Biyar 'Adas

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Biyar 'Adas
PikiWiki Israel 5421 Shanti House.jpg
"Shanti" house, ca 1948
Biyar 'Adas is located in Mandatory Palestine
Biyar 'Adas
Biyar 'Adas
Arabic بِيار عدس
Name meaning "The well of lentils"[1]
Also spelled Bir Adas
Subdistrict Jaffa
Coordinates 32°09′26.63″N 34°55′14.59″E / 32.1573972°N 34.9207194°E / 32.1573972; 34.9207194Coordinates: 32°09′26.63″N 34°55′14.59″E / 32.1573972°N 34.9207194°E / 32.1573972; 34.9207194
Palestine grid 142/173
Population 300[2] (1945)
Area 5,492[2] dunams
5.5 km²
Date of depopulation April 12, 1948[3]
Cause(s) of depopulation Military assault by Yishuv forces
Current localities Adanim,[4] EliShama[4]

Biyar 'Adas (Arabic: بِيار عدس‎) was a Palestinian Arab village located 19 km northeast of the city of Tel Aviv. In 1945 the village had a population of 300 and a total land area of 5,492 dunums.

History[edit]

In 1882, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine (SWP) described Biyar 'Adas as a village built of adobe bricks, with a well to the east.[5]

British Mandate era[edit]

In the 1922 census of Palestine, conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Biar Adas had a population of 87, all Muslims,[6] increasing in the 1931 census to 161, still all Muslim, in a total of 28 houses.[7]

In the early hours of May 29, 1939, 25 members of the Irgun led by Moshe Moldovsky attacked Biyar 'Adas.[8][9] They forced their way into two houses and shot dead one man and four women.[8] Two men and a girl were wounded.[8] A letter from Ze'ev Jabotinsky to the Irgun command ordered that the organization must avoid giving the impression that women were being deliberately targeted.[9]

By 1944/45 the village had a total of 1,604 dunums of land used for citrus and bananas, 3,413 dunums to cereals, 181 dunums were irrigated or used for orchards,[4][10] while 14 dunams were classified as built-up areas.[11]

1948, and aftermath[edit]

It was captured by the Lehi, an offshoot of Israel's forces, the Haganah on April 12, 1948.

Adanim was established on village land, southwest of the village site, in 1950. In 1951 EliShama was built on village land.[4]

Khalidi described the place in 1992:

The site is marked by cactuses, fig trees, palm trees, and the debris of houses. Some houses and sections of houses that were built among citrus groves still stand, deserted, amidst wild vegetation. All are made of concrete and possess a variety of architectural designs, ranging from the elaborate to the simple. Their roofs are flat, slanted, or gabled, and their doors and windows are rectangular. The land in the vicinity is cultivated and is covered in places by Israeli fruit orchards.[4]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Palmer, 1881, p. 214
  2. ^ a b Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 52
  3. ^ Morris, 2004, p. xviii, village #194. Also gives cause of depopulation.
  4. ^ a b c d e Khalidi, 1992, p.239
  5. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1882, SWP II, p. 251. Cited in Khalidi, 1992, p. 238.
  6. ^ Barron, 1923, Table VII, Sub-district of Jaffa, p. 20
  7. ^ Mills, 1932, p. 13
  8. ^ a b c "5 Arabs dead in Outrage". Palestine Post. May 30, 1939. p. 1. 
  9. ^ a b Ehud Ein-Gil (January 13, 2009). "'Punish those responsible'". Haaretz. 
  10. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 95
  11. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 145

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]