, Premonstratensian, Franciscan and Dominican religious houses, and four Cistercian abbeys.

Modern history[edit]

This wealthy diocese was forced to cede land during the reign of Henry VIII, when Vesey was obliged to surrender fourteen of twenty-two manors, and the value of the see was reduced to a third of what it had been. Vesey, despite his Catholic sympathies, held the see until 1551, when he finally had to resign, and was replaced by the Bible translator Miles Coverdale. Following the accession of Mary, in 1553, Vesey was restored, but died soon after in 1554. He was succeeded by James Turberville, the last Catholic Bishop of Exeter. Turberville was removed from the see by the Reformist Elizabeth I in 1559, and died in prison, probably in or about 1570.

Henry Phillpotts served as Bishop of Exeter from 1830 to his death in office in 1869. He was England's longest serving bishop since the 14th century. The diocese was divided in 1876 along the border of Devon and Cornwall, creating the Diocese of Truro (but five parishes which were at the time in Devon were included in this diocese as they had always been within the Archdeaconry of Cornwall). The diocese covers the County of Devon. The see is in the City of Exeter where the seat is located at the Cathedral Church of Saint Peter which was founded as an abbey possibly before 690. The current incumbent is Robert Atwell.

List of bishops[edit]

Pre-Reformation[edit]

bishops at Tawton
From Until Incumbent Notes
c. 905 c. 906 Werstan
c. 906 c. 910 Putta
Bishops of Crediton
From Until Incumbent Notes
c.909 934 Eadwulf
934 c.952/53 Æthelgar
953 972 Ælfwold I
973 977 Sideman Died on 30 April 977 or 1 or 2 May 977.
c.977/79 c.986/87 Ælfric
c.986/87  ? Ælfwold II
 ? c.990 Alfred of Malmesbury[9]
 ? c.1011/15 Ælfwold III
c.1011/15 c.1019/23 Eadnoth
1027 1046 Lyfing Also Bishop of Cornwall and Worcester; died in March 1046.
1046 1050 Leofric Consecrated on 19 April 1046; also Bishop of Cornwall; became the first Bishop of Exeter in 1050.
In 1050, Leofric transferred the see to Exeter.[8]
Source(s):[10][11]
Pre-Reformation Bishops of Exeter
From Until Incumbent Notes
1050 1072 Leofric The first bishop who united and transferred the sees of Crediton and Cornwall to Exeter
1072 1103 Osbern FitzOsbern
1107 1138 William Warelwast
1138 1155 Robert Warelwast
1155 1160 Robert of Chichester
1161 1184 Bartholomew Iscanus
1186 1191 John the Chanter
1194 1206 Henry Marshal
1206 1214 See vacant Due to Pope Innocent III's interdict against King John's realms.
1214 1223 Simon of Apulia
1224 1244 William Briwere Also recorded as William Brewer
1245 1257 Richard Blund Also recorded as Richard Blundy
1258 1280 Walter Branscombe Also recorded as Walter Bronescombe
1280 1291 Peter Quinel Also recorded as Peter de Quivel or Quivil
1291 1307 Thomas Bitton Also recorded as Thomas de Bytton
1308 1326 Walter de Stapledon
1326 1327 James Berkeley
1327 John Godeley Also recorded as John Godele. Elected, but quashed.
1327 1369 John Grandisson
1370 1394 Thomas de Brantingham Also recorded as Thomas Brantyngham
1395 1419 Edmund Stafford
1419 John Catterick Also recorded as John Ketterick. Translated from Lichfield.
1420 1455 Edmund Lacey Also recorded as Edmund Lacy. Translated from Hereford.
1455 1456 John Hales Appointed, but resigned before consecration.
1458 1465 George Neville Translated to York
1465 1478 John Booth
1478 1487 Peter Courtenay Translated to Winchester
1487 1492 Richard Foxe Translated to Bath and Wells
1493 1495 Oliver King Translated to Bath and Wells
1496 1502 Richard Redman Translated from St Asaph; later translated to Ely
1502 1504 John Arundel Translated from Lichfield
1505 1519 Hugh Oldham
Source(s):[10][12][13]

During the Reformation[edit]

Bishops of Exeter during the Reformation
From Until Incumbent Notes
1519 1551 John Vesey (resigned)
1551 1553 Myles Coverdale
1553 1554 John Vesey (restored)
1555 1560 James Turberville
Source(s):[10][12][13]

Post-Reformation[edit]

