Black-throated finch

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"Black-throated finch" may also refer to the canary-winged finch (Melanodera melanodera) of South America.

Black-throated finch
Black-throated Finch (Poephila cincta).jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Estrildidae
Genus: Poephila
Species:
P. cincta
Binomial name
Poephila cincta
(Gould, 1837)
Black-throated Finch Distribution.jpg
Distribution

The black-throated finch (Poephila cincta), or parson finch, is a species of estrildid finch found in grassy woodlands throughout north-east Australia from Cape York Peninsula to central Queensland. Its population is declining[1], having become extinct in New South Wales, and its habitat is threatened by development.

Taxonomy and systematics[edit]

Originally described by ornithologist John Gould as Amadina cincta in 1837, its specific epithet is Latin cincta may be interpreted to mean "girdled".[2] Gould described before his visit to Australia, using a specimen deposited at the British Museum.[3] It is placed in the Australo-papuan finch family Estrildidae, although this family itself was previously placed in the sparrow family Passeridae.[4]

A genetic study published in 2005 showed that it diverged from the long-tailed finch (P. acuticauda) 600,000 years ago.[5] Origin and phylogeny has been obtained by Antonio Arnaiz-Villena et al.[6] Estrildinae may have originated in India and dispersed thereafter (towards Africa and Pacific Ocean habitats).

"Black-throated finch" has been designated as the official common name for the species by the International Ornithologists' Union (IOC).[7] Parson finch is an alternative common name.[8]

Subspecies[edit]

The black-throated finch has two subspecies, with intermediate forms between the two found in an intergrade region.

  • Poephila cincta cincta

A white-rumped form found south of Townsville[9]

  • Poephila cincta atropygialis (Diggles, 1876)[10]

A black-rumped form found north of Cairns, and is possibly extending its range southwards.[9] It was described by Silvester Diggles in a report on Australian birds published first in the Brisbane Courier in 1876, and reprinted in the Transactions of the Queensland philosophical society.[11]

A third subspecies has been acknowledged, following the description published by G. M. Mathews in 1912 (Alisteranus cinctus vinotincta) as Poephila cincta vinotincta,[3], which authorities may recognise or regard as a synonym for the nominate P. cincta cincta.[11]

Description[edit]

Measuring around 10 cm (4 in) in length, the black-throated finch has a short black bill, lores, and throat, sharply delineated from the rest of the pale grey head. The wings, breast and belly are pale pinkish brown, and the short tail is black, while the rump is black in northern forms and white in southern.[12]

The vocalisation of P. cincta is comparable to that of the sister species Poephila acuticauda, although lower in tone and slightly less simple in the harmonic structures. Up to twelve calls have been identified, and the structure and tone of these is also distinguishable by subspecies.

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The black-throated finch was traditionally found from Cape York south through eastern Queensland and into north-eastern New South Wales in the vicinity of Tenterfield, however it has not been recorded in New South Wales since 1994. It is sedentary or locally nomadic. It is found in grassy open forested habitats,[12] generally near bodies of water such as rivers.

Behaviour and ecology[edit]

The black-throated finch is found in flocks of up to 30 birds.[9] The behaviour is similar to that of the longtail Poephila acuticauda, close pair bonds that are isolated or associating in loose groups of six or more pairs. They forage in a range that centres on the nest site, which is used for breeding or for roosting outside of the maternity season. Local and seasonal conditions may cause to pairs to join congregations at limited resources, food and especially water, and they may join large flocks to travel to water sources during drought.[3]

Breeding[edit]

Breeding may occur from September to January in the southern parts of its range, and after the monsoon season in February onwards in the north. One or two broods are laid during this time. The nest is a round structure woven from dried grasses with tube-like entrance placed high in a eucalypt 5 metres above the ground. Four to six matte white oval eggs are laid, measuring 12 x 17 mm.[13]

Feeding[edit]

The black-throated finch primarily eats seed from various species of grass, and also eats spiders and ants. They forage at the ground for fallen seeds of native plants, their primary diet, and select these one after the other. As with some other estrildids, they have also been observed harvesting seed still attached to the plant. They may also occasionally bend the stem down, perhaps clasping it against the ground with their foot, to reach and select seeds from the seed-heads. Larger flocks may form to feed at recently burnt sites. The species also hunt termites who are flying during the breeding season, capturing them as they trail along the ground or when they are in flight; the immature finchs eventually learns to shake the wings off before consumption. Spiders are plucked from their webs for an occasional supplement to their staple diet.[3]

They are able to suck water by partially opening and immersing their bill, drinking in the morning or evening unless water is readily available.[3]

Relationship to humans[edit]

The species breeds and survives readily in captivity.[14]

Status[edit]

For the past few decades, the population of this species has declined; the southern subspecies has been declared threatened in New South Wales,[15] and vulnerable in Queensland, and appears to have vanished from 80% of its former range.[16] Records of the population density in the southern areas of its range show declines in observed numbers from moderately common or abundant to assessments as locally extinct or very rare.[3] The reason for the decline in population is probably due to the spread of pastoralism, changes in fire regime, and increases in the density of native woody weeds in grassy savannahs. A national management plan was published in 2004 by the New South Wales and Queensland governments.[17]

Much of the remaining population is located near Townsville, and there have been issues with development encroaching on suitable habitat.[18] Adani Australia produced a management plan for the finch, as the proposed Carmichael coal mine covers much of its range, proposing to gradually clear land around the mine and force the finches to move away.[19] The plan was heavily criticised by ecologists, who highlighted the plan to graze cattle on protected land and noted the land was tagged to be used for other projects.[20] There was also a lack of transparency and consultation with experts in the field.[21]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b BirdLife International (2016). "Poephila cincta". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 3.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved March 6, 2019.
  2. ^ Simpson DP (1979). Cassell's Latin Dictionary (5th ed.). London: Cassell Ltd. p. 883. ISBN 0-304-52257-0.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Shephard, M.; Pridham, A.; Forshaw, J.M. (2012). Grassfinches in Australia. Csiro Publishing. pp. 174–179. ISBN 9780643107885.
  4. ^ Christidis L, Boles WE (2008). Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. Canberra: CSIRO Publishing. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-643-06511-6.
  5. ^ Jennings, W. Bryan, WB; Edwards, Scott V. (2005). "Speciational history of Australian grass finches ( Poephila ) inferred from 30 gene trees" (PDF). Evolution. 59 (9): 2033–47. doi:10.1554/05-280.1. PMID 16261740. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 July 2010. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
  6. ^ Arnaiz-Villena, A; Ruiz-del-Valle V; Gomez-Prieto P; Reguera R; Parga-Lozano C; Serrano-Vela I (2009). "Estrildinae Finches (Aves, Passeriformes) from Africa, South Asia and Australia: a Molecular Phylogeographic Study" (PDF). The Open Ornithology Journal. 2: 29–36. doi:10.2174/1874453200902010029.
  7. ^ Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2019). "Waxbills, parrotfinches, munias, whydahs, Olive Warbler, accentors, pipits". World Bird List Version 9.1. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
  8. ^ Wade P., ed. (1977). Every Australian Bird Illustrated. Rigby. p. 277. ISBN 0-7270-0009-8.
  9. ^ a b c Zann R (1976). "Distribution, status and breeding of Black-throated Finches Poephila cincta in Northern Queensland". Emu. 76 (4): 201–06. doi:10.1071/MU9760201. Retrieved 2008-10-31.
  10. ^ "Queensland Philosophical Society". The Brisbane Courier. XXXI, (2, 874). Queensland, Australia. 5 August 1876. p. 3. Retrieved 3 March 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
  11. ^ a b "Poephila;Poephilinae". biodiversity.org.au. Australian Faunal Directory. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  12. ^ a b Slater, Peter (1974). A Field Guide to Australian Birds:Non-passerines. Adelaide: Rigby. p. 261. ISBN 0-85179-813-6.
  13. ^ Beruldsen, G (2003). Australian Birds: Their Nests and Eggs. Kenmore Hills, Qld: self. p. 405. ISBN 0-646-42798-9.
  14. ^ Kingston, R. J. 1998, Keeping and Breeding Finches and Seed-eaters, Indruss Publications, New Farm.
  15. ^ "Threatened Species:Black-throated Finch (southern subspecies) - profile". Department of Environment and Climate Change website. New South Wales Government, Department of Environment and Climate Change. 2005-09-01. Retrieved 2008-10-31.
  16. ^ "Threatened Species:Black-throated finch (southern subspecies)". Environmental Protection Agency website. The State of Queensland (Environmental Protection Agency). 2007-08-31. Archived from the original on 2009-04-27. Retrieved 2008-10-31.
  17. ^ "National recovery plan for the Black-throated finch southern subspecies (Poephila cincta cincta)" (PDF). Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts - website. Australian Government: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  18. ^ "Endangered bird keeps family in shed". Nine News MSN website. Nine MSN. 2008-10-20. Archived from the original on 2011-07-14. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
  19. ^ "Black-throated Finch Management Plan C" (PDF). Adani Mining. November 2018. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  20. ^ Smee, Ben (22 January 2019). "Adani: 2,000 hectares of black-throated finch habitat removed from conservation plans". Guardian Online. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  21. ^ Rebgetz, Louisa (14 July 2017). "Adani mine 'spinning the roulette wheel' on survival of black-throated finch, researchers say". ABC News. Retrieved 25 February 2019.

External links[edit]