Black-striped capuchin

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Black-striped capuchin[1]
Macaco-prego Sapajus libidinosus 2012 28146.jpg
Adult female and juvenile
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Suborder: Haplorhini
Infraorder: Simiiformes
Family: Cebidae
Genus: Sapajus
S. libidinosus
Binomial name
Sapajus libidinosus
Spix, 1823
Cebus libidinosus distribution..png
Range of S. libidinosus, excluding the subspecies cay and juruanus

Cebus libidinosus

The black-striped capuchin (Sapajus libidinosus), also known as the bearded capuchin,[2] is a capuchin monkey from South America. It was the first non-ape primate in which tool usage was documented in the wild, as individuals have been seen cracking nuts by placing them on a stone "anvil" while hitting them with another large stone.[3] Since then, wild populations of this species have been observed to use a wide range of tools, making them one of the species with the more diverse tool kit among Primates. They have been observed using stone tools to dig for roots, tubers and spiders;[4] probe tools to spell preys from hiding places and to dip for honey;[5][6] stone throwing as a sexual communication display;[7] stone banging as threat displays;[8] stone on stone to pulverize pebbles and rub/lick stone powder.[9] Some of those stone tool use behaviors has been happening from at least 3000 years.[10] Adaptations to carrying large stones and fruit include strengthened back and leg muscles that permit the monkey to walk on its hind legs while carrying stones.[11] The black-striped capuchin has traditionally been considered a subspecies of the tufted capuchin.[1] On the contrary, the southern population here included in S. libidinosus has sometimes been considered another species, Azaras's capuchin (S. cay) (syn. S. paraguayanus).[12]

The black-striped capuchin is found in the Caatinga, Cerrado, and Pantanal of Brazil.[2] Some confusion surrounds the taxon juruanus, here included as a subspecies of the black-striped capuchin.[2] It has been considered to occur from the upper Juruá River east and south to Mato Grosso,[13] or alternatively entirely restricted to the region near the upper Juruá River.[14] In the latter case, its range would be surrounded by C. apella, leading to doubts over its true taxonomic status.[15]

Young pet monkey in Brownsweg, Suriname

Groves (2005) recognizes four subspecies:[1]

  • Cebus libidinosus libidinosus
  • Cebus libidinosus pallidus
  • Cebus libidinosus paraguayanus
  • Cebus libidinosus juruanus

In 2011, Jessica Lynch Alfaro et al. proposed that the robust capuchins such (formerly the C. apella group) be placed in a separate genus, Sapajus, from the gracile capuchins (formerly the C. capucinus group), which retain the genus Cebus.[16][17]


  1. ^ a b c Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 137. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. OCLC 62265494.
  2. ^ a b c d Martins, A.B., Bezerra, B., Fialho, M., Jerusalinsky, L., Laroque, P., Lynch Alfaro, J., Melo, F. & Valença Montenegro, M. (2019). "Sapajus libidinosus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T136346A70613454.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. ^ Fragaszy D.; Izar P.; Visalberghi E.; Ottoni E. B.; Gomes, de Oliveira M. (2004). "Wild Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus libidinosus) Use Anvils and Stone Pounding Tools". American Journal of Primatology. 64 (4): 359–366. doi:10.1002/ajp.20085. PMID 15580579.
  4. ^ Falótico, Tiago; Siqueira, José O.; Ottoni, Eduardo B. (December 2017). "Digging up food: excavation stone tool use by wild capuchin monkeys". Scientific Reports. 7 (1): 6278. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-06541-0. PMC 5524703. PMID 28740211.
  5. ^ Falótico, Tiago; Ottoni, Eduardo B. (October 2014). "Sexual bias in probe tool manufacture and use by wild bearded capuchin monkeys". Behavioural Processes. 108: 117–122. doi:10.1016/j.beproc.2014.09.036. PMID 25446625.
  6. ^ Falótico, Tiago; Bueno, Carolina Q.; Ottoni, Eduardo B. (5 March 2021). "Ontogeny and sex differences in object manipulation and probe tool use by wild tufted capuchin monkeys ( Sapajus libidinosus )". American Journal of Primatology. 83 (5): e23251. doi:10.1002/ajp.23251. PMID 33666265.
  7. ^ Falótico, Tiago; Ottoni, Eduardo B. (21 November 2013). "Stone Throwing as a Sexual Display in Wild Female Bearded Capuchin Monkeys, Sapajus libidinosus". PLOS ONE. 8 (11): e79535. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079535. PMC 3836890. PMID 24278147.
  8. ^ Moura, Antonio Christian de A. (2007). "Stone Banging by Wild Capuchin Monkeys: An Unusual Auditory Display". Folia Primatologica. 78 (1): 36–45. doi:10.1159/000095684. PMID 17170555.
  9. ^ Proffitt, Tomos; Luncz, Lydia V.; Falótico, Tiago; Ottoni, Eduardo B.; de la Torre, Ignacio; Haslam, Michael (November 2016). "Wild monkeys flake stone tools" (PDF). Nature. 539 (7627): 85–88. doi:10.1038/nature20112. PMID 27760117.
  10. ^ Falótico, Tiago; Proffitt, Tomos; Ottoni, Eduardo B.; Staff, Richard A.; Haslam, Michael (July 2019). "Three thousand years of wild capuchin stone tool use" (PDF). Nature Ecology & Evolution. 3 (7): 1034–1038. doi:10.1038/s41559-019-0904-4. PMID 31235926.
  11. ^ "Brazil's Cerrado". Mutant Planet. 11 August 2012. Science Channel.
  12. ^ Wallace, R.B. (2015). "Sapajus cay". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015: e.T136366A70612036. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-1.RLTS.T136366A70612036.en.
  13. ^ Groves, C. (2001). Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press. ISBN 1-56098-872-X
  14. ^ Fragaszy D., Visalberghi E., & Fedigan, L. (2004). The complete capuchin. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-66116-1
  15. ^ Rylands, A.B.; Boubli, J.-P.; Mittermeier, R.A.; Wallace, R.B.; Ceballos-Mago, N. (2015). "Sapajus apella". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015: e.T39949A70610943. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-1.RLTS.T39949A70610943.en.
  16. ^ Lynch Alfaro, J.W.; et al. (2011). "Explosive Pleistocene range expansion leads to widespread Amazonian sympatry between robust and gracile capuchin monkeys" (PDF). Journal of Biogeography. 39 (2): 272–288. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2011.02609.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 February 2015.
  17. ^ Lynch Alfaro, J.W.; Silva, j. & Rylands, A.B. (2012). "How Different Are Robust and Gracile Capuchin Monkeys? An Argument for the Use of Sapajus and Cebus". American Journal of Primatology. 74 (4): 1–14. doi:10.1002/ajp.22007. PMID 22328205.