Bismuth subcarbonate

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Bismuth subcarbonate
Names
Other names
bismuth oxycarbonate, bismuthyl carbonate,
bismutite
Identifiers
ECHA InfoCard 100.025.061
UNII
Properties
(BiO)2(CO3)
Molar mass 509.9685 g/mol
Appearance fine white to pale yellow-white powder
Density 6.86 g/cm3
Boiling point decomposes
insoluble
Hazards
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., waterHealth code 1: Exposure would cause irritation but only minor residual injury. E.g., turpentineReactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
0
1
0
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Bismuth subcarbonate (BiO)2CO3, sometimes written Bi2O2(CO3) is a chemical compound of bismuth containing both oxide and carbonate anions. Bismuth is in the +3 oxidation state. Bismuth subcarbonate occurs naturally as the mineral bismutite. Its structure[1] consists of Bi-O layers and CO3 layers and is related to kettnerite, CaBi(CO3)OF. It is light-sensitive.

Uses[edit]

It is highly radiopaque and for example is used as a filler in radiopaque catheters which can be seen by x-ray.[2] In modern medicine, bismuth subcarbonate has been made into nanotube arrays that exhibit antibacterial properties.[3] It is also used in fireworks[4] to make Dragon's eggs. It is a constituent of milk of bismuth which was a popular digestive tract panacea in the 1930s.[5]

Safety[edit]

Bismuth subcarbonate may be harmful if swallowed. It may irritate the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract.

Synthesis[edit]

Bismuth subcarbonate can be attained from the reaction between bismuth nanoparticles and the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) dissolved in water.[6] Bismuth subcarbonate has the tendency to form nanoplates, but it can be also obtained as small round nanospheres (with controlled size) when it is grown in the presence of halloysite nanotubes.[7] The high pH and high temperature of the aqueous solution helps to reduce the time of synthesis. It is readily formed on the surface of undoped bismuth oxide (β-Bi2O3 and γ-Bi2O3) nanoparticles even when they are not suspended in water.[8]

Structure[edit]

Bismuth subcarbonate has a structure with a tetragonal unit cell. Layers of (BiO)n positively charged, and carbonate anion (CO32-) are surrounding both sides of the (BiO)n+ layer to compensate the charge. Usually, The (BiO)n layer grows perpendicular to the b axis.[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Joel D. Grice (2002). "A Solution to the crystal structures of bismutite and beyerite". The Canadian Mineralogist. 40 (2): 693–698. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.738.7037. doi:10.2113/gscanmin.40.2.693.
  2. ^ Flexible, highly radiopaque plastic material catheter - Patent 5300048
  3. ^ Chen R, So MH, Yang J, Deng F, Che CM, Sun H (2006). "Fabrication of bismuth subcarbonate nanotube arrays from bismuth citrate". Chem. Commun. (21): 2265–2267. doi:10.1039/b601764a. PMID 16718324.
  4. ^ How To Make Cheaper Crackling Firework Stars (Dragon Eggs) With Bismuth Subcarbonate Archived June 9, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Park & Davis Co catalog entry for milk of bismuth
  6. ^ Ortiz-Quiñonez JL, Vega-Verduga C, Díaz D, Zumeta-Dubé I (2018). "Transformation of Bismuth and β-Bi2O3 Nanoparticles into (BiO)2CO3 and (BiO)4(OH)2CO3 by Capturing CO2: The Role of Halloysite Nanotubes and "Sunlight" on the Crystal Shape and Size". Cryst. Growth Des. 18 (8): 4334–4346. doi:10.1021/acs.cgd.8b00177.
  7. ^ Ortiz-Quiñonez JL, Vega-Verduga C, Díaz D, Zumeta-Dubé I (2018). "Transformation of Bismuth and β-Bi2O3 Nanoparticles into (BiO)2CO3 and (BiO)4(OH)2CO3 by Capturing CO2: The Role of Halloysite Nanotubes and "Sunlight" on the Crystal Shape and Size". Cryst. Growth Des. 18 (8): 4334–4346. doi:10.1021/acs.cgd.8b00177.
  8. ^ Ortiz-Quiñonez JL, Zumeta-Dubé I, Díaz D, Nava-Etzana N, Cruz-Zaragoza E (2017). "Bismuth Oxide Nanoparticles Partially Substituted with EuIII, MnIV, and SiIV: Structural, Spectroscopic, and Optical Findings". Inorg. Chem. 56 (56): 3394–3403. doi:10.1021/acs.inorgchem.6b02923. PMID 28252972.
  9. ^ Ortiz-Quiñonez JL, Vega-Verduga C, Díaz D, Zumeta-Dubé I (2018). "Transformation of Bismuth and β-Bi2O3 Nanoparticles into (BiO)2CO3 and (BiO)4(OH)2CO3 by Capturing CO2: The Role of Halloysite Nanotubes and "Sunlight" on the Crystal Shape and Size". Cryst. Growth Des. 18 (8): 4334–4346. doi:10.1021/acs.cgd.8b00177.

External links[edit]