Bismarck, North Dakota

Coordinates: 46°48′30″N 100°47′1″W / 46.80833°N 100.78361°W / 46.80833; -100.78361
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Bismarck, North Dakota
Flag of Bismarck, North Dakota
Official logo of Bismarck, North Dakota
Location within Burleigh County in North Dakota
Location within Burleigh County in North Dakota
Bismarck is located in North Dakota
Bismarck is located in the United States
Coordinates: 46°48′51″N 100°46′09″W / 46.81417°N 100.76917°W / 46.81417; -100.76917
CountryUnited States
StateNorth Dakota
FoundedMay 14, 1872
Named forOtto von Bismarck
 • MayorMike Schmitz
 • State capital city35.18 sq mi (91.12 km2)
 • Land34.69 sq mi (89.83 km2)
 • Water0.50 sq mi (1.29 km2)
Elevation1,745 ft (532 m)
 • State capital city73,622
 • Estimate 
 • RankUS: 500th
ND: 2nd
 • Density2,122.59/sq mi (819.54/km2)
 • Urban
98,198 (US: 316th)
 • Metro
134,846 (US: 306th)
Time zoneUTC-6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-5 (CDT)
ZIP codes
Area code701
FIPS code38-07200
GNIS feature ID1035934[2]
Public transportationBis-Man Transit

Bismarck (/ˈbɪzmɑːrk/; from 1872 to 1873: Edwinton) is the capital of the U.S. state of North Dakota and the county seat of Burleigh County.[5] It is the state's 2nd most populous city, after Fargo. The city's population was 73,622 in the 2020 census,[3] while its metropolitan population was 133,626. In 2020, Forbes magazine ranked Bismarck as the seventh fastest-growing small city in the United States.[6][7]

Bismarck was founded by European-Americans in 1872 on the east bank of the Missouri River. It has been North Dakota's capital city since 1889, when the state was created from the Dakota Territory and admitted to the Union.[8]

Bismarck is across the river from Mandan, named after a Native American tribe of the area.[9] The two cities comprise the core of the Bismarck–Mandan Metropolitan Statistical Area.

The North Dakota State Capitol is in central Bismarck. The state government employs more than 4,600 in the city. As a hub of retail and health care, Bismarck is the economic center of south-central North Dakota and north-central South Dakota.


For thousands of years, indigenous peoples inhabited present-day central North Dakota and created successive cultures. The historic Mandan Native American tribe occupied the area long before Europeans arrived. The Hidatsa name for Bismarck is mirahacii arumaaguash ("Place of the tall willows");[10] the Arikara name is ituhtaáwe [itUhtaáwe].[11]

In 1872, European Americans founded a settlement at what was then called Missouri Crossing, so named because the Lewis and Clark Expedition crossed the river there on their exploration of the land acquired by the Louisiana Purchase in 1804–06. It had been an area of Mandan settlement. Later, the new town was called Edwinton, after Edwin Ferry Johnson, engineer-in-chief for the Northern Pacific Railway. Its construction of railroads in the territory attracted workers and settlers.[12]

In 1873, the Northern Pacific Railway renamed the city Bismarck in honor of German chancellor Otto von Bismarck. Railroad officials hoped to attract German immigrant settlers to the area and German investment in the railroad.[13] It is the only U.S. state capital named for a foreign statesman. The discovery of gold in the nearby Black Hills of South Dakota the following year was a great impetus for growth. Thousands of miners came to the area, encroaching on what the Lakota considered sacred territory, leading to heightened tensions with the Native Americans. Bismarck became a freight-shipping center on the "Custer Route" from the Black Hills.[13] In 1883, Bismarck was designated as the capital of the Dakota Territory, and in 1889, as the state capital of the new state of North Dakota.


Bismarck from International Space Station, 2007

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 31.23 square miles (80.89 km2), of which 30.85 square miles (79.90 km2) is land and 0.38 square miles (0.98 km2) is water.[14]


Downtown Bismarck: Patterson Place (built in 1911 as the McKenzie Hotel) was the tallest building in the state until construction of the capitol building. Originally operated as a luxury hotel, it has been adapted for senior housing and a retail restaurant.

The city has developed around downtown Bismarck, the center of historic development. It is distinctive because the city's major shopping center, Kirkwood Mall, is in the city center rather than in the suburbs. Several other major retail stores are near Kirkwood Mall, which was developed near the Bismarck Event Center. The two Bismarck hospitals, CHI St. Alexius Medical Center and Sanford Health (previously Medcenter One Health Systems), are downtown. The streets are lined with small stores and restaurants.