Post-Reformation Bishops of Exeter
From Until Incumbent Notes
1560 1571 Fond blanc.svg William Alley Also recorded as William Alley
1571 1578 Fond blanc.svg William Bradbridge
1579 1594 Fond blanc.svg John Woolton
1595 1597 Bishop Gervase Babington by Simon De Passe.jpg Gervase Babington Translated to Worcester
1598 1621 Fond blanc.svg William Cotton
1621 1626 Fond blanc.svg Valentine Cary
1627 1641 Bp Joseph Hall.jpg Joseph Hall Translated to Norwich
1642 1659 Bp Ralph Brownrigg.jpg Ralph Brownrigg
1660 1662 JohnGauden.jpg John Gauden Translated to Worcester
1662 1667 Seth Ward by John Greenhill.jpg Seth Ward Translated to Salisbury
1667 1676 Anthony Sparrow.jpg Anthony Sparrow Translated to Norwich
1676 1688 Thomas Lamplugh-kneller.jpg Thomas Lamplugh Translated to York
1689 1707 Jonathan Trelawny.jpg Sir Jonathan Trelawny, Bt. Translated from Bristol; later translated to Winchester
1708 1716 Bp Ofspring Blackall.jpg Ofspring Blackall
1717 1724 Lancelot Blackburne (1658–1743), Archbishop of York.jpeg Lancelot Blackburne Translated to York
1724 1742 Stephen Weston by Arthur Pond.jpg Stephen Weston
1742 1746 Fond blanc.svg Nicholas Clagett Translated from St David's
1747 1762 GeorgeLavington.jpg George Lavington
1762 1777 Bp Frederick Keppel.jpg Frederick Keppel
1778 1792 Bp John Ross by LF Abbott.jpg John Ross
1792[14] 1796 Bp William Buller.jpg William Buller
1797 1803 Henry Reginald Courtenay, Bp of Exeter.jpg Reginald Courtenay Translated from Bristol
1803 1807 Bp John Fisher.jpg John Fisher Translated to Salisbury
1807 1820 Bp George Pelham.jpg George Pelham Translated from Bristol; later translated to Lincoln
1820 1830 Bp William Carey.jpg William Carey Translated to St Asaph
1830 ChristopherBethell.jpg Christopher Bethell Translated from Gloucester; later translated to Bangor
1831 1869 Hphilpotts.jpg Henry Phillpotts
1869 1885 Frederick Temple by EAF Prynne.jpg Frederick Temple Translated to London
1885 1900 Bishop of Exeter, Edward Henry Bickersteth.PNG Edward Bickersteth
1901 1903 Herbert-edward-ryle.jpg Herbert Edward Ryle Translated to Winchester
1903 1916 Archibald Robertson.jpg Archibald Robertson
1916 1936 Rev-lord-william-cecil.jpg Lord William Cecil
1936 1948 Fond blanc.svg Charles Curzon Translated from Stepney
1949 1973 Fond blanc.svg Robert Mortimer
1973 1985 Fond blanc.svg Eric Mercer Translated from Birkenhead
1985 1999 Fond blanc.svg Hewlett Thompson Translated from Willesden
1999 2013[15] Fond blanc.svg Michael Langrish Translated from Birkenhead
2014 present Fond blanc.svg Robert Atwell [3] Translated from Stockport
Source(s):[10][12]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Debrett's Peerage, 1968, p.432
  2. ^ Crockford's Clerical Directory, 100th edition, (2007), Church House Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7151-1030-0.
  3. ^ a b Diocese of Exeter – Election of new Bishop of Exeter formally confirmed (Accessed 9 May 2014)
  4. ^ Risdon, Tristram (d.1640), Survey of Devon, 1811 edition, London, 1811, with 1810 Additions, p.321
  5. ^ Chattaway, Joseph, An Historical Sketch of the Danmonii: Or Ancient Inhabitants of Devonshire, 1830, p.79 [1]
  6. ^ http://www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk/en-443618-copplestone-cross-copplestone-devon
  7. ^ Crediton Festival 2009. Retrieved on 5 June 2008.
  8. ^ a b c Exeter: Ecclesiastical History. Retrieved on 5 June 2008.
  9. ^ Joseph Thomas (1 January 2010). The Universal Dictionary of Biography and Mythology. Cosimo, Inc. p. 93. ISBN 978-1-61640-069-9. 
  10. ^ a b c d "Historical successions: Exeter (including precussor offices)". Crockford's Clerical Directory. Retrieved 18 July 2012. 
  11. ^ Fryde, E. B.; Greenway, D. E.; Porter, S.; Roy, I. (1986). Handbook of British Chronology (3rd, revised ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 287. ISBN 0-521-56350-X. 
  12. ^ a b c Fryde, E. B.; Greenway, D. E.; Porter, S.; Roy, I. (1986). Handbook of British Chronology (Third Edition, revised ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 246–248. ISBN 0-521-56350-X. 
  13. ^ a b Horn, J. M. (1962). "Bishops of Exeter". Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1300–1541: Volume 9: Exeter Diocese. British History Online. pp. 1–3. 
  14. ^ The London Gazette: no. 13457. p. 694. 8 September 1792.
  15. ^ BBC News – Bishop Langrish retires from office (Accessed 1 July 2013)

Sources[edit]

  • Some text adapted from Catholic Encyclopaedia, 1908.