Bismuth(III) nitrate

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Bismuth(III) nitrate
Dusičnan bismutitý.JPG
Names
Other names
Bismuth trinitrate, Bismuth(III) nitrate pentahydrate
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.030.707
EC Number 600-076-0
UNII
Properties
Bi(NO3)3·5H2O
Molar mass 485.07 g/mol (pentahydrate)
Appearance colorless, white
Density 2.90 g/cm3 (pentahydrate)[1]
-91.0·10−6 cm3/mol
Hazards
GHS pictograms The flame-over-circle pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)The exclamation-mark pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)The environment pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)
GHS signal word Warning
H272, H315, H319, H335, H411
P210, P220, P221, P261, P264, P271, P273, P280, P302+352, P304+340, P305+351+338, P312, P321, P332+313, P337+313, P362, P370+378, P391, P403+233, P405, P501
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Bismuth(III) nitrate is a salt composed of bismuth in its cationic +3 oxidation state and nitrate anions. The most common solid form is the pentahydrate.[2] It is used in the synthesis of other bismuth compounds.[3] It is available commercially. It is the only nitrate salt formed by a group 15 element, indicative of bismuth's metallic nature.[4]

Preparation and reactions[edit]

Bismuth nitrate can be prepared by the reaction of bismuth metal and concentrated nitric acid.[5]

Bi + 4HNO3 → Bi(NO3)3 + 2H2O + NO

It dissolves in nitric acid but is readily hydrolysed to form a range of oxynitrates when the pH increases above 0.[6]

It is also soluble in acetone, acetic acid and glycerol but practically insoluble in ethanol and ethyl acetate.[7]

Some uses in organic synthesis have been reported for example the nitration of aromatic compounds and selective oxidation of sulfides to sulfoxides.[7] It is also used as to form Dragendorff reagent, which is used as a TLC stain.

Bismuth nitrate forms insoluble complexes with pyrogallol and cupferron and these have been the basis of gravimetric methods of determining bismuth content.[8]

On heating bismuth nitrate can decompose forming nitrogen dioxide, NO2.[9]

Structure[edit]

The crystal form is triclinic, and contains 10 coordinate Bi3+, (three bidentate nitrate ions and four water molecules).[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Lazarini, F. (15 August 1985). "Redetermination of the structure of bismuth(III) nitrate pentahydrate, Bi(NO3)3.5H2O". Acta Crystallographica Section C. 41 (8): 1144–1145. doi:10.1107/S0108270185006916.
  2. ^ "Normal Bismuth Nitrate, Bi(NO3)3".
  3. ^ Mary Eagleson. Concise encyclopedia chemistry. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-011451-8.
  4. ^ Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8.
  5. ^ Rich, Ronald (2007). Inorganic Reactions in Water (e-book). Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-73962-3.
  6. ^ Lazarini, F. (1981). "Thermal dehydration of some basic bismuth nitrates". Thermochimica Acta. 46 (1): 53–55. doi:10.1016/0040-6031(81)85076-9. ISSN 0040-6031.
  7. ^ a b Suzuki, Hitomi, ed. (2001). Organobismuth Chemistry. Elsevier. ISBN 0-444-20528-4.
  8. ^ A.I. Vogel,(1951), Quantitative Inorganic analysis, (2d edition), Longmans Green and Co
  9. ^ Krabbe, S.W.; Mohan, R.S. (2012). "Environmentally friendly organic synthesis using Bi(III) compounds". In Ollevier, Thierry (ed.). Topics in Current chemistry 311, Bismuth-Mediated Organic Reactions. Springer. pp. 100–110. ISBN 978-3-642-27239-4.
Salts and covalent derivatives of the nitrate ion