Much recent commercial and residential growth has occurred in the city's northern section, largely because of expanding retail centers. Among the shopping centers in northern Bismarck are Gateway Fashion Mall, Northbrook Mall, Arrowhead Plaza, and the Pinehurst Square "power center" mall.

The North Dakota State Capitol complex is just north of downtown Bismarck. The 19-story Art Deco capitol is the tallest building in the state, at a height of 241.75 feet (73.69 m). Completed during the Great Depression in 1934, it replaced the original capitol building that burned to the ground in 1930. The capitol grounds encompass the North Dakota Heritage Center, the North Dakota State Library, the North Dakota Governor's Residence, the State Office Building, and the Liberty Memorial Building. The North Dakota State Penitentiary is in eastern Bismarck.

The Cathedral District, named after the Art Deco Cathedral of the Holy Spirit, is a historic neighborhood near downtown Bismarck. Some homes in this neighborhood date to the 1880s, although many were built in the first decades of the 20th century. At times, the city has proposed widening the streets in the neighborhood to improve traffic flow. Many residents object because such a project would require the removal of many of the towering American elms which line the streets. These have escaped the elm disease that destroyed street canopies of trees in eastern cities.

After the completion of the Garrison Dam in 1953 by the Army Corps of Engineers, which improved flood control, the floodplain of the Missouri River became a more practical place for development. Significant residential and commercial building has occurred in this area on the city's south side. The Upper Missouri River is still subject to seasonal flooding.


Situated in the middle of the Great Plains, between the geographic centers of the United States and Canada, Bismarck displays a highly variable four-season humid continental climate (Köppen Dfa/Dfb) bordering on a cold semi arid climate. Bismarck's climate is characterized by cold, somewhat dry, snowy, and windy winters and warm, humid summers. Thunderstorms occur in spring and summer, but much of the rest of the year is dry.

The warmest month in Bismarck is July, with a daily mean of 71.3 °F (21.8 °C),[15] with typically wide variations between day and night. The coldest month is January, with a 24-hour average of 12.8 °F (−10.7 °C).[15] Precipitation peaks from May to September and is rather sparse in the winter. Winter snowfall is typically light to moderate, occurring with the passage of frontal systems; major storms are rare.

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 63
Mean maximum °F (°C) 46.7
Mean daily maximum °F (°C) 23.2
Daily mean °F (°C) 12.8
Mean daily minimum °F (°C) 2.4
Mean minimum °F (°C) −23.8
Record low °F (°C) −45
Average precipitation inches (mm) 0.48
Average snowfall inches (cm) 8.9
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 7.8 7.9 7.5 8.1 10.4 11.6 9.7 8.0 7.3 7.2 6.6 7.7 99.8
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 9.9 8.7 6.3 2.7 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.5 8.0 10.1 44.6
Average relative humidity (%) 71.3 72.4 69.9 61.8 60.1 65.0 61.8 60.6 63.7 63.8 72.0 74.5 66.4
Average dew point °F (°C) 2.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 149.4 153.5 222.3 244.3 296.1 318.1 354.6 316.2 245.9 191.7 122.6 122.9 2,737.6
Percent possible sunshine 53 53 60 60 64 67 74 72 65 57 43 46 61
Average ultraviolet index 0.8 1.5 2.9 4.7 6.3 7.5 7.9 6.7 4.6 2.4 1.1 0.8 3.9
Source 1: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)[15][16][17]
Source 2: UV Index Today (1995 to 2022)[18]


Historical population
2022 (est.)74,445[4]1.1%
U.S. Decennial Census[19]
2020 Census[3]


As of the census of 2020, there were 73,622 people and 32,044 households residing in the city. The city's racial makeup was 90% White, 2.5% African American, 4.3% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian, and 1.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.5% of the population.

There were 32,044 households, the average household size of which was 2.2.

6.7% of residents were under five, 21.8% were between six and 18, and 17% were over 65. The gender makeup of the city was 49.6% male and 50.4% female.[20]


As of the census of 2010, there were 61,272 people, 27,263 households, and 15,624 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,986.1 inhabitants per square mile (766.8/km2). There were 28,648 housing units at an average density of 928.6 per square mile (358.5/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 92.4% White, 0.7% African American, 4.5% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.3% from other races, and 1.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.3% of the population. Regarding ancestry, 56.1% were German, 20.5% were Norwegian, 7.2% were Irish, 6.7% were Russian, 3.7% were American, and 3.6% were English descent.

