Roman Catholic Diocese of Tivoli
|Diocese of Tivoli
|Ecclesiastical province||Immediately subject to the Holy See|
|Area||892 km2 (344 sq mi)|
|(as of 2010)
The Diocese of Tivoli (Latin: Dioecesis Tiburtina) is a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical territory in Latium, Italy, which has existed since the 2nd century. In 2002 territory was added to it from the Territorial Abbey of Subiaco. The diocese is immediately subject to the Holy See.
Tivoli was strongly fortified by Belisarius in the Gothic War, but almost destroyed by Totila in 540. After the Lombard invasion it was in the power of the Byzantines and formed part of the patrimony of St. Peter. It had a count, representing the emperor. In 916 Pope John X won a victory there over the Saracens.
It rebelled at times against the popes, under Emperor Henry IV and Emperor Henry V, and against Pope Innocent II; at other times it fought against the Roman rebels, as under Pope Eugene III and Pope Adrian IV. In the 13th century the Senate of Rome succeeded (under Pope Innocent IV) in imposing a tribute on the city, and arrogated to itself the right of appointing a count to govern it in conjunction with the local consuls.
In the 14th century it sided with the Guelphs and strongly supported Pope Urban VI against Pope Clement VII. King Ladislaus of Naples was twice, and later Braccio da Montone once, repulsed from the city. But its strength was undermined by internal factions, in consequence of which Pope Pius II constructed the fortress which still exists. Pope Adrian VI withdrew it from the jurisdiction of the Roman Senate. In 1527 it was sacked by bands of the supporters of the emperor and the Colonna, important archives being destroyed during the attack. In 1547 it was again occupied by the Duke of Alba in a war against Pope Paul IV, and in 1744 by the Austrians.
The first known bishop was Paulus (366), followed by Florentinus (402 ca.) and Candidus (465); among his successors were:
- Gualterus (993-1000), under whom the feast of St. Lawrence, patron of the city, was instituted;
- Cardinal Guido (1123–1154) - during whose episcopacy the see of Tivoli belonged to the suburbicarian sees
- Otto (1155-1169), during whose episcopacy Eugene III died at Tivoli;
- Giovanni da Gabenna O. P. (1320-1337), who died in the odour of sanctity;
- Cardinal Filippo Gezza de' Rufinis, O. P. (1356-1380), sent by the Romans to Gregory XI to induce him to return to Rome;
- Fra Lorenzo, O. M. (1450-1471), reformer of the clergy;
- Cardinal Giulio Roma (1634-1652)), restorer of the cathedral and founder of the seminary;
- Cardinal Marcello Santacroce (1652-1674), who completed the work of his predecessor;
- Gregorio Barnaba Chiaramonti (1782-1784), afterwards Pius VII.
- CAPPELLETTI, Le chiese d'Italia;
- VIOLA, Storia di Tivoli (Rome, 1726);