Bitis inornata

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Bitis inornata
Bitis inornata.jpg
Original illustration from A. Smith, 1838.
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Serpentes
Family: Viperidae
Genus: Bitis
Species: B. inornata
Binomial name
Bitis inornata
(A. Smith, 1838)
Synonyms[2]
  • Echidna inornata
    A. Smith, 1838
  • Clotho ? inornata
    Gray, 1849
  • Vipera inornata
    Strauch, 1869
  • Bitis inornata
    Boulenger, 1896
  • Bitis cornuta inornata
    Underwood, 1968
  • B[itis]. inornata
    Branch, 1991
Common names: plain mountain adder, hornless adder.[3][4] Cape puff adder.[5]

Bitis inornata is a venomous viper species found only in Cape Province, South Africa.[2] No subspecies are currently recognized.[6]

Description[edit]

Adults of B. ornata average 25–40 cm (about 10–16 inches) in total length (including tail), with a maximum recorded total length of 45 cm (18 in).[3]

Geographic range[edit]

B. inornata is endemic to Cape Province, South Africa.

An isolated population exists on the Sneeuberg, eastern Cape Province, South Africa.[2]

The type locality is listed as "Sneeuwbergen, or Snow Mountains, ... immediately behind the village of Graaff Raynet" (Eastern Cape Province, South Africa).[2]

Spawls and Branch (1995) described it as known only from two isolated populations in southern Cape Province in South Africa: the first in the east, limited to the montane grassland of the Sneeuberge, from north of Graaff-Reinet to Cradock. A second population was discovered relatively recently on the upper slopes of the Cederberg in the west.[4]

Conservation status[edit]

The species B. inornata is classified as endangered (EN) on the IUCN Red List.[7] This means a population reduction of at least 20% is projected or suspected to be met within the next ten years or three generations, whichever is the longer, due to a decline in the area of occupancy, extent of occurrence and/or quality of habitat, or due to actual or potential levels of exploitation. Also, the extent of occurrence is estimated to cover less than 100 km² (38.6 sq mi), or the area of occupancy is estimated to be less than 10 km² (3.9 sq mi), and the population is severely fragmented or known to exist at only a single location. Finally, a continuing decline has been observed, inferred or projected, in the area of occupancy (year assessed: 1996).[8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Heideman N (2016). "Bitis inornata ". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 
  2. ^ a b c d McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T (1999). Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Volume 1. Washington, District of Columbia: Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
  3. ^ a b Mallow D, Ludwig D, Nilson G (2003). True Vipers: Natural History and Toxinology of Old World Vipers. Malabar, Florida: Krieger Publishing Company. 359 pp. ISBN 0-89464-877-2.
  4. ^ a b Spawls, Stephen; Branch, Bill (1995). The Dangerous Snakes of Africa. Dubai: Oriental Press / Ralph Curtis Books. 192 pp. ISBN 0-88359-029-8.
  5. ^ Brown JH (1973). Toxicology and Pharmacology of Venoms from Poisonous Snakes. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas. 184 pp. LCCCN 73-229. ISBN 0-398-02808-7.
  6. ^ "Bitis inornata ". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 26 July 2006. 
  7. ^ Bitis inornata at the IUCN Red List. Accessed 2 September 2007.
  8. ^ 1994 Categories & Criteria (version 2.3) at the IUCN Red List. Accessed 2 September 2007.

Further reading[edit]

  • Boulenger GA (1896). Catalogue of the Snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume III., Containing the ... Viperidæ. London: Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History). (Taylor and Francis, printers). xiv + 727 pp. + Plates I-XXV. (Bitis inornata, pp. 496-497).
  • Branch, Bill (2004). Field Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Southern Africa. Third Revised edition, Second impression. Sanibel Island, Florida: Ralph Curtis Books. 399 pp. ISBN 0-88359-042-5. (Bitis inornata, pp. 117–118 + Plate 14).
  • Smith A (1838). Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa; Consisting Chiefly of Figures and Descriptions of the Objects of Natural History Collected during an Expedition into the Interior of South Africa, in the Years 1834, 1835, and 1836; Fitted out by "The Cape of Good Hope Association for Exploring Central Africa:" Together with a Summary of African Zoology, and an Inquiry into the Geographical Ranges of Species in that Quarter of the Globe. [Volume III. Reptilia]. London: Lords Commissioners of her Majesty's Treasury. (Smith, Elder and Co., printers). 48 Plates + unnumbered pages of text. (Echidna inornata, new species, Plate 4 + two unnumbered pages).

External links[edit]