There were 27,263 households, of which 27% had children under the age of 18 living with them (the lowest percentage in North Dakota[21]), 44.1% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.6% had a male householder with no wife present, and 42.7% were non-families. 34.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 11.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.18 and the average family size was 2.82.

The median age in the city was 38 years. 20.8% of residents were under 18; 11% were between 18 and 24; 26.2% were from 25 to 44; 26.8% were from 45 to 64; and 15.4% were 65 or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48.6% male and 51.4% female.


As of the census of 2000, there were 55,532 people, 23,185 households, and 14,444 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,065.2 inhabitants per square mile (797.4/km2). There were 24,217 housing units at an average density of 900.6 per square mile (347.7/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 94.78% White, 3.39% Native American, 0.89% from two or more races, 0.75% Hispanic or Latino, 0.45% Asian, 0.28% Black or African American, 0.17% from other races and 0.03% Pacific Islander.

There were 23,185 households, of which 30.2% had children under 18 living with them, 50.1% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.7% were non-families. 31.0% of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.5% were someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.94.

The city's population was spread out, with 23.5% under the age of 18, 11.1% from 18 to 24, 29.1% from 25 to 44, 22.4% from 45 to 64, and 13.8% who were 65 or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.8 males.

The median income per household in the city was $39,422, and the median income per family was $51,477. Males had a median income of $33,804 versus $22,647 for females. The per capita income for the city was $20,789. About 5.7% of families and 8.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.5% of those under age 18 and 7.4% of those age 65 or over.


According to the city's 2021 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[22] the largest employers in the city are the following:

# Employer # of Employees
1 State of North Dakota 4,900
2 Sanford Health 3,386
3 Bismarck Public Schools 2,187
4 CHI St. Alexius Medical Center 1,512
5 United States Government Offices 1,200
6 Bobcat/Doosan Company 1,000
7 Bismarck State College 733
8 MDU Resources 731
9 Walmart North/South 665
10 City of Bismarck 646
11 Aetna 645
12 Housing Industry Training (HIT) 641
13 University of Mary 631
14 Missouri Slope Lutheran Care Center 556
15 Basin Electric Power Cooperative 490

Arts and culture[edit]

The Belle Mehus Auditorium, named after a local piano teacher, is a 1914 historic building in downtown Bismarck and is a center for the arts in the area.[23] Performances of Northern Plains Dance and the Bismarck-Mandan Symphony Orchestra are held there.

Theater companies in Bismarck include the Capitol Shakespeare Society,[24] Sleepy Hollow Summer Theatre,[25] the Shade Tree Players children's theater group,[26] Dakota Stage Ltd,[27] University of Mary, Bismarck State College, and various high school groups. The Gannon and Elsa Forde Art Galleries are at Bismarck State College. The Missouri Valley Chamber Orchestra, founded in 2000, performs a variety of musical genres.


Bismarck libraries include Bismarck Veterans Memorial Public Library[28] and North Dakota State Library.[29]



High school and college sports are the main feature of the local athletics landscape. The athletic teams at the three public Bismarck high schools, Bismarck High School, Century High School, and Legacy High School, are known as The Demons, The Patriots, and The Sabers, respectively. The athletic teams at St. Mary's Central High School, Bismarck's Catholic high school, are known as The Saints. The teams at Bismarck State College and United Tribes Technical College are known as The Mystics and Thunderbirds, and both compete in the National Junior College Athletic Association in the Mon-Dak Conference. The teams at the University of Mary are The Marauders and compete in NCAA Division II in the Northern Sun Intercollegiate Conference. Bismarck has an American Legion baseball team called the Governors.

In the fall, the accent is on high school and college football. There are spirited rivalries among the several high schools in the area. Most University of Mary football games are played in the Community Bowl. Other popular winter sports include ice hockey, wrestling and basketball.

In spring, baseball is one of the city's top amateur sports, with each high school, Bismarck State College, and The University of Mary providing teams. The University of Mary and Bismarck State College both also have a softball team. High schools and colleges also feature track and field during the spring.

In the summer, Bismarck has American Legion baseball and auto racing. The Fourth of July holiday is the height of rodeo time, with rodeos in Mandan and Bismarck. Slow-pitch softball is played by teams in the city. Bismarck is the host city of the world's largest charity softball tournament, the Sam McQuade Sr. softball tournament, in which more than 400 teams from the U.S. and Canada compete.

The Bismarck Bobcats hockey team of the North American Hockey League is made up of junior players (age 20 and younger, sometimes 21 if waived). The Bobcats won back-to-back Borne Cup championships as America West Hockey League members before merging into the NAHL in 2003. The Bobcats have made several trips to the NAHL's national tournament, claiming their first Robertson Cup title in 2010.

Since 2017, the Bismarck Larks, a Northwoods League expansion baseball team, have played their home games at Bismarck Municipal Ballpark.[30]


The Dakota Wizards of the NBA Development League were formerly based in Bismarck. The Wizards' first season took place in 1995 in the International Basketball Association. They won one title during their International Basketball Association days (1995–2001) and two during their Continental Basketball Association days (2001–2006). They were the 2006–07 champions of the NBA D-League, their first season in the league. The team moved to Santa Cruz, California, in 2012, a year after being purchased by the Golden State Warriors of the National Basketball Association.

Starting with the 2017 season, Bismarck was home to the Bismarck Bucks, a professional indoor football team in the Indoor Football League. Bismarck has been the home of two professional indoor football teams, the Bismarck Blaze and the Bismarck Roughriders, but both left the city soon after they were formed.

Bismarck once had a professional baseball team, the Dakota Rattlers, but the team moved to Minot after several seasons in Bismarck.

Parks and recreation[edit]

Bismarck has a large park system and an extensive network of exercise trails. The Bismarck Parks and Recreation District, established in 1927, operates many parks, swimming pools, and several golf courses within the city. The World War I Memorial Building, which is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and operated by the recreation district, serves as a community gymnasium and was recognized by a 100 Cities 100 Memorials grant in 2018.[31]

The Parks and Recreation District operates roughly 2,300 acres (930 ha) of public parkland.[32] Sertoma Park stretches more than 3 miles (4.8 km) along the banks of the Missouri River. Within the park are several miles of biking trails and the Dakota Zoo.

There are five golf courses in Bismarck: four 18-hole courses (Apple Creek Country Club, Hawktree Golf Club, Riverwood Golf Course, and Tom O'Leary Golf Course), and one nine-hole course (Pebble Creek Golf Course).

Hunting and fishing are popular in the area, with hunting seasons for deer, pheasant, and waterfowl. Fishing is a year-round sport on the Missouri River bordering Bismarck, and there are public docks on the river. From north to south, there is a dock at the Port of Bismarck, from which the Lewis and Clark passenger riverboat plies the Missouri; Fox Island Landing, about a half mile southwest of Riverwood Golf Course; and the Bismarck Dock at General Sibley Park, which has a boat ramp and picnic facilities.

In February 2007, Bismarck broke the record for the most snow angels made in one place. A total of 8,962 participants came to the capitol grounds for the event.[33]


Bismarck operates under the city commission style of municipal government. Citizens elect a mayor and four commissioners on an at-large basis for terms of four years, with a limit of three consecutive terms. The commission exercises both legislative and executive powers, with each commissioner exercising oversight over several city departments. The mayor serves as president of the commission and has few powers over and above his fellow commissioners.

The current mayor is Mike Schmitz.[34] The city commission meets every second and fourth Tuesday of each month.


Elementary, middle and high schools[edit]

The Bismarck Public Schools system operates sixteen elementary schools, three middle schools (Simle, Wachter, Horizon), three public high schools (Century High, Legacy High School, and Bismarck High) and one alternative high school (South Central High School). The system educates 13,350 students and employs 1,500 people.

Three Bismarck Catholic parishes operate primary schools (kindergarten through eighth grade): St. Mary's Grade School, St. Anne's Grade School, and Cathedral Grade School. St. Mary's Grade School, founded in 1878, is the oldest continuously operating elementary school in North Dakota.

The city has three private high schools: the Catholic St. Mary's Central High School, Shiloh Christian School, operated by Protestants, and Dakota Adventist Academy.

Higher education[edit]

There are three colleges and a university in Bismarck. The University of Mary[35] is a four-year university, operated by the Benedictine Sisters of Annunciation Monastery.[36] Bismarck State College[37] is a two-year public college, and a member of the North Dakota University System. United Tribes Technical College[38] is a two-year tribal college. Sanford Health, formerly Medcenter One, operates a nursing school that offers a Bachelor of Science in nursing. The campus is just north of the medical center in central Bismarck.



Bismarck is served by the Bismarck Tribune, the city's daily newspaper. Established in 1873, the paper is the oldest continuously operating business in the city. The Tribune is the official newspaper of the city of Bismarck, Burleigh County, and the state of North Dakota.[39] The daily newspapers of other major cities in North Dakota are also available at area newsstands.


Bismarck is the center of a television market covering most of western North Dakota and portions of Montana. Five stations are based in Bismarck. The four commercial stations have rebroadcasters in Minot, Williston, and Dickinson. The stations are:

Bismarck also carries Public-access television channels, on cable TV channels 2 and 12.


Bismarck supports 27 radio stations. Most of the commercial stations are owned by either iHeartMedia or Cumulus Media. Many of the lower frequency stations are broadcasters of national Christian radio networks. The local stations are:

FM frequencies[edit]

AM frequencies[edit]

NOAA Weather Radio station WXL78 broadcasts from Bismarck on 162.475 MHz.


Health care[edit]

Bismarck is a regional center for health care. The city has two hospitals: CHI St. Alexius Medical Center (285-bed) and Sanford Health (238-bed). When it opened in 1885, St. Alexius was the first hospital in Dakota Territory and the Catholic facility is the oldest health care provider in the state. St. Alexius and Medcenter One have joined forces to form the Bismarck Cancer Center.[40] Medcenter One was founded in 1908 as Bismarck Evangelical Hospital. In 1955, it was renamed Bismarck Hospital. In 1984, it was renamed MedCenter One, and in 2012, it became part of the Sanford Health system.[41]


Public transit[edit]

Northern Pacific Railway Depot, built in 1901 using the Mission Revival style

The Capital Area Transit System (CAT), operated by Bis-Man Transit, began operations in May 2004.[42] This public bus system has eleven routes throughout Bismarck and Mandan, Monday-Saturday. Bis-Man Transit also operates a para-transit service for senior citizens and people with disabilities.[43]

Bismarck had electric streetcar service from 1904 to 1931.

Intercity bus service to the city is provided by Jefferson Lines.[44]


Bismarck Municipal Airport is south of the city. It has the largest passenger volume in western North Dakota and the second highest within the state. The airport is served by United Express, Allegiant Air, Delta Air Lines, and American Eagle. A new $15 million terminal opened in May 2005. The previous terminal was built in the mid-1960s and expanded in the mid-1970s. After a windstorm collapsed part of the roof connecting the expanded terminal to the original building, officials decided to demolish the entire complex and build the new terminal.

Rail service[edit]

The BNSF Railway runs east–west through the city. The railway was originally integral to the growth of Bismarck and Mandan. Today it is used for freight. Due to restructuring in the railroad industry, there has not been passenger train service to Bismarck station since Amtrak's North Coast Hiawatha service ended in 1979. The closest Amtrak station is in Minot, 106 miles (170 kilometers) north of Bismarck, which is served by the Empire Builder.


Two federal highways pass through Bismarck. Interstate 94 runs east–west through the city. The north–south U.S. Route 83 merges in north Bismarck with Interstate 94 and runs east for roughly 25 miles (40 km) before turning south.

Walking and cycling[edit]

BisParks BCycle is a public bikeshare system with four docks situated around the city. Bismarck is not ranked as a walk-friendly community, and is rated bronze for bike-friendliness.[45][46]

Notable people[edit]

Mayors of Bismarck[edit]

  • Edmond Hackett; 1875
  • John A. Mclean; 1875–1877
  • George Peoples; 1877–1881
  • R. B. Thurston; 1881–1882
  • James W Raymond; 1882–1884
  • John P. Dunn; 1884–1885
  • John E. Carland; 1885–1886
  • Israel P Hunt; 1886–1887
  • William A. Bently; 1887–1890
  • Isaac P. Baker; 1890–1891
  • William A. Bently; 1891–1892
  • Edward S. Allen; 1892–1894
  • Albert N. Leslie; 1894–1896
  • Edward G. Patterson; 1896–1900
  • Francis H. Register; 1901–1905
  • William H. Webb; 1905–1907
  • Francis R. Smyth; 1907–1909
  • Erastus A. Williams; 1909–1913
  • Arthur W. Lucas; 1913–1921
  • Amil P. Lenhart; 1921–1937
  • Obert A. Olson; 1937–1938
  • Neil O. Churchill; 1939–1946
  • Amil P. Lenhart; 1946–1950
  • Thomas S. Kleppe; 1950–1954
  • Evan Lips; 1954–1966
  • Ed V. Lahr; 1966–1974
  • Robert O. Heskin; 1974–1978
  • Eugene Leary; 1978–1986
  • Marlan Haakenson; 1986–1990
  • Bill Sorensen; 1990–2002
  • John Warford; 2002–2014
  • Mike Seminary; 2014–2018
  • Steve Bakken; 2018–2022[71]
  • Mike Schmitz; 2022–present[34]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1991 to 2020.
  2. ^ Records for Bismarck have been kept at the Bismarck Municipal Airport since January 1948 and at an undisclosed location from October 1874 to December 1947.


  1. ^ "ArcGIS REST Services Directory". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 20, 2022.
  2. ^ a b U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Bismarck, North Dakota
  3. ^ a b c "Explore Census Data". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 29, 2022.
  4. ^ a b "City and Town Population Totals: 2020-2022". United States Census Bureau. May 29, 2023. Retrieved May 29, 2023.
  5. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  6. ^ Kotkin, Joel (September 3, 2014). "America's Fastest-Growing Small Cities". Forbes. Archived from the original on September 4, 2014. Retrieved September 3, 2014.
  7. ^ "Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010-2019". Retrieved September 3, 2020.
  8. ^ "Bismarck | Capital of North Dakota, USA | Britannica". Retrieved 2023-07-13.
  9. ^ Murphy, Edward C.; Groenewold, Gerald H. "Geology of the Bismarck-Mandan Area" (PDF). Geologic Investigations No. 3. North Dakota Geological Survey. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 14, 2012. Retrieved February 28, 2012.
  10. ^ "Hidatsa Lessons Vocab2". Hidatsa Language Program. Archived from the original on June 6, 2013. Retrieved July 17, 2012.
  11. ^ "AISRI Dictionary Database Search-- Arikara. Prototype version". Archived from the original on July 2, 2014. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
  12. ^ Memoir of Edwin Ferry Johnson : civil engineer. New York Public Library. Philadelphia : J.B. Lippincott & Co. 1880.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  13. ^ a b "Bismarck City Portrait". City of Bismarck. Archived from the original on November 20, 2010. Retrieved September 19, 2010.
  14. ^ "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on January 12, 2012. Retrieved June 14, 2012.
  15. ^ a b c "NOWData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved September 16, 2021.
  16. ^ "Station Name: ND BISMARCK". U.S. Climate Normals 2020: U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1991–2020). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 5, 2021.
  17. ^ "WMO Climate Normals for BISMARCK/MUNICIPAL, ND 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
  18. ^ "Historical UV Index Data - Bismarck, ND". UV Index Today. Retrieved April 22, 2023.
  19. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". Retrieved May 25, 2013.
  20. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Bismarck city, North Dakota". Retrieved January 14, 2022.
  21. ^ "Best North Dakota Cities for Families and Singles". North Dakota Real Estate Trends. Archived from the original on September 15, 2012. Retrieved February 5, 2013.
  22. ^ "City of Bismarck 2021 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report" (PDF). p. 143.
  23. ^ "Belle Mehus Auditorium". Bismarck Event Center. Retrieved February 13, 2020.
  24. ^ "Capitol Shakespeare :: Home". Archived from the original on April 29, 2018. Retrieved April 29, 2018.
  25. ^ "Sleepy Hollow". Archived from the original on August 17, 2015. Retrieved May 31, 2015.
  26. ^ "Dakota Stage Ltd". Archived from the original on May 30, 2016. Retrieved May 31, 2015.
  27. ^ "Dakota Stage Ltd". Archived from the original on August 1, 2015. Retrieved May 31, 2015.
  28. ^ "Bismarck Library, ND". Archived from the original on July 31, 2017. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
  29. ^ "Home – North Dakota State Library". Archived from the original on May 20, 2015. Retrieved May 31, 2015.
  30. ^ Reidell, Robert (February 12, 2016). "Northwoods League team coming to Bismarck". The Bismarck Tribune. Archived from the original on February 16, 2016. Retrieved May 10, 2017.
  31. ^ McCormack, Cheryl (27 May 2018). "Local memorial honors WWI veterans, receives designation". Archived from the original on May 29, 2018. Retrieved May 29, 2018.
  32. ^ Information about Bismarck Parks and Recreation District Archived February 12, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  33. ^ Nicholson, Blake (February 28, 2008). "Detroit radio station hopes to break snow angel record". USA Today. Archived from the original on June 28, 2011.
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External links[edit]

46°48′30″N 100°47′1″W / 46.80833°N 100.78361°W / 46.80833; -100.78361