Black-throated gray warbler
|Black-throated gray warbler|
|Breeding range Winter range|
Sylvia nigrescens Townsend, 1837
The black-throated gray warbler (Setophaga nigrescens) is a passerine bird of the New World warbler family Parulidae. It is 13 cm (5.1 in) long and has gray and white plumage with black markings. The male has the bold black throat of its name, and black stripes on its head, as well as black streaks on its flanks; the female is a paler version of the male, with a white throat and less distinct black markings on the flanks and wings. It breeds in western North America from British Columbia to New Mexico, and winters in Mexico and the southwestern United States. The habitats it prefers are coniferous and mixed forests and scrubland, especially those with pinyon pines, junipers, sagebrush, and oaks. Its nest is an open cup of plant fibers lined with feathers, built a few metres from the ground in the branches of a tree or shrub. Three to five eggs are laid, and young are fed by both parents. Common in its breeding range, it does not seem to be seriously threatened by human activities, unlike many migratory warblers.
The black-throated gray warbler has mostly black, gray, and white plumage, which is soft, lacking gloss. With its striping and the small yellow spot between its eye and bill, it is a distinctive bird. The sexes differ slightly, both having gray upperparts with black streaks, and white underparts with black streaks on the flanks. The adult male is striped with a black on the crown, throat, and below the eye, and has white around its chin and above its eye. The adult female has more dingy plumage on its head, with a white throat and dark gray cheeks. The most similar birds to the black-throated gray warbler are the black-and-white and blackpoll warblers, which although marked in black have entirely different plumage patterns.
It is typically 13 cm (5.1 in) long, weighing 8.4 g (0.30 oz). Wing lengths are 5.6–6.9 cm (2.2–2.7 in), tail lengths 4.7–5.5 cm (1.9–2.2 in), bill lengths 8.4–9.6 mm (0.33–0.38 in), and tarsus lengths 1.66–1.88 cm (0.65–0.74 in), with females slightly smaller than males.
This bird gives a sharp tup or thick call, like that of Townsend's warbler but flat and unmusical, as well as a high see flight call. The male's song is a series of buzzy notes, with the earlier notes doubled and the next to last note high. This song has three variations, including a quiet "soft song" given by the males while following females gathering material for a nest.
The black-throated gray warbler was first described by John Kirk Townsend from a specimen collected near today's Portland, Oregon. It was known to the Chinook inhabitants of the northwest coast, who called it Ah Kah a qual. Townsend described the species as Sylvia nigrescens, placing it with the other New World warblers and the unrelated Old World warblers in the genus Sylvia. It is now placed in the genus Setophaga along with about thirty other species, after having been classified in Dendroica for some time. Within its genus, it is part of a group with black throats and yellow face markings that includes the hermit warbler and Townsend's warbler. It is usually considered an early offshoot among this group of species, but genetic studies suggest a close relation to Grace's warbler.
Of these relatives, the range of the black-throated gray warbler overlaps with those of Townsend's warbler and the hermit warbler, but they occur in different habitats. While Townsend's and hermit warblers commonly hybridize with each other, records of either species hybridizing with the black-throated gray warbler are uncommon.
There are two subspecies, which are highly similar and of dubious validity. The nominate subspecies S. n. nigrescens occurs on the Pacific coastal region from British Columbia to northern California, while S. n. halseii, described by Giraud in 1841, occupies the inland parts of its range. S. n. halseii birds are slightly larger and more gray in their upperparts.
Distribution and habitat
The black-throated gray warbler breeds in western North America, its range extending from southwestern British Columbia along the Pacific coast to northern Baja California, and east to New Mexico and southern Montana. It winters mostly in Mexico, from southern Baja California to Oaxaca state. It has spread into parts of Wyoming and Montana only recently, as Juniperus osteosperma has expanded its range due to a warming climate. Vagrants have been recorded across eastern North America and in Cuba.
The black-throated gray warbler breeds in open coniferous and mixed forest with a brushy understory, in dry open oak forests, and in chaparral and other scrubland. It is particularly associated with pinyon pines, junipers, and oaks. It migrates to the south late in the fall, returning north in mid-spring. While migrating, it forages in any woodland or scrub it passes through. In its wintering grounds, it occurs in dry woodland and tall scrub. Though its status is not well known, it does not appear to be seriously threatened by habitat destruction or other human activities, unlike many migratory warblers. It is a fairly common bird, among the most common in some localities. Because it is common and not in rapid decline, it is assessed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List.
The black-throated gray warbler is usually approachable, and can easily be observed while foraging. Despite this, it is poorly known, especially in its breeding behavior, of which Birds of North America said "almost no information is available". It forages, often in flocks with other species. It feeds on insects gleaned on low branches, especially caterpillars.
The nest is usually placed on a horizontal tree branch or in a shrub, a few metres above the ground. The nest is an open cup constructed of grass stalks and other fibres, and lined with feathers and hair. The female lays three to five pinkish eggs with brown dots from May to July. Incubation and fledging periods are unknown. This species has been recorded giving a distraction display, pretending to be injured to distract predators from its nest. Both parents feed the young, though the female may do so more frequently.
- BirdLife International (2012). "Dendroica nigrescens". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- Coues 1878, pp. 263–267
- Curson, Quinn & Beadle 1994, pp. 126–128
- Audubon & Macgillivray 1849, pp. 57–59
- Sibley 2000, p. 437
- Morrison, Michael L.; Hardy, John William (1983). "Vocalizations of the Black-throated Gray Warbler" (PDF). The Wilson Bulletin 95 (4): 643–647.
- Guzy, Michael J., and Lowther, Peter E. (1997). Poole, A., ed. "Black-throated Gray Warbler (Dendroica nigrescens)". The Birds of North America Online. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
- American Ornithologists' Union 1983, pp. 539–551
- Chesser, R. Terry; Banks, Richard C.; Barker, F. Keith; Cicero, Carla; Dunn, Jon L.; Kratter, Andrew W.; Lovette, Irby J.; Rasmussen, Pamela C.; Remsen, J. V., Jr.; Rising, James D.; Stotz, Douglas F.; Winker, Kevin (2011). "Fifty-Second Supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-List of North American Birds" (PDF). The Auk: 600–613. doi:10.1525/auk.2011.128.3.600.
- Rabosky, Daniel L.; Lovette, Irby J. (2008). "Density-dependent diversification in North American wood warblers". Proceedings of the Royal Society B 275 (1649): 2363–71. doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.0630. PMC 2603228. PMID 18611849.
- Rohwer, Sievert (1994). "Two New Hybrid Dendroica Warblers and New Methodology for Inferring Parental Species" (PDF). The Auk 111 (2): 441. doi:10.2307/4088607.
- Rohwer, Sievert; Wood, Christopher; Bermingham, Eldredge (2000). "A New Hybrid Warbler (Dendroica nigrescens × D. occidentalis) and Diagnosis of Similar D. townsendi × D. occidentalis Recombinants" (PDF). The Condor 102 (3): 713–718. doi:10.1650/0010-5422(2000)102[0713:ANHWDN]2.0.CO;2. JSTOR 1369809.
- "Dendroica nigrescens". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
- Hendricks, Paul (2004). "First nesting record of black-throated gray warbler (Dendroica nigrescens) for Montana" (PDF). Western North American Naturalist 64 (4): 548–540.
- Wallace, G. E.; Wallace, E. A. H.; Froehlich, D. R.; Walker, B.; Kirkconnell, A.; Torres, E. S.; Carlisle, H. A.; Machell, E. (1999). "Hermit Thrush and Black-throated Gray Warbler, new for Cuba, and other significant bird records from Cayo Coco and vicinity, Ciego de Avila Province, Cuba, 1995–1997" (PDF). Florida Field Naturalist 27 (2): 37–51.
- Garret, Kimball L.; Dunning, John B. Jr. (2001). "Wood-Warblers". In Elphick, Chris; Dunning, John B. Jr.; Sibley, David Allen. The Sibley Guide to Bird Life and Behavior. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. pp. 492–509. ISBN 978-1-4000-4386-6.
- Remsen, J. V. Jr.; Cardiff, Stephen (1979). "First records of the race scotti of the Rufous-crowned Sparrow in California" (PDF). Western Birds 10 (1): 45–46.
- Sprunt, Alexander Jr. (1979). "Black-throated Gray Warbler". In Sprunt, Alexander Jr.; Griscom, Ludlow. The Warblers of North America (Revised and updated ed.). Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-12353-1.
- Finley 1908, p. 127
- Wheelock 1912, pp. 401–404
- Barlow, C. (1899). "The Nesting Haunts of the Black-throated Gray Warbler". Bulletin of the Cooper Ornithological Club 1 (5): 96–97. doi:10.2307/1360756.
- Grinnell & Storer 1924, pp. 529–531
- Finley, William L. (1923). "Black-throated Gray Warbler". In Pearson, T. Gilbert. Birds of America 3.
- American Ornithologists' Union (1983). Check-list of North American Birds (7th ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Ornithologists' Union. ISBN 1-891276-00-X.
- Audubon, John James; Macgillivray, William (1849). Ornithological biography, or An account of the habits of the birds of the United States of America: accompanied by descriptions of the objects represented in the work entitled The birds of America, and interspersed with delineations of American scenery and manners V. Edinburgh: Judah Dobson, A. Black.
- Coues, Eliot (1878). Birds of the Colorado Valley: A Repository of Scientific and Popular Information Concerning North American Ornithology, Part First, Passeres to Laniidae. United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, Miscellaneous Publications—No. 11. Washington: Government Printing Office.
- Curson, Jon; Quinn, David; Beadle, David (1994). Warblers of the Americas: an Identification Guide. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-70998-9.
- Finley, William Lovell (1908). American Birds, Studied and Photographed from Life. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
- Grinnell, Joseph; Storer, Tracy Irwin (1924). Animal life in the Yosemite; an account of the mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians in a cross-section of the Sierra Nevada. University of California Press.
- Sibley, David Allen (2000). The Sibley Guide to Birds. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-679-45122-8.
- Wheelock, Irene Grosvenor (1912). Birds of California: an Introduction to More Than Three Hundred Common Birds of the State and Adjacent Islands, with a Supplementary List of Rare Migrants, Accidental Visitants, and Hypothetical Subspecies. Chicago: A. Ac. McClure.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Setophaga nigrescens.|