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Founded14 July 2014
FounderSusanne Tarkowski Tempelhof
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Bitnation, or crypto nation[2]: 5 , was a cryptocurrency-based project self-described as a "voluntary nation", wherein all citizens chose to be citizens, founded in 2014 by Susanne Tarkowski Tempelhof. A part of the process for becoming a citizen involved recording vital records, identity, and other legal events through the use of a smart contract on the Ethereum blockchain. [3][4]

As of August 2022, the domain name had been sold, and the project is considered defunct. [5]


Bitnation founder Susanne Tarkowski Tempelhof grew up in a Franco-Swedish family where her father had been stateless for a decade.[6] She was inspired by blockchain technology, and Bitcoin inspired her to extend it into education and national security, which gradually evolved into the backbone concepts of the modern startup company Bitnation.[7] Bitnation was founded on 14 July 2014 by Tempelhof.[8]: 13 [9][10]


Bitnation was the subject of a Vice piece in September 2016 wherein the author noted that "because a nation is as much an ideological concept as it is a legal one, one strength of Bitnation lies in its ability to give agency to groups who have been ignored or repressed by modern nation-states."[11]

The Atlantic noted in February 2018 that "Bitnation [is] proposing a 'peer-to-peer voluntary governance system' to replace the arbitrariness of birth as the decider of one’s citizenship. Blockchain governance could allow for the creation of virtual citizenship and autonomous communities distinct from territorial nation-states."[12]

Bitnation also received notable coverage in The Economist[13] and The Wall Street Journal for its experimental work using blockchain technology to solve the migrant crisis.[14]

Awards and accolades[edit]

In April 2017, Bitnation's BRER (Bitnation Refugee Emergency Response) programme was one of those awarded by the Grand Prix 2017, an annual Netexplo Forum prize co-organized by UNESCO.[15]


  1. ^ Green, Harriet (18 February 2016). "Consumer's guide to blockchain: How the cryptocurrency will revolutionise life for the consumer" [Can a state be made with cryptography?]. Fintech. City A.M. Archived from the original on 1 October 2017. Retrieved 1 October 2017.
  2. ^ Atzori, Marcella (1 December 2015). "Blockchain technology and decentralized governance: is the state still necessary?". doi:10.2139/ssrn.2709713. SSRN 2709713. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. ^ Lobe, Adrian (2 April 2016). "Ist mit Kryptographie Staat zu machen?" [Can a state be made with cryptography?]. Feuilleton. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). Archived from the original on 26 March 2018. Retrieved 7 September 2017.
  4. ^ Souli, Sarah (12 September 2016). "I became a citizen of Bitnation, a blockchain-powered virtual nation. Now what?". Features. Motherboard Vice. Archived from the original on 15 September 2017. Retrieved 16 September 2017.
  5. ^ "About - Bitnation". Retrieved 28 May 2023.
  6. ^ Marty, Belén (17 October 2014). "Bitnation founder on a mission for stateless governance". PanAm Post. Archived from the original on 7 September 2017. Retrieved 7 September 2017.
  7. ^ Hintergründe, Nachrichten (28 November 2016). "Bitnation, die Zukunft der Welt? Bitnation Gründerin Susanne Tarkowski Tempelhof im Gespräch" [Can a state be made with cryptography?]. RT Deutsch. RT (TV network) (in German). (video with English subtitle). Archived from the original on 26 March 2018. Retrieved 26 September 2017.
  8. ^ Mattila, Juri (10 May 2016). "The blockchain phenomenon: the disruptive potential of distributed consensus architectures" (PDF). Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA). ETLA Working Papers No. 38. Published simultaneously as a working paper of the Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy (BRIE). Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 September 2017. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
  9. ^ Bartlett, Jamie (24 May 2016). "The crypto-libertarians using technology to undermine the nation-state". News. Telegraph (London). Archived from the original on 12 September 2017. Retrieved 7 September 2017.
  10. ^ Vigna, Paul; J. Casey, Michael (26 September 2014). "Bitbeat: Wedding Bells on the Blockchain". Moneybeat. The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 28 September 2014. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
  11. ^ "I Became a Citizen of Bitnation, a Blockchain-Powered Virtual Nation. Now What?". Motherboard. 12 September 2016. Retrieved 16 May 2018.
  12. ^ Bridle, James. "The Rise of Virtual Citizenship". The Atlantic. Retrieved 16 May 2018.
  13. ^ "Disrupting the trust business". The Economist. Retrieved 16 May 2018.
  14. ^ Warden, Staci (8 June 2016). "Can Bitcoin Technology Solve the Migrant Crisis?". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 16 May 2018.
  15. ^ "The Netexplo Forum celebrated its 10th edition". Netexplo Forum 2017. UNESCO. 5 May 2017. Archived from the original on 18 September 2017. Retrieved 17 September 2017.


  • The Googlement: A Do-It-Yourself Guide to Starting Your Own Nation (and Changing the World) (2014), Susanne Tarkowski Tempelhof, Nortia Press (English) ISBN 0988879859
  • Swarmwise (14 February 2013), Rick Falkvinge, Chapter 1–6, English, online journal

External links[edit]