Black-striped capuchin

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Black-striped capuchin[1]
Cebus libidinosus Serra da Capivara.jpg
Adult female and juvenile
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Family: Cebidae
Genus: Sapajus
Species: S. libidinosus
Binomial name
Sapajus libidinosus
Spix, 1823
Cebus libidinosus distribution..png
Range of S. libidinosus, excluding the subspecies cay and juruanus
Synonyms

Cebus libidinosus

The black-striped capuchin (Sapajus libidinosus), also known as the bearded capuchin,[2] is a capuchin monkey from South America. It was the first non-ape primate in which tool usage was documented in the wild, as individuals have been seen cracking nuts by placing them on a stone "anvil" while hitting them with another large stone.[3] Adaptations to carrying large stones and fruit include strengthened back and leg muscles that permit the monkey to walk on its hind legs while carrying stones.[4] The black-striped capuchin has traditionally been considered a subspecies of the tufted capuchin.[1] On the contrary, the southern population here included in S. libidinosus has sometimes been considered another species, Azaras's capuchin (S. cay) (syn. S. paraguayanus).[5]

The black-striped capuchin is found in the Caatinga, Cerrado, and Pantanal of Brazil.[2] Some confusion surrounds the taxon juruanus, here included as a subspecies of the black-striped capuchin.[2] It has been considered to occur from the upper Juruá River east and south to Mato Grosso,[6] or alternatively entirely restricted to the region near the upper Juruá River.[7] In the latter case, its range would be surrounded by C. apella, leading to doubts over its true taxonomic status.[8]

Groves (2005) recognizes four subspecies:[1]

  • Cebus libidinosus libidinosus
  • Cebus libidinosus pallidus
  • Cebus libidinosus paraguayanus
  • Cebus libidinosus juruanus

In 2011, Jessica Lynch Alfaro et al. proposed that the robust capuchins such (formerly the C. apella group) be placed in a separate genus, Sapajus, from the gracile capuchins (formerly the C. capucinus group), which retain the genus Cebus.[9][10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Groves, C.P. (2005). Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M., eds. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 137. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  2. ^ a b c d Rylands, A.B.; Kierulff, M.C.M. (2015). "Sapajus libidinosus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2015: e.T136346A70613080. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-1.RLTS.T136346A70613080.en. 
  3. ^ Fragaszy D.; Izar P.; Visalberghi E.; Ottoni E. B.; Gomes, de Oliveira M. (2004). "Wild Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus libidinosus) Use Anvils and Stone Pounding Tools". American Journal of Primatology. 64: 359–366. doi:10.1002/ajp.20085. PMID 15580579. 
  4. ^ "Brazil's Cerrado". Mutant Planet. 2012-08-11. Science Channel. 
  5. ^ Wallace, R.B. (2015). "Sapajus cay". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2015: e.T136366A70612036. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-1.RLTS.T136366A70612036.en. 
  6. ^ Groves, C. (2001). Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press. ISBN 1-56098-872-X
  7. ^ Fragaszy D., Visalberghi E., & Fedigan, L. (2004). The complete capuchin. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-66116-1
  8. ^ Rylands, A.B.; Boubli, J.-P.; Mittermeier, R.A.; Wallace, R.B.; Ceballos-Mago, N. (2015). "Sapajus apella". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2015: e.T39949A70610943. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-1.RLTS.T39949A70610943.en. 
  9. ^ Lynch Alfaro, J.W.; et al. (2011). "Explosive Pleistocene range expansion leads to widespread Amazonian sympatry between robust and gracile capuchin monkeys" (PDF). Journal of Biogeography. 39: 272–288. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2011.02609.x. 
  10. ^ Lynch Alfaro, J.W.; Silva, j. & Rylands, A.B. (2012). "How Different Are Robust and Gracile Capuchin Monkeys? An Argument for the Use of Sapajus and Cebus". American Journal of Primatology: 1–14. doi:10.1002/ajp.222007.