Prince-Bishopric of Utrecht

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Bishopric of Utrecht

Sticht Utrecht  (Dutch)
Hochstift Utrecht  (German)
Évêché d'Utrecht  (French)
1024–1528
of Utrecht
Coat of arms
Bishopric of Utrecht c. 1350. Nedersticht is the smaller territory while Oversticht is the larger territory.
Bishopric of Utrecht c. 1350. Nedersticht is the smaller territory while Oversticht is the larger territory.
StatusState of the Holy Roman Empire
CapitalUtrecht
Common languagesMiddle Dutch, Middle Low German
Religion
Roman Catholic
GovernmentEcclesiastical principality
Prince-bishop 
• (1024–1026)[a]
Adalbold II of Utrecht
• (1524–1528)[b]
Henry of the Palatinate
Historical eraMiddle Ages
• Lower Lotharingia divided from Lotharingia
959
• Established
1024
1075–1122
1122
1502–1543
• Disestablished
1528
• Union of Utrecht signed
1579
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Lower Lorraine
Lordship of Utrecht
Lordship of Overijssel
Today part of Netherlands

The Bishopric of Utrecht (1024–1528) was an ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, in the present-day Netherlands. From 1024 to 1528, as one of the prince-bishoprics of the Holy Roman Empire, it was ruled by the bishops of Utrecht. The Prince-Bishopric of Utrecht must not be confused with the Diocese of Utrecht, which extended beyond the Prince-Bishopric and over which the bishop exercised spiritual authority.

In 1528, Charles V, secularized the Price-Bishopric, depriving the bishop of its secular authority.

History[edit]

History of the Low Countries
Frisii Belgae
Cana-
nefates
Chamavi,
Tubantes
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Gallia Belgica (55 BC – 5th c. AD)
Germania Inferior (83 – 5th c.)
Salian Franks Batavi
unpopulated
(4th–5th c.)
Saxons Salian Franks
(4th–5th c.)
Frisian Kingdom
(6th c.–734)
Frankish Kingdom (481–843)Carolingian Empire (800–843)
Austrasia (511–687)
Middle Francia (843–855) West
Francia

(843–)
Kingdom of Lotharingia (855– 959)
Duchy of Lower Lorraine (959–)
Frisia

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Frisian
Freedom

(11–16th
century)
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County of
Holland

(880–1432)
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Bishopric of
Utrecht

(695–1456)
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Duchy of
Brabant

(1183–1430)
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Duchy of
Guelders

(1046–1543)
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County of
Flanders

(862–1384)
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County of
Hainaut

(1071–1432)
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County of
Namur

(981–1421)
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P.-Bish.
of Liège


(980–1794)

Duchy of
Luxem-
bourg

(1059–1443)
  Flag of the Low Countries.svg
Burgundian Netherlands (1384–1482)
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Habsburg Netherlands (1482–1795)
(Seventeen Provinces after 1543)
 
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Dutch Republic
(1581–1795)
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Spanish Netherlands
(1556–1714)
 
  Austrian Low Countries Flag.svg
Austrian Netherlands
(1714–1795)
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United States of Belgium
(1790)
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R. Liège
(1789–'91)
     
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Batavian Republic (1795–1806)
Kingdom of Holland (1806–1810)
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associated with French First Republic (1795–1804)
part of First French Empire (1804–1815)
   
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Princip. of the Netherlands (1813–1815)
 
United Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815–1830) Flag of Luxembourg.svg
Gr D. L.
(1815–)


Kingdom of the Netherlands (1839–)
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Kingdom of Belgium (1830–)
Gr D. of
Luxem-
bourg

(1890–)

Foundation[edit]

The Diocese of Utrecht was established in 695 when Saint Willibrord was consecrated bishop of the Frisians at Rome by Pope Sergius I. With the consent of the Frankish ruler, Pippin of Herstal, he settled in an old Roman fort in Utrecht. After Willibrord's death the diocese suffered greatly from the incursions of the Frisians,[citation needed] and later on of the Vikings. Whether Willibrord could be called the first bishop of Utrecht is doubtful; as James Palmer points out, "there was no real concept of a well-defined bishopric until at least the days of Alberic (775–84)". And while Saint Boniface is referred to in his hagiographies as the successor of Willibrord (and, in turn, Gregory of Utrecht is referred to as the successor to Willibrord and Boniface), this does not necessarily mean "successor as bishop", but rather that they succeeded each other as missionaries to the Frisians.[1]

Prince-Bishopric of Utrecht[edit]

Better times appeared during the reign of the Saxon emperors, who frequently summoned the Bishops of Utrecht to attend the imperial councils and diets. In 1024 the bishops were made Princes of the Holy Roman Empire and the new Prince-Bishopric of Utrecht was formed. The secular territory over which it ruled was known as Sticht Utrecht or Het Sticht (a sticht was any piece of land governed by a bishop or abbot). This territory was divided into the Nedersticht (Lower Sticht, roughly corresponding to the present day province of Utrecht) and Oversticht (Upper Sticht, encompassing the present-day provinces of Overijssel, Drenthe, and part of Groningen).

In 1122, with the Concordat of Worms, the Emperor's right of investiture was annulled, and the cathedral chapter received the right to elect the bishop. It was, however, soon obligated to share this right with the four other collegiate chapters in the city. The Counts of Holland and Guelders, between whose territories the lands of the Bishops of Utrecht lay, also sought to acquire influence over the filling of the episcopal see. This often led to disputes and consequently the Holy See frequently interfered in the election. After the middle of the 14th century the popes repeatedly appointed the bishop directly without regard to the five chapters.

It was part of the Lower Rhenish–Westphalian Circle

In 1527, the Bishop sold his territories, and thus his secular authority, to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and the principality became an integral part of the Habsburg dominions. The chapters transferred their right of electing the bishop to Charles V and his government, a measure to which Pope Clement VII gave his consent, under political pressure after the Sack of Rome.

End[edit]

The Prince-Bishopric of Utrecht was conquered by Habsburg troops in 1528. The southwestern Nedersticht core territory around the city of Utrecht became the Lordship of Utrecht, whilst the southern part of the Oversticht was transformed into the Lordship of Overijssel. The northern parts were annexed in 1536 as the County of Drenthe.

Prince-bishops[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Adalbold II of Utrecht was bishop of the Diocese of Utrecht from 1010.
  2. ^ Henry of the Palatinate remained bishop of the Diocese of Utrecht until 1529.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Palmer, James T. (2009). Anglo-Saxons in a Frankish World (690-900). Studies in the Early Middle Ages. 19. Turnhout: Brepols. pp. 163–66. ISBN 9782503519111.

Further reading[edit]

  • Ring, Trudy; Watson, Noelle; Schellinger, Paul, eds. (1995). "Utrecht". International dictionary of historic places. 2. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn. p. 761. ISBN 188496401X.

External links[edit]