The Bixby letter is a letter sent from the United States President Abraham Lincoln to a bereaved mother of five sons who were thought to have died while fighting for the Union in the American Civil War. The brief, consoling message was written in November 1864 to Lydia Bixby, a widow living in Boston, following a request from Massachusetts Governor John Albion Andrew. The text has been widely praised as one of Lincoln's finest works of writing alongside the Gettysburg Address and his second inaugural address.
Some controversy surrounds the recipient, background, fate, and authorship of the letter. It is said that, in a fit of anger, she tore up and destroyed the original letter sent to her. Although her sons fought for the Union, Mrs. Bixby seems to have personally supported the Confederacy. Not all five sons died, with records showing that at least two of them were still alive after the war. Historians have long debated whether the text was penned by Lincoln himself or by his assistant private secretary, John Hay. These factors have scarcely affected the reputation of the letter, which remains in the highest regard of many critics. The letter was widely reprinted and the original is thought to be lost, yet this matter is frequently questioned as new copies are found and examined.
Lincoln's letter to Mrs. Bixby was printed by the Boston Evening Transcript on November 25, 1864, the same day it was delivered to her by the Adjutant General of Massachusetts, William Schouler. The following is the text of the letter as it appeared in the Transcript:
Washington, Nov. 21, 1864.
I have been shown in the files of the War Department a statement of the Adjutant General of Massachusetts that you are the mother of five sons who have died gloriously on the field of battle. I feel how weak and fruitless must be any word of mine which should attempt to beguile you from the grief of a loss so overwhelming. But I cannot refrain from tendering you the consolation that may be found in the thanks of the Republic they died to save. I pray that our Heavenly Father may assuage the anguish of your bereavement, and leave you only the cherished memory of the loved and lost, and the solemn pride that must be yours to have laid so costly a sacrifice upon the altar of freedom.
Yours, very sincerely and respectfully,
In a report dated September 24, 1864 to Governor John A. Andrew, regarding the father of five sons serving in the war, the Adjutant General of Massachusetts, William Schouler, wrote that Lydia Bixby had five sons who had died fighting for the Union. Andrew sent the report to the U.S. War Department with an additional note requesting the president to honor the mother with a letter. The report found its way to Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, who delivered it along with the records of the five sons to President Lincoln at which point the letter was written.
The War Department incorrectly informed Lincoln about the fate of Mrs. Bixby's sons: Two had died in battle, two others survived the war, and the fate of the other is unclear. It is also unclear whether the errors in Mrs. Bixby's story were intentional, and why the War Department had failed to correct the report based on their own records. The actual fate of her sons was as follows:
- Pvt. Arthur Edward Bixby, Company C, Massachusetts 1st Heavy Artillery (enlisted June 24, 1861)
Absent without leave from Ft. Richardson, Virginia on May 28, 1862. In an attempt to obtain a discharge order for him, on October 17, 1862, Lydia Bixby filed an affidavit that claimed Edward had enlisted underage and without her permission. Born July 13, 1843 in Hopkinton, Massachusetts. Returned to Boston after the war.
- Sgt. Charles N. Bixby, Company D, 20th Massachusetts Infantry (served July 18, 1861 – May 3, 1863)
Killed in action near Fredericksburg, Virginia. Born c.1841 in Hopkinton, Massachusetts.
- Cpl. Henry C. Bixby, Company K, 32nd Massachusetts Infantry (served August 5, 1862 – December 17, 1864)
Captured at Gettysburg and sent to Richmond, Virginia. Paroled on March 7, 1864 at City Point, Virginia. Born March 30, 1830 in Hopkinton, Massachusetts. Died November 8, 1871 in Milford, Massachusetts.
- Pvt. Oliver Cromwell Bixby, Jr., Company E, 58th Massachusetts Infantry (served February 26, 1864 – July 30, 1864)
Killed in action near Petersburg, Virginia. Born Feb 1, 1828 in Hopkinton, Massachusetts.
- Pvt. George Way Bixby, Company B, 56th Massachusetts Infantry (served March 16, 1864 – ?)
Enlisted under the name "George Way", apparently to conceal his enlistment from his wife. Captured at Petersburg on July 30, 1864. First held prisoner at Richmond, but later transferred to Salisbury Prison, in North Carolina, arriving there on October 9, 1864. His fate after that remains uncertain. Later army records report conflicting accounts of him either dying at Salisbury or deserting to the Confederate Army. In 1878 there was a report that he may have been living in Cuba. Born June 22, 1836 in Hopkinton, Massachusetts.
Bixby herself has been criticized as perhaps being a poor model of a grieving Union mother. Lydia (Parker) Bixby, by some reports, had moved to Boston from Richmond, Virginia, yet continued sympathizing with the South as a Copperhead. Writing to her daughter in 1904, Boston socialite Sarah Wheelwright claimed to have met and given charitable aid to Mrs. Bixby during the war. Including once having gone to Mrs. Bixby's home to see if one of her sons, who had been in Boston on leave, could help in sending care packages to Union prisoners of war. Shortly after this she heard gossip that Mrs. Bixby "kept a house of ill-fame, was perfectly untrustworthy and as bad as she could be".
The original Schouler report might have been constructed with insufficient fact checking of her claims, which she could have exaggerated in hopes of financial compensation. One of her great-grandsons repeated his father's story that she angrily destroyed Lincoln's letter after receiving it. However, it is also possible that she was innocently unaware that some of her sons had not died (George, for example, was captured as a prisoner of war just two months prior to Schouler's report). Mrs. Bixby continues to be a mysterious figure in the story about the letter.
Mrs. Bixby is said to have destroyed the letter shortly after receiving it because she was a Confederate sympathizer. Certainly the original letter sent to her has been lost or destroyed. However, there is a lithographic reproduction of the letter in widespread circulation that first appeared in 1891, when a New York print dealer named Michael F. Tobin applied for a copyright of the facsimile in order to sell souvenir copies for $2 each. Christie's auction house receives numerous false original Bixby letters every year.
The autograph dealer Charles Hamilton examined the Tobin facsimile of the Bixby letter and concluded that it was copied from a poorly executed forgery, citing elements of its construction incorrect for Lincoln's era as well as apparent pencil markings that were traced in pen. Robert Todd Lincoln recalled that his father's handwriting was simple to imitate. However, John Hay believed the facsimile to have been made from a "very ingenious forgery", and Hamilton's arguments centered on factors other than handwriting in determining it as a fake.
Starting in the early 1900s, some Americans popularly believed that the original letter, or a copy of the original, could be found in Brasenose College at the University of Oxford on display in a place of honor above other great works in the English language. When the Lincoln scholar F. Lauriston Bullard investigated this claim in 1925, he instead found that the college had never even heard of the Bixby letter and did not have a copy, let alone the original.
In 2008, a Dallas museum found a document in its archives which it claimed may be an authentic, handwritten government copy of the letter. According to Alan Olson, curator for the Dallas Historical Society, the paper and ink appeared authentic to the Civil War era, so the society contacted an expert at Christie's auction house for their opinion. Some Lincoln experts doubted the authenticity of the document, citing the large circulation of copies distributed since the 1890s and the unlikelihood of an official copy being made of such a letter.
For many years scholars have engaged in ongoing debate regarding whether the Bixby letter was written by Lincoln himself or by his assistant private secretary, John Hay. Most Lincoln experts believe that the president personally wrote the letter. The arguments in favor of Hay involve no hard proof, but rather several factors hinting that Lincoln might have delegated the task to Hay, who might have explicitly claimed authorship.
One of the first arguments to emerge is the possibility that Hay claimed to have written the letter. Associates recounted that he claimed in numerous conversations to have been the author of the letter, but these accounts have been dismissed as second-hand recollections. Associated with this argument is one of Hay's scrapbooks that contained a copy of the letter. These scrapbooks largely — but not exclusively — contain writings by Hay. Others note that he also kept extensive collections about Lincoln, suggesting that this is not proof of a first-hand claim of authorship.
Another factor involves Lincoln's letter writing habits, especially in November 1864 when the Bixby letter was composed. Hay said to William Herndon, Lincoln's former law partner and later biographer, that Lincoln read very few of the letters that were sent to him, but he still wrote about a half-dozen letters a week. November 1864 happened to be a busy month for Lincoln though, with Hay writing in a letter that very month noting the president's lack of time to engage in correspondence.
Finally the wording of the letter has been argued by both sides as indicative of the true author. Lincoln supporters cite works, such as the Gettysburg Address and the Farewell Address, as similar examples of his highly regarded style. Others have countered that Hay wrote pieces that compare favorably to the Bixby letter, and specifically highlight words and phrases in the letter that appear more frequently in the writings of the secretary. The most telling example may be the word beguile, which appears 30 times in the works of Hay and, excepting the Bixby letter, not once in the collected works of Lincoln. This has been countered as not proving anything, and the actual usage of the word beguile in the letter seems more in line with the "to divert" meaning than the "to charm" sense that Hay frequently employed.
An extract, "the solemn pride that must be yours, to have laid so costly a sacrifice upon the altar of freedom", adorns the statue of Lady Columbia in the National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific in Hawaii. The letter is reprinted in full on a plaque in a memorial garden at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton in Southern California.
The letter is frequently mentioned in America in relation to the topic of siblings going to war, such as when discussing the Sullivan brothers, the Niland brothers, the Borgstrom brothers, and the Sole Survivor Policy of the United States military.
The 1998 war film Saving Private Ryan dramatized the tragedy of three out of four brothers dying in war, motivating a dangerous mission to find the youngest and last surviving brother missing in France after D-Day. In the film, General George Marshall (played by Harve Presnell) reads the Bixby letter to his officers before giving the order to find that brother, Private James Francis Ryan, and send him home.
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