Bisitun Cave

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Bisitun Cave during excavations in 1949

Bisitun is a small cave situated in the Zagros Mountains in north-western Iran and Kermanshah province. The cave has been associated with Mousterian industry of the Middle Paleolithic period as artefacts from that period have been excavated from the site.[1][2] Dibble described the lithics from the cave as Middle Paleolithic with strong Levallois components. He found no temporal changes in the Middle Paleolithic strata. Coon described two hominid remains from the site, an upper IJ and a radius shaft fragment, both from Layer F+. Trinkaus and Bilgari described the material in detail, showing that the incisor is not a hominid IJ, but is a bovid IJ/M. According to their analysis, the radius fragment shows Neanderthal affinities, as it is mediolaterally expanded at the interosseus crest. Metrically, it is outside the range of variation of Early Anatomically Modern Humans, but in the range of Neanderthals and Early Upper Paleolithic humans.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Dibble, HL (1984). "The Mousterian Industry from Bisitun Cave (Iran)" (PDF). Paléorient. 10 (2): 23–34. doi:10.3406/paleo.1984.937. Retrieved December 2012.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  2. ^ Trinkaus, E; Biglari, F (2006). "Middle Paleolithic Human Remains from Bisitun Cave, Iran". Paléorient. 32 (2): 105–11. doi:10.3406/paleo.2006.5192. Retrieved December 2012.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)

Further reading[edit]

  • Coon, C.S. 1951. Cave exploration in Iran 1949 (Museum Monographs). Philadelphia (PA): University Museum, University of Pennsylvania